Influenza Viruses

  • W. Paul Glezen
  • Robert B. Couch


Influenza virus infections are the most important cause of medically attended acute respiratory illness.(121,131)Their impact is universal, affecting persons of all ages in all parts of the world,(5,6,225)including both temperate and tropical climates. Acute respiratory diseases, to which influenza is a major contributor, rival gastroenteritis as the principal cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Epidemics occur annually, and, although they vary considerably in severity and intensity, the peak of acute respiratory illness causing persons to seek medical care always coincides with the peak of influenza virus activity. Traditionally, the impact of influenza epidemics has been measured by estimating excess mortality, a finding specific for influenza and primarily occurring among aged and chronically ill persons. However, hospitalization with acute respiratory disease (ARD) may also be considered to be a serious consequence of influenza virus infection worthy of prevention. Recent surveys have shown that only about one–quarter of patients hospitalized with ARD during influenza epidemics are 65 years of age or older and that only 31% have underlying chronic conditions for which vaccine is currently recommended.(130)Thus, influenza is a serious threat for a large segment of the population that includes young and apparently healthy persons.


Influenza Virus Influenza Vaccine Excess Mortality Influenza Virus Infection Swine Influenza Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Acheson, F., and Hewitt, D., Spread of influenza in a factory,Br. J. Soc. Med. 6: 68 – 75 (1952).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ada, G. L., Lieung, K.-N., and Ertl, H., An analysis of effector T cell generation and function in mice exposed to influenza A or Sendai viruses,Immunol. Rev. 58: 5 – 24 (1981).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alling, D. W., Blackwelder, W. C., and Stuart-Harris, C. H., A study of excess mortality during influenza epidemics in the United States, 1968–1976,Am. J. Epidemiol. 113: 30 – 42 (1981).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andrewes, C. H., and Glover, G. E., Spread of infection from the respiratory tract of the ferret. I. Transmission of influenza A virus,Br. J. Exp. Pathol 22: 91 – 97 (1941).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Assaad, F., Bektimirov, T., and Ljungars-Esteves, K., Influenza/world experience, in:The Molecular Virology and Epidemiology of Influenza(C. Stuart-Harris, and C. W. Potter, eds.), pp. 5 – 13, Academic Press, Orlando, FL, 1984.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Assaad, F., Cockburn, W. C., and Sundaresan, T. K., Use of excess mortality from respiratory diseases in the study of influenza,Bull. WHO 49: 219 – 233 (1973).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Austin, F. J., and Mataika, J. V., Influenza virus A (H1N1) in Fiji,N.Z. Med. J. 90: 242 – 244 (1979).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bainton, D., Jones, G. R., and Hole, D., Influenza and ischaemic heart disease—a possible trigger for acute myocardial infarction,Int. J. Epidemiol. 7: 231 – 239 (1978).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barker, W. H., and Mullooly, J. P., Influenza vaccination of elderly persons. Reduction in pneumonia and influenza hospitalizations and deaths,J.A.M.A. 244: 2547 – 2549 (1980).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barker, W. H., and Mullooly, J. P., Underestimation of the role of pneumonia and influenza in causing excess mortality,Am. J. Public Health 71: 643 – 645 (1981).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barker, W. H., and Mullooly, J. P., Pneumonia and influenza deaths during epidemics,Arch. Intern. Med. 142: 85 – 89 (1982).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baroyan, O. V., Rvachev, L. A., andIvannikov, Y. G.,Modeling and Forecasting of Influenza Epidemics for the Territory of the USSR, Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, 1977Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Barton, L. L., and Chalhub, E. G., Myositis associated with influenza A infection,J. Pediatr. 87: 1003 – 1004 (1975).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Baxter, B. D., Couch, R. B., Greenberg, S. B., and Kasel, J. A., Maintenance of viability and comparison of identification methods for influenza and other respiratory viruses of humans,J. Clin. Microbiol. 6: 19 – 22 (1977).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Berlin, B. S., Simon, N. M., and Bovner, R. N., Myoglobinuria precipitated by viral infection,J.A.M.A. 227: 1414 – 1415 (1974).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Berman, S., and McIntosh, K., Selective primary health care: Strategies for control of disease in the developing world. XXI. Acute respiratory infections,Rev. Infect. Dis. 7: 674 – 691 (1985).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bisno, A. L., Griffin, J. P., Van Epps, K. A., Niell, H. B., and Rytel, M. W., Pneumonia and Hong Kong influenza: A prospective study of the 1968–1969 epidemic,Am. J. Biol. Sci. 261: 251 – 263 (1971).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bollegraaf, E., Laboratory data on influenza in Canada, 1983–84,Can. Med. Assoc. J. 131: 303 – 304 (1984).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Braciale, T. J., Braciale, V. L., Henkel, T. J., Sambrook, J., and Gething, M. J., Cytotoxic T lymphocyte recognition of the influenza hemagglutinin gene product expressed by DNA mediated gene transfer,J. Exp. Med. 159: 341 – 354 (1984).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brown, P. K., and Taylor-Robinson, D., Respiratory virus antibodies in sera of persons living in isolated communities,Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org. 34: 895 – 900 (1966).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Burnet, F. M., Influenza virus infections of the chick embryo lung,Br. J. Exp. Path. 21: 147 – 153 (1940).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cameron, A. S., Roder, D. M., Esterman, A. J., and Moore, B. W., Mortality from influenza and allied infections in South Australia during 1968–1981,Med. J. Aust. 142: 14 – 17 (1985).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Camner, P., Jarstrand, C., and Philipson, K., Tracheobronchial clearance in patients with influenza, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis.108: 131 – 135 (1973).Google Scholar
  24. 23a.
