Regulation of Pancreatic Exocrine Function by Manganese

  • Murray Korc
  • Patsy M. Brannon


The pancreas is a heterogenous organ consisting of clusters of endocrine cells that are dispersed throughout the exocrine tissue. The endocrine cells secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and a variety of other peptides into the blood. The exocrine tissue consists of acinar cells that synthesize digestive enzymes and duct cells that produce bicarbonate rich fluid. Under normal physiological conditions numerous factors interact to enable the endocrine and exocrine pancreas to respond to a meal in a highly coordinated manner that contributes to the digestion and subsequent assimilation of ingested food. This regulation involves an interplay between neurotransmitters, nutrients, gastrointestinal hormones, and islet cell hormones acting through a variety of second messengers. Because of the relative richness of the pancreas in manganesel, it has been suggested that this divalent cation may also participate in the regulation of pancreatic function. This hypothesis is supported by several types of observations. Thus, manganese is taken up from the systemic circulation by the pancreas, and the concentration of manganese in the pancreatic duct is greater than in the blood2. Second-generation manganese-deficient animals may exhibit ultrastructural damage or complete atrophy of the pancreatic acinar ce113,4. These animals also exhibit beta cell dysfunction that is manifested by decreased insulin secretion and synthesis, and enhanced insulin degradations5.


Pancreatic Acinar Cell Exocrine Pancreas Pancreatic Acinus Pancreatic Exocrine Function Cytosolic Free Calcium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    C. L. Keen, B. Lonnerdal, and L. S. Hurley, Manganese, in: Biochemistry of the Essential Ultratrace Elements, E. Frieden, ed., Plenum Pub. Co., New York (1984).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    W. T. Burnett, R. R. Bigelow, A. W. Kimball, and C. W. Sheppard, Radiomanganese studies on the mouse, rat and pancreatic fistula dog, Am. J. Physiol. 168: 620 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. T. Bell, and L. S. Hurley, Ultrastructural effects of manganese deficiency in liver, heart, kidney, and pancreas of mice, Lab. Invest. 29: 723 (1973).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. E. Schrader, and G.J. Everson, Pancreatic pathology in manganese-deficient guinea pigs, J. Nutr. 94: 269 (1968).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    D. L. Baly, D. L. Curry, C. L. Keen, and L. S. Hurley, Dynamics of insulin and glucagon release in rats: influence of dietary manganese, Endocrinology 116: 1734 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Abdelmoumene, and J. D. Gardner, Effect of extracellular manganese on amylase release from dispersed pancreatic acini, Am. J. Physiol. 241: G359 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. Kanno, and O. Nishimura, Stimulus-secretion coupling in pancreatic acinar cells: inhibitory effects of calcium removal and manganese addition on pancreozymin-induced amylase release, J. Physiol. (London) 257: 309 (1976).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    O. H. Petersen, and N. Ueda, Pancreatic acinar cells: the role of calcium in stimulus-secretion coupling, J. Physiol. (London) 254: 583 1976.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Korc, Manganese action on pancreatic protein synthesis in normal and diabetic rats, Am. J. Physiol. 245: G628 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Korc, A. C. Bailey, and J.A. Williams. Regulation of protein synthesis in isolated rat pancreatic acini by cholecystokinin, Am. J. Physiol. 241: G116 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Korc, Manganese action on protein synthesis in diabetic rat pancreas: evidence for a possible physiological role, J. Nutr. 2119 (1984).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. S. Rubin, J. Erlichman, and O. M. Rosen, Cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase of human erythrocyte membranes, J. Biol. Chem. 247: 6135 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Y. M. Lin, Y. P. Liu, and W. Y. Cheung, Cyclic 3’:5’-nucleotide phosphodiesterase purification, characterization, and active form of the protein activator from bovine brain, J. Biol. Chem. 249: 4943 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    B. E. Argent, R. M. Case, and F. C. Hirst, The effects of manganese, cobalt and calcium on amylase secretion and calcium homeostasis in rat pancreas, J. Physiol. (London) 323: 353 (1982).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Korc, and M. H. Schoni, Quin-2 and manganese define multiple alterations in cellular calcium homeostasis in diabetic rat pancreas, Diabetes, In Press.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Korc, Effect of lanthanum on pancreatic protein synthesis in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Am. J. Physiol. 244: G321 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Korc, Regulation of pancreatic protein synthesis by cholecystokinin and calcium. Am. J. Physiol. 243: G69–75, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Korc, and M. H. Schoni, Modulation of cytosolic free calcium levels by extracellular phosphate and lanthanum, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 1282 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y. Nagamine, D. Mizuno, and S. Natori, Differences in the effects of manganese and magnesium on initiation and elongation in the RNA polymerase I reaction, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 519: 440, (1978).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. E. Thiers, and B. L. Vallee, Distribution of metals in subcellular fractions of rat liver, J. Biol. Chem. 226: 911 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. M. Brannon, V. P. Collins and M. Korc, Alterations of pancreatic digestive enzyme content in the manganese-deficient rat, J. Nutr. 117: 305, (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. M. Brannon, A. S. Demarest, J. Sabb, and M. Korc, Dietary modulation of epidermal growth factor action in cultured pancreatic acinar cells of the rat, J. Nutr. 116: 1306 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    L. Werner, M. Korc, and P. M. Brannon, Effects of manganese deficiency on dietary adaptation of the pancreas, Fed. Proc. 45: 368 (1986).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Murray Korc
    • 1
  • Patsy M. Brannon
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Internal Medicine and Nutrition and Food ScienceUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations