Role of Apolipoprotein A IV in the Interconversion of HDL Subclasses

  • P. Gambert
  • L. Lagrost
  • A. Athias
  • S. Bastiras
  • C. Lallemant
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 243)


Apolipoprotein A-IV (apo A-IV) is a protein of molecular weight 46 000, present in lymph and plasma chylomicrons, very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) in various species including man (1, 2) and is presently considered as a real apolipoprotein. However, unlike most apolipoproteins, apo A-IV has a low affinity for plasma lipoproteins (3-5). It is a relatively hydrophilic protein with the weakest lipid affinity of any human apolipoprotein (6). It is marginally stable in aqueous solution compared to other apolipoproteins and its lipid binding properties are highly sensitive to the environment (5). It presents high self-association tendancies, mainly as dimer associations. All these special properties could be explained by the structural characteristics of the molecule which presents an association of a highly alpha-helical structure (35-54%) (5, 7) and a strongly hydrophobic domain.


High Density Lipoprotein High Density Lipoprotein Reverse Cholesterol Transport Lipoprotein Fraction Cholesterol Acyl Transferase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J.B. Swaney, F. Braithwaite and H.A. Eder, Characterization of the apolipoproteins of rat plasma lipoproteins, Biochemistry, 16, 271–278 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Lefevre and P.S. Roheim, Metabolism of apolipoprotein A-IV, J. Lipid Res., 25, 1603–1610 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    U. Beisiegel and G. Utermann, An apolipoprotein homologue of rat apolipoprotein A-IV in human plasma. Isolation and partial characterization, Eur. J. Biochem., 93, 601–608 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    P.H.R. Green, R.M. Glickman, J.W. Riley and E. Quinet, Human apolipoprotein A-IV : intestinal origin and distribution in plasma,, J. Clin. Invest., 65, 911–919 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.B. Weinberg and M.S. Spector, The self-association of human apolipoprotein A-IV. Evidence for an In Vivo circulating dimeric form, J. Biol. Chem., 260, 14279–14286 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R.B. Weinberg, Differences in the hydrophobic properties of discrete alphahelical domains of rat and human apolipoprotein A-IV, Biochim. Biophys. • Acta, 918, 299–303 (1987).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. Dvorin, N.W. Mantulin, M.F. Rohde, A.M. Jr. Gotto, M.J. Pownall and B.C. Sherrill, Conformational properties of human and rat apolipoprotein A-IV, J. Lipid Res., 26, 38–46 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    C.L. Bisgaier, O.P. Sachdev, L. Megna and R.M. Glickman, Distribution of apolipoprotein A-IV in human plasma, J. Lipid Res., 26, 11–25 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    N.H. Fidge, The redistribution and metabolism of iodinated apolipoprotein A-IV in rats, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 619, 129–141 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Ghiselli, S. Krishnan, Y. Beigel and A.M. Jr. Gotto, Plasma metabolism of apolipoprotein A-IV in humans, J. Lipid Res., 27, 813–827 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    T. Ohta, N.H. Fidge and J. Nestel, Studies on the In Vivo and In Vitro distribution of apolipoprotein A-IV in human plasma and lymph, J. Clin. Invest., 76, 1252–1260 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y. Stein, O. Stein, M. Lefevre and P.S. Roheim, The role of apolipoprotein A-IV in reverse cholesterol transport studied with cultured cells and liposomes derived from an ether analog of phosphatidylcholine, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 878, 7–13 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. Dvorin, N.L. Gorder, D.M. Benson and A.M. Jr. Gotto, Apolipoprotein A-IV : a determinant lor binding and uptake of high density lipoproteins by rat hepatocytes, J. Biol. Chem., 261. 15714–15718 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Steinmetz and G. Utermann, Activation of Lecithin:CholesteroI Acyl Transferase by human apolipoprotein A-IV, J. Biol. Chem., 260. 2258–2264 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    C.H. Chen and J.J. Albers, Activation of Lecithin:CholesteroI Acyl Transferase by apolipoprotein E-2, E-3, and A-IV isolated from human plasma, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 836, 279–285 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J.G. Delamatre, G.A. Hoffmeier, A.G. Lacko and P. Roheim, Distribution of apolipoprotein A-IV between the lipoprotein and the lipoprotein-free fractions of rat plasma : possible role of Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyl Transferase, J. Lipid Res., 24, 1578–1585 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    R.B. Weinberg and M.S. Spector, Lipoprotein affinity of human apolipoprotein A-IV during cholesterol esterification, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 135, 756–763 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    C.L. Bisgaier, E.S. Lee, R.M. Glickman, A method to screen apolipoprotein polymorphisms in whole plasma : description of apolipoprotein A-IV variants in dyslipidemias and a reassessment of apolipoprotein A-I in Tangier disease, Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 918, 242–249 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.A. Glomset, A.V. Nichols, K.R. Norum, W. King and T. Forte, Plasma lipoproteins in familial Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyl Transferase deficiency. Further studies of very low and low density lipoprotein abnormalities, J. Clin. Invest., 52, 1078–1092 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    G. Hopkins, L.B.F. Chang and P.J. Barter, Role of lipid transfers in the formation of a subpopulation of small high density lipoproteins, J. Lipid Res., 26, 218–229 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    P.J. Barter, G.J. Hopkins, O.V. Rajaram and K.A. Rye, Factors that induce changes in the particle size of high density lipoproteins In “Atherosclerosis VII”, N.H. Fidge and P.J. Nestel, eds, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam (1986).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. Gambert, C. Lallemant, A. Athias and P. Padieu, Alterations of HDL Cholesterol distribution induced by incubation of human serum, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 713, 1–9 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    P. Gambert, C. Lallemant and E. Louvrier, More on the enlargement of high density lipoproteins induced by incubation of human serum, Atherosclerosis, 53, 221–223 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    K.A. Rye and P.J. Barter, Evidence of the existence of a high density lipoprotein transformation factor in pig and rabbit plasma, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 795, 230–237 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    K.A. Rye and P.J. Barter, Changes in the size and density of human high density lipoproteins promoted by a plasma conversion factor, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 875, 429–438 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    N.M. Pattnaik, A. Montes, L.B. Hughes and D.B. Zilversmit, Cholesteryl exchange protein in human plasma. Isolation and characterization, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 530, 428–438 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    R.B. Weinberg and A.M. Scanu, Isolation and characterization of human apolipoprotein A-IV from lipoprotein-depleted serum, J. Lipid Res., 24, 52–59 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. Meunier, P. Gambert, J. Desgres and C. Lallemant, Preparative electrophoresis of human apolipoprotein E : an improved method, J. Lipid Res., 27, 1324–1327 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J.L. Ellsworth, M.L. Kashyap, R.L. Jackson and J.A.K. Harmony, Human plasma lipid transfer protein catalyzes the speciation of high density lipoproteins, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 918, 260–266 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Gambert
    • 1
  • L. Lagrost
    • 1
  • A. Athias
    • 1
  • S. Bastiras
    • 1
  • C. Lallemant
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Biochimie des LipoproteinsFaculté de Médecine Hopital du Bocage - CHRU DijonFrance

Personalised recommendations