    Canil, K. A., Pratt, D., Sungu, M. S., and Phillips, P. A., Influenza surveillance: Alternative laboratory techniques for a developing country,Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org. 63: 79 – 82 (1985).Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    Centanni, E., and Savonuzzi, O., cited by Stubbs, E. L., Fowl plague, in:Diseases of Poultry, 4th edition ( H. E. Biester and L. H. Schwartz, eds.), Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa (1965).Google Scholar
  26. 25.
    Centers for Disease Control, Influenza-respiratory disease surveillance, Report 83., pp. 1–8 (June, 1967 ).Google Scholar
  27. 26.
    Centers for Disease Control, United States immunization survey: 1978, HEW Publication No. (CDC), 79–8221 (1979).Google Scholar
  28. 27.
    Centers for Disease Control, Influenza vaccine 1981–1982,Ann. Int. Med. 95: 461 – 463 (1981).Google Scholar
  29. 28.
    Centers for Disease Control, Annual summary, 1978,Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 27: 79 (1979).Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    Centers for Disease Control, Influenza mortality surveillance—United States,Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 29: 578 – 584 (1980).Google Scholar
  31. 30.
    Centers for Disease Control, Annual Summary, 1980,Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 29: 112 – 115 (1981).Google Scholar
  32. 31.
    Centers for Disease Control, Annual Summary 1982,Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 31: 120 – 121 (1983).Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    Centers for Disease Control, Influenza surveillance summary—United States, 1982–1983 season, Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep.32: 373 – 377 (1983).Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    Centers for Disease Control, Annual Summary 1983,Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 32: 121 (1984).Google Scholar
  35. 34.
    Centers for Disease Control, Influenza—United States, 1984 season,Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 33:417–421(1984).Google Scholar
  36. 35.
    Centers for Disease Control, Influenza–United States, 1985 season,Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 34:440–443 (1985).Google Scholar
  37. 36.
    Centers for Disease Control, ACIP: Prevention and control of influenza,Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 34:261–275 (1985).Google Scholar
  38. 37.
    Centers for Disease Control, ACIP: Prevention and control of influenza,Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 35:317–325 (1986).Google Scholar
  39. 38.
    Chakraverty, P., Comparison of haemagglutination-inhibition and single-radial-haemolysis techniques for detection of antibodies to influenza B virus,Arch. Virol. 63:285–289 (1980).Google Scholar
  40. 39.
    Chakraverty, P., Pereira, M. S., and Schild, G. C., Use of single radial diffusion technique for influenza antibody surveys,Bull. WHO 49: 327 – 332 (1973).Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    Chanock, R., Chanbon, L., Chang, W., Goncalves Ferreira, F., Gharpure, P., Grant, L., Hatem, J., Imam, I., Kalva, S., Lim, K., Madalengoitia, J., Spence, L., Teng, P., and Ferreira, W., WHO, respiratory disease survey in children,Bull. WHO 37: 363 – 369 (1967).Google Scholar
  42. 41.
    Chapman, R. S., Henderson, F. W., Clyde, W. A., Jr., Collier, A. M., and Denny, F. W., The epidemiology of tracheobronchitis in pediatric practice,Am. J. Epidemiol. 114: 786 – 797 (1981).Google Scholar
  43. 42.
    Chin, T. D. Y., Foley, J. F., Doto, I. L.,Gravelle,C. R., and Weston, J., Morbidity and mortality characteristics of Asian strain influenza,Public Health Rep 75: 149 – 158 (1960).Google Scholar
  44. 43.
    Choi, K., and Thacker, S. B., An evaluation of influenza mortality surveillance, 1962–1979. 1. Time series forecasts of expected pneumonia and influenza deaths,Am. J. Epidemiol. 113: 215 – 222 (1981).Google Scholar
  45. 44.
    Clifford, R. E., Smith, J. W. G., Tillett, H. E., and Wherry, P. J., Excess mortality associated with influenza in England and Wales,Int. J. Epidemiol. 6: 115 – 128 (1977).Google Scholar
  46. 45.
    Coleman, M., Immunologic methodology in influenza diagnosis and research—summary of influenza workshop II,J. Infect. Dis. 126: 219 – 230 (1972).Google Scholar
  47. 46.
    Collins, S. D.,Influenza in the United States,1887–1956, Public Health Monograph No. 48, Government Printing Office, Washington, 1957.Google Scholar
  48. 47.
    Collins, S. D., and Lehmann, J., Trends and epidemics of influenza and pneumonia, 1918–1951,Public Health Rep 66: 1487 – 1505 (1951).Google Scholar
  49. 48.
    Corey, L., Rubin, R. J., Hattwick, M. A., Noble, G. R., and Cassidy, E., A nationwide outbreak at Reye’s syndrome,Am. J. Med. 61: 615 – 625 (1976).Google Scholar
  50. 49.
    Couch, R. B., Epidemiology of influenza—summary of Influenza Workshop IV,J. Infect. Dis. 128: 361 – 386 (1973).Google Scholar
  51. 50.
    Couch, R. B., Assessment of immunity to influenza using artificial challenge of normal volunteers with influenza virus,Dev. Biol. Stand. 28: 295 – 306 (1975).Google Scholar
  52. 51.
    Couch, R. B., andCate, T. R., Managing influenza in older patients,Geriatrics 38: 61 – 74 (1983).Google Scholar
  53. 52.
    Couch, R. B., Cate, T. R., Douglas, R. G., Jr., Gerone, P. J., and Knight, V., Effect of route of inoculation on experimental respiratory viral disease in volunteers and evidence of airborne transmission,Bacteriol. Rev. 30: 517 – 529 (1966).Google Scholar
  54. 53.
    Couch, R. B., Douglas, R. G., Jr., Fedson, D. S., and Kasel, J. A., Correlated studies of a recombinant influenza virus vaccine. III. Protection against experimental influenza in man,J. Infect. Dis. 124: 473 – 480 (1971).Google Scholar
  55. 54.
    Couch, R. B., Douglas, R. G., Jr., Rossen, R. D., and Kasel, J. A., Role of secretory antibody in influenza, in:The Secretory Immunologic System(D. H. Dayton, Jr., P. A. Small, Jr., R. M. Chanock, H. E. Kaufman, and T. B. Tomasi, Jr., eds.), pp. 93 – 112, Government Printing Office, Washington, 1971.Google Scholar
  56. 55.
    Couch, R. B., and Jackson, G. G., Antiviral agents in influenza—summary of Influenza Workshop VIII,J. Infect Dis. 134: 516 – 527 (1976).Google Scholar
  57. 56.
    Couch, R. B., and Kasel, J. A., Immunity to influenza in man,Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 37: 529 – 549 (1983).Google Scholar
  58. 57.
    Couch, R. B., Kasel, J. A., Gerin, J. L., Schulman, J. L., and Kilbourne, E. D., Induction of partial imunity to influenza by a neuraminidase-specific vaccine,J. Infect. Dis. 129: 411 – 420 (1974).Google Scholar
  59. 58.
    Couch, R. B., Kasel, J. A., Glezen, W. P., Cate, T. R., Six, H. R., Taber, L. H., Frank, A. L., Greenberg, S. B., Zahradnik, J. M., and Keitel, W. A., Influenza: Its control in persons and populations,J. Infect. Dis. 153: 431 – 440 (1986).Google Scholar
  60. 59.
    Couch, R. B., Kasel, J. A., Six, H. R., and Cate, T. R., The basis for immunity to influenza in man, in:Genetic Variations among Influenza Viruses, Vol. XXI (D. P. Nayak, ed.), pp. 535 – 546, Academic Press, New York, London, 1981.Google Scholar
  61. 60.
    Couch, R. B., Kasel, J. A., Six, H. R., Cate, T. R., and Zahradnik, J. M., Immunological reactions and resistance to infection with influenza virus, in:Molecular Virology and Epidemiology of Influenza(C. Stuart-Harris and C. Potter, eds.), pp. 119 – 153, Academic Press, Orlando, FL, 1984.Google Scholar
  62. 61.
    Couch, R. B., Knight, V., Hamory, B. H., Black, S., and Douglas, R. G., Jr., The minimal infectious dose of adenovirus type 4: The case for natural transmission by viral aerosol,Trans. Am. Clin. Climat. Assoc. 80: 205 – 211 (1968).Google Scholar
  63. 62.
    Couch, R. B., Quarles, J. M., Cate, T. R., and Zahradnik, J. M., Clinical trials with live cold-reassortant influenza virus vaccines, in:Options for Control of Influenza(A. P. Kendal and P. A. Patriarcha, eds.), pp. 23 – 241, Alan R. Liss, New York, 1986.Google Scholar
  64. 63.
    Cox, N. J., Bai, Z. S., and Kendal, A. P., Laboratory-based surveillance of influenza A (H1N1) and A (H3N2) viruses in 1980–81: Antigenic and genomic analyses,Bull. WHO 61: 143 – 152 (1983).Google Scholar
  65. 64.
    Davenport, F. M., Control of influenza, symposium on influenza,Med. J. Aust. [Spec. Suppl.] 1: 33 – 38 (1973).Google Scholar
  66. 65.
    Davenport, F. M., Hennessy, A. V., Francis, T., Jr., Epidemiologic and immunologic significance of age distribution of antibody to antigenic variants of influenza virus,J. Exp. Med. 98: 641 – 656 (1953).Google Scholar
  67. 66.
    Davies, J. R., Grilli, E. A., and Smith, A. J., Influenza A: Infection and reinfection,J. Hyg. (Camb.) 92: 125 – 127 (1984).Google Scholar
  68. 67.
    Davis, L. E., Caldwell, G. G., Lynch, R. E., Bailey, R. E., and Chin, T. D. Y., Hong Kong influenza: The epidemiologic features of a high school family study analyzed and compared with a similar study during the 1957 Asian influenza epidemic,Am. J. Epidemiol. 92: 240 – 247 (1970).Google Scholar
  69. 68.
    Deibel, R., Flanagan, T. D., and Smith, V., Central nervous system infections. Etiologic and epidemiologic observations in New York State, 1975,NY State J. Med. 77: 1398 – 1404 (1977).Google Scholar
  70. 69.
    Delorme, L., and Middleton, P. J., Influenza A virus associated with acute encephalopathy,Am. J. Dis. Child. 133: 822 – 824 (1979).Google Scholar
  71. 70.
    Denny, F. W., and Clyde, W. A., Jr., Acute lower respiratory tract infections in nonhospitalized children,J. Pediatr. 108: 635 – 646 (1986).Google Scholar
  72. 71.
    DiBona, F. J., and Morens, D. M., Rhabdomyolysis associated with influenza A. Report of a case with unusual fluid and electrolyte abnormalities,J. Pediatr. 91: 943 – 945 (1977).Google Scholar
  73. 72.
    Dietzman, D. E., Schaller, J. G., Ray, C. G., and Reed, M. E., Acute myositis associated with influenza B infection, Pediatrics57: 255 – 258 (1976).Google Scholar
  74. 73.
    Dolin, R., Betts, R. F., Treanor, S. S., Erg, S. M., O’Brien, D. H., Roth, F.-K., Miller, P., and Duffy, P., Rimantadine prophylaxis of influenza in the elderly, in:Proceedings of the 23rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, p. 210, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, 1983.Google Scholar
  75. 74.
    Doraisingham, S., and Ling, A. E., Acute nonbacterial infections of the respiratory tract in Singapore children: An analysis of three years’ laboratory findings,Ann. Med. Singapore 10: 69 – 78 (1981).Google Scholar
  76. Douglas, R. G., Jr., Alford, B. R., and Couch, R. B., Atraumatic nasal biopsy for studies of respiratory virus infection in volunteers,Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.340 – 343 (1968).Google Scholar
  77. 76.
    Douglas, R. G., Betts, R. F., Hruska, J. F., and Hall, C. B., Epidemiology of nosocomial viral infections, in:Seminars in Infectious Diseases(L. Weinstein and B. N. Fields, eds.), pp. 98 – 144, Stratton Intercontinental Medical Books, New York, 1979.Google Scholar
  78. 77.
    Dowdle, W. R., Downie, J. C., and Laver, W. G., Inhibition of virus release by antibodies by surface antigens of influenza virus,J. Virol. 13: 269 – 275 (1974).Google Scholar
  79. 78.
    Dowdle, W. R., Millar, J. O., Schonberger, L. B., Ennis, F. A., and La Montagne, J. R., Influenza immunization policies and practices in Japan,J. Infect. Dis. 141: 258 – 264 (1980).Google Scholar
  80. 79.
    Dykes, A. C., Cherry, J. D., and Nolan, C. E., A clinical, epidemiologic, serologic, and virologic study of influenza C virus infection,Arch. Intern. Med. 140: 1295 – 1298 (1980).Google Scholar
  81. 80.
    Eason, R. J., Deaths from influenza A, subtype H1N1 during the 1979 Auckland epidemic,N.Z. Med. J. 91: 129 – 131 (1980).Google Scholar
  82. 81.
    Edelen, J. S., Bender, T. R., and Chin, T. D. Y., Encephalopathy and pericarditis during an outbreak of influenza, Am.J. Epidemiol. 100: 79 – 84 (1974).Google Scholar
  83. 82.
    Effors, R. B., Doherty, P. C., Gerhard, W., and Bennink, J., Generation of both crossreactive and virus specific T cell populations after immunization with serologically distinct influenza A viruses,J. Exp. Med. 145: 557 – 568 (1977).Google Scholar
  84. 83.
    Elveback, L. R., Fox, J. P., Ackerman, E., Langworthy, A., Boyd, M., and Gatewood, L., An influenza simulation model for immunization studies,Am. J. Epidemiol. 103: 152 – 165 (1976).Google Scholar
  85. Ennis, F. A., Rook, A. H., Hua, Q. Y., Schild, G. C., Riley, D., Pratt, R., and Potter, C. W., HLA-restricted virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses to live and inactivated influenza viruses,Lancet 2: 887 – 891 (1981).Google Scholar
  86. 85.
    Evans, A. S., Serologic studies of acute respiratory infections in military personnel,Yale J. Biol. Med. 48: 201 – 209 (1975).Google Scholar
  87. 86.
    Evans, A. S., Dick, E. C., and Nystuen, K., Influenza in University of Wisconsin students,Arch. Environ. Health 6: 62 – 69 (1963).Google Scholar
  88. 87.
    Evans, A. S., and Espiritu-Campos, L., Acute respiratory diseases in students at the University of the Philippines, 1964–69,Bull. WHO 45: 103 – 112 (1971).Google Scholar
  89. 88.
    Evans, A. S., Niederman, J. C., and Sawyer, R. N., with the technical assistance of Wan at, J., Cenabre, L., Shepard, K., and Richards, V., Prospective studies of a group of Yale University freshmen. II. Occurrence of acute respiratory infections and rubella,J. Infect. Dis. 123: 271 – 278 (1971).Google Scholar
  90. 89.
    Evans, A. S., and Olson, B., Rapid diagnostic methods for influenza virus in clinical specimens: A comparative study,Yale J. Biol. Med. 55: 391 – 403 (1982).Google Scholar
  91. 90.
    Fang-Zheng, S., Gui-Fang, Z., and Xiao-lian, X., Influenza surveillance,Chin. Med. J. 96: 349 – 354 (1983).Google Scholar
  92. 91.
    Fang-Zheng, S., Pei-jun, Z., Gui-fang, Z., Mei-hua, W., and Ji-ming, Z., Influenza surveillance in Shanghai,Chin. Med. J. 97: 339 – 344 (1984).Google Scholar
  93. 92.
    Farr, W.,Tenth Annual Report of the Registrar General, H.M.S.O., London, 1847.Google Scholar
  94. Farrell, M. K., Partin, J. C., and Bove, K. E., with the technical assistance of Jacobs, R. and Hilton, P. K., Epidemic influenza myopathy in Cincinnati in 1977,J. Pediatr 96: 545 – 551 (1980).Google Scholar
  95. Flewett, T. H., and Hoult, J. G., Influenzal encephalopathy and postinfluenzal encephalitis,Lancet 2: 11 – 15 (1958).Google Scholar
  96. 95.
    Fox, J. P., Hall, C. E., Cooney, M. K., andFoy, H. M., Influenza virus: Infections in Seattle families, 1975–1979,Am. J. Epidemiol. 116: 212 – 227 (1982).Google Scholar
  97. 96.
    Foy, H. M., Cooney, M. K., Allan, I., and Kenny, G. E., Rates of pneumonia during influenza epidemics in Seattle, 1964 to 1975,J.A.M.A. 241: 253 – 258 (1979).Google Scholar
  98. 97.
    Foy, H. M., Cooney, M. K., and McMahan, R., A/Hong Kong influenza immunity three years after immunization,J.AM.A. 226: 758 – 761 (1973).Google Scholar
  99. 98.
    Foy, H. M., Cooney, M. K., McMahan, R., and Grayston, J. T., Viral and mycoplasmal pneumonia in a prepaid medical care group during an eight-year period,Am. J. Epidemiol. 97: 93 – 102 (1973).Google Scholar
  100. 99.
    Foy, H. M., Hall, C. E., Cooney, M. K., Allan, I., and Fox, J. P., Influenza surveillance by age and target group,Am. J. Epidemiol. 109: 582 – 586 (1979).Google Scholar
  101. 100.
    Foy, H. M., Hall, C. E., Cooney, M. K., Allan, I. D., and Fox, J. P., Influenza surveillance in the Pacific Northwest 1976–1980,Int. J. Epidemiol. 12: 353 – 356 (1983).Google Scholar
  102. 101.
    Francis, T., Jr., Transmission of influenza by a filterable virus,Science 80: 457 – 459 (1934).Google Scholar
  103. 102.
    Francis, T., Jr., A new type of virus from epidemic influenza,Science 92: 405 – 408 (1940).Google Scholar
  104. 103.
    Francis, T., Jr., Davenport, F. M., and Hennessy, A. V., A serological recapitulation of human infection with different strains of influenza virus,Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians 66: 231 – 239 (1953).Google Scholar
  105. 104.
    Francis, T., Jr., and Magill, T. P., Direct isolation of human influenza virus in tissue culture medium and on egg membrane,Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 36: 134 – 135 (1937).Google Scholar
  106. 105.
    Francis, T., Jr., Salk, J. E., Pearson, H. E., and Brown, P. N., Protective effect of vaccination against induced influenza A, J. Clin. Invest.24: 536 – 546 (1945).Google Scholar
  107. 106.
    Frank, A. L., Couch, R. B., Griffis, C. A., and Baxter, B. D., Comparison of different tissue cultures for isolation and quantitation of influenza and parainfluenza viruses,J. Clin. Microbiol. 10: 32 – 36 (1979).Google Scholar
  108. 107.
    Frank, A. L., Puck, J., Hughes, B. J., and Cate, T. R., Microneutralization test for influenza A and B and parainfluenza 1 and 2 viruses that uses continuous cell lines and fresh serum enhancement,J. Clin. Microbiol. 12: 426 – 432 (1980).Google Scholar
  109. 108.
    Frank, A. L., and Taber, L. H., Variation in frequency in natural reinfection with influenza A viruses,J. Med. Virol. 12: 17 – 23 (1983).Google Scholar
  110. 109.
    Frank, A. L., Taber, L. H., Glezen, W. P., Geyer, E. A., McIlwain, S., and Paredes, A., Influenza B virus infections in the community and the family. The epidemics of 1976–1977 and 1979–1980 in Houston, Texas,Am. J. Epidemiol. 118: 313 – 325 (1983).Google Scholar
  111. 110.
    Frank, A. L., Taber, L. H., Glezen, W. P., Paredes, A., and Couch, R. B., Reinfection with influenza A (H3N2) virus in young children and their families,J. Infect. Dis. 140: 829 – 835 (1979).Google Scholar
  112. 111.
    Frank, A. L., Taber, L. H., and Porter, C. M., Influenza B virus reinfection,Am. J. Epidemiol. 125: 576 – 586 (1987).Google Scholar
  113. 112.
    Frank, A. L., Taber, L. H., Wells, C. R., Wells, J. M., Glezen, W. P., and Paredes, A., Patterns of shedding of myxoviruses and paramyxoviruses in children,J. Infect. Dis. 144: 433 – 441 (1981).Google Scholar
  114. 113.
    Frank, A. L., Taber, L. H., and Wells, J. M., Individuals infected with two subtypes of influenza A virus in the same season,J. Infect. Dis. 147: 120 – 124 (1983).Google Scholar
  115. 114.
    Frank, A. L., Taber, L. H., and Wells, J. M., Comparison of infection rates and severity of illness for influenza A subtypes H1N1 and H3N2,J. Infect. Dis. 151: 73 – 80 (1985).Google Scholar
  116. 115.
    Frost, W. H., The epidemiology of influenza,Public Health Rep 34(33): 1823 – 1826 (1919).Google Scholar
  117. 116.
    Gamboa, E. T., Eastwood, A. B., Hays, A. P., Maxwell, J., and Penn, A. S., Isolation of influenza virus from muscle in myoglobinuric polymyositis,Neurology (Minneap.) 29: 1323 – 1335 (1979).Google Scholar
  118. 117.
    Gardner, G., Frank, A. L., and Taber, L. H., Effects of social and family factors on viral respiratory infection and illness in the first year of life,J. Epidemiol. Commun. Health 38: 42 – 48 (1983).Google Scholar
  119. 118.
    Gilbert, B. E., Wilson, S. Z., Knight, V., Couch, R. B., Melhoff, T. L., McClung, H. W., Divine, G. W., Bartlet, D. D., Cohan, L. C., Gallion, T. L., and Quarles, J. M., Ribavirin small-particle aerosol treatment of influenza in college students, 1981–1983, in:Clinical Applications of Ribavirin(R. A. Smith, V. Knight, and J. D. Smith, eds.), pp. 125 – 143, Academic Press, New York, 1984.Google Scholar
  120. 119.
    Gill, P. W., and Murphy, A. M., Naturally acquired immunity to influenza type A,Med. J. Aust. 2: 329 – 333 (1976).Google Scholar
  121. 120.
    Gill, P. W., and Murphy, A. M., Naturally acquired immunity to influenza type A. A further prospective study,Med. J. Aust. 2: 761 – 765 (1977).Google Scholar
  122. Glezen, W. P., Serious morbidity and mortality associated with influenza epidemics,Epidemiol. Rev 4: 25 – 44 (1982).Google Scholar
  123. 122.
    Glezen, W. P., Viral pneumonia as a cause and result of hospitalization,J. Infect. Dis. 147: 765 – 770 (1983).Google Scholar
  124. 123.
    Glezen, W. P., Reactive airway disorders in children. Relationship to respiratory virus infections,Clin. Chest Med. 5: 635 – 643 (1984).Google Scholar
  125. 124.
    Glezen, W. P., and Couch, R. B., Interpandemic influenza in the Houston area, 1974–76,N. Engl. J. Med. 298: 587 – 592 (1978).Google Scholar
  126. 125.
    Glezen, W. P., Couch, R. B., and Six, H. R., The influenza herald wave,Am. J. Epidemiol. 116: 589 – 598 (1982).Google Scholar
  127. 126.
    Glezen, W. P., Couch, R. B., Taber, L. H., Paredes, A., Allison, J. E., Frank, A., and Aldridge, C., Epidemiologic observations of influenza B virus infections in Houston, 1976–77,Am. J. Epidemiol. 111: 13 – 22 (1980).Google Scholar
  128. 127.
    Glezen, W. P., Frank, A. L., Taber, L. H., Tristan, M. P., Valbona, C., Paredes, A., and Allison, J. E., Influenza in childhood,Pediatr. Res. 17: 1029 – 1032 (1983).Google Scholar
  129. 128.
    Glezen, W. P., Paredes, A., and Taber, L. H., Influenza in children: Relationship to other respiratory agents,J.A.M.A. 243: 1345 – 1349 (1980).Google Scholar
  130. 129.
    Glezen, W. P., Payne, A. A., Snyder, D. N., and Downs, T. D., Mortality and influenza,J. Infect. Dis. 146: 313 – 321 (1982).Google Scholar
  131. 130.
    Glezen, W. P., Six, H. R., Frank, A. L., Taber, L. H., Perrotta, D. M., and Decker, M., Impact of epidemics on communities and families, in:Options for the Control of Influenza(A. P. Kendal and P. A. Patriarcha, eds.), pp. 63 – 73, Alan R. Liss, New York, 1986.Google Scholar
  132. 131.
    Glezen, W. P., Six, H. R., Perotta, D. M., Decker, M., and Joseph, S., Epidemics and their causative viruses—community experience, in:The Molecular Virology and Epidemiology of Influenza(C. Stuart-Harris and C. W. Potter, eds.), pp. 17 – 32, Academic Press, Orlando, FL, 1984.Google Scholar
  133. 132.
    Graves, R. J., Influenza, in:System of Clinical Medicine(R. J. Graves and W. W. Gerhard, eds.), pp. 462 – 480, E. Barrington and G. D. Haswell, Philadelphia, 1848.Google Scholar
  134. 133.
    Greenberg, S. B., Couch, R. B., and Kasel, J. A., An outbreak of an influenza type A variant in a closed population: The effect of homologous and heterologous antibody on illness and infection,Am. J. Epidemiol. 100: 209 – 215 (1974).Google Scholar
  135. 134.
    Gregg, M. B., The epidemiology of influenza in humans,Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 353: 45 – 53 (1980).Google Scholar
  136. 135.
    Hall, C. E., Cooney, M. K., and Fox, J. P., The Seattle virus watch,Am. J. Epidemiol. 98: 365 – 380 (1973).Google Scholar
  137. 136.
    Hay, A. J., Wolstenholme, A. J., Skehel, J. J., and Smith, M. H., The molecular basis of the specific anti-influenza action of amantadine,EMBO J 4: 3021 – 3024 (1985).Google Scholar
  138. 137.
    Hayden, F. G., Minocha, A., Spyker, D. A., and Hoffman, H. E., Comparative single-dose pharmacokinetics of amantadine hydrochloride and rimantadine hydrochloride in young and elderly adults,Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 28: 216 – 221 (1985).Google Scholar
  139. 138.
    Henderson, F. W., Collier, A. M., Sanyal, M. A., Watkins, J. M., Fairclough, D. L., Clyde, W. A., Jr., and Denny, F. W., A longitudinal study of respiratory viruses and bacteria in the etiology of acute otitis media with effusion,N. Engl. J. Med. 306: 1377 – 1383 (1982).Google Scholar
  140. 139.
    Hennessy, A. V., Davenport, F. M., Horton, R. J. M., Napier, J. A., and Francis, T., Jr., Asian influenza: Occurrence and recurrence, a community and family study,Milit. Med. 129: 38 – 50 (1964).Google Scholar
  141. 140.
    Hinshaw, V. S., and Webster, R. G., The natural history of influenza A viruses, in:Basic and Applied Influenza Research(A. S. Beare, ed.), pp. 79 – 194, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1982.Google Scholar
  142. 141.
    Hirst, G. K., The agglutination of red cells by allantoic fluid of chick embryos infected with influenza virus,Science 94: 22 – 23 (1941).Google Scholar
  143. 142.
    Hochberg, I. H., Nelson, K., and Janzen, W., Influenza type B-related encephalopathy. The 1971 outbreak of Reye syndrome in Chicago,J.A.M.A. 231: 817 – 821 (1975).Google Scholar
  144. 143.
    Hope-Simpson, R. E., Age and secular distributions of virus-proven influenza in successive epidemics 1961–1976 in Cirencester: Epidemiological significance discussed,J. Hyg. (Camb.) 92: 303 – 336 (1984).Google Scholar
  145. 144.
    Housworth, W. J., and Langmuir, A. D., Excess mortality from epidemic influenza, 1957–1966,Am. J. Epidemiol. 100: 40 – 48 (1974).Google Scholar
  146. 145.
    Housworth, W. J., and Spoon, M. M., The age distribution of excess mortality during A2 Hong Kong influenza epidemics compared with earlier A2 outbreaks,Am. J. Epidemiol. 94: 348 – 350 (1974).Google Scholar
  147. 146.
    Hoyle, L.,The Influenza Viruses, pp. 262–264, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1968.Google Scholar
  148. 147.
    Hurwitz, E. S., Barrett, M. J., Bragman, D., Gunn, W. J., Schonberger, L. B., fairweather, W. R., Drage, J. S., LaMontagne, J. R., Kaslow, R. A., Burlington, D. B., Quinnan, G. V., Parker, R. A., Phillips, K., Pinsky, P., Dayton, D., and Dowdle, N. R., Public Heatlh Service study on Reye’s syndrome and medications,N. Engl. J. Med. 313: 849 – 857 (1985).Google Scholar
  149. Hurwitz, E. S., Nelson, D. B., Davis, C., Morens, D., and Schonberger, L. B., National surveillance for Reye syndrome: A five-year review,Pediatrics 6: 895 – 900 (1982).Google Scholar
  150. 149.
    Jennings, L. C., MacDiarmid, R. D., and Miles, J. A. R., A study of acute respiratory disease in the community of Port Chalmers. I. Illnesses within a group of selected families and the relative incidence of respiratory pathogens in the whole community,J. Hyg. (Camb.) 81: 49 – 66 (1978).Google Scholar
  151. 150.
    Jennings, L. C., and Miles, J. A. R., A study of acute respiratory disease in the community of Port Chalmers. II. Influenza A/Port Chalmers/1/73 intrafamilial spread and the effect of antibodies to the surface antigens,J. Hyg. (Camb.) 81: 67 – 75 (1978).Google Scholar
  152. 151.
    Jennings, R., Respiratory viruses in Jamaica: A virologic and serologic study. 3. Hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies to type B and C influenza viruses in the sera of Jamaicans,Am. J. Epidemiol. 87: 440 – 446 (1968).Google Scholar
  153. 152.
    Jordan, W. S., Jr., The mechanism of spread of Asian influenza,Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 83: 29 – 35 (1961).Google Scholar
  154. 153.
    Jordan, W. S., Jr., Badger, G. F., and Dingle, J. H., A study of illness in a group of Cleveland families. XVI. The epidemiology of influenza, 1948–1953,Am. J. Hyg. 68: 169 – 189 (1958).Google Scholar
  155. 154.
    Jordan, W. S., Jr., Denny, F. W., Badger, G. F., Curtiss, C., Dingle, J. H., Oseasohn, R., and Stevens, D. A., A study of illness in a group of Cleveland families. XVII. The occurrence of Asian influenza,Am. J. Hyg. 68: 190 – 212 (1958).Google Scholar
  156. 155.
    Kaplan, J. E., Katona, P., Hurwitz, E. S., and Schonberger, L. B., Guillain-Barre syndrome in the United States, 1979–1980 and 1980–1981,J.A.M.A. 248: 698 – 700 (1982).Google Scholar
  157. 156.
    Kass, E. H., Green, G. M., and Goldstein, E., Mechanisms of antibacterial action in the respiratory system,Bacteriol. Rev. 30: 488 – 496 (1966).Google Scholar
  158. 157.
    Katagiri, S., Ohizumi, A., and Homma, M., An outbreak of type C influenza in a children’s home,J. Infect. Dis. 148: 51 – 56 (1983).Google Scholar
  159. 158.
    Kendal, A. P., and Cox, N. J., Forecasting the epidemic potential of influenza virus variants based on their molecular properties,Vaccine 3: 263 – 266 (1985).Google Scholar
  160. 159.
    Kendal, A. P., Joseph, J. M., Kobayashi, G., Nelson, D., Reyes, C. R., Ross, M. R., Sarandria, J. L., White, R., Woodall, D. F., Noble, G. R., and Dowdle, W. R., Laboratory-based surveillance of influenza virus in the United States of 1977–1978. I. Periods of prevalence of H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A strains, their relative rates of isolation,Am. J. Epidemiol. 110: 449 – 461 (1977).Google Scholar
  161. 160.
    Kendal, A. P., Schieble, J., Cooney, M. K., Chin, J., Foy, H. M., and Noble, G. R., Co-circulation of two influenza A (H3N2) antigenic variants detected by virus surveillance in individual communities,Am. J. Epidemiol. 108: 308 – 311 (1978).Google Scholar
  162. 161.
    Kennett, M. L., Downie, J., White, J., Ward, B. K., Mutton, J., Irving, L. G., Birch, C. J., and Rodger, S. M., Influenza in Melbourne, 1982, epidemiology and virology,Med. J. Aust. 141: 89 – 92 (1984).Google Scholar
  163. 162.
    Kessler, H. A., Trenholme, G. M., Harris, A. A., and Levin, S., Acute myopathy associated with influenza A/Texas/1/77 infection. Isolation of virus from a muscle biopsy specimen,J.A.M.A. 243: 461 – 462 (1980).Google Scholar
  164. 163.
    Kilbourne, E. D., Leief, F. S., Schulman, J. L., Jahiel, R. I., and Laver, W. G., Antigenic hybrids of influenza virus and their implications, in:Perspectives in Virology, Vol. V (M. Pollard, ed.), pp. 87 – 106, Academic Press, New York, 1967.Google Scholar
  165. 164.
    Kilbourne, E. D., Schulman, J. L., Schooler, G., Swanson, J., and Bucher, D., Correlated studies of a recombinant influenza virus vaccine. I. Derivation and characterization of the virus and vaccine,J. Infect. Dis. 124: 449 – 462 (1971).Google Scholar
  166. 165.
    Kim, H. K., Brandt, C. D., Arrobio, J. O., Murphy, B., Chanock, R. M., and Parrott, R. H., Influenza A and B virus infection in infants and young children during the years 1957–1976,Am. J. Epidemiol. 109: 464 – 479 (1979).Google Scholar
  167. 166.
    Kimball, A. M., Foy, H. M., Cooney, M. K., Allan, I. D., Matlock, M., and Plorde, J. J., Isolation of respiratory syncytial and influenza viruses from the sputum of patients hospitalized with pneumonia,J. Infect. Dis. 147: 181 – 184 (1983).Google Scholar
  168. 167.
    Kingsbury, D. W., Orthomyxo-and paramyxoviruses and their replication, in:Virology(B. Fields, ed.), pp. 1157 – 1178, Raven Press, New York, 1985.Google Scholar
  169. 168.
    Klein, J. D., Collier, A. M., and Glezen, W. P., An influenza B epidemic among children in day-care,Pediatrics 58: 340 – 345 (1976).Google Scholar
  170. 169.
    Knight, V., Discussion of “Viremia in Asian Influenza,”Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians 79: 384 – 386 (1966).Google Scholar
  171. 170.
    Knight, V., Couch, R. B., and Landahl, H. D., The effect of the lack of gravity on airborne infection during space flight,J.A.M.A. 214: 513 – 518 (1970).Google Scholar
  172. Ksiazek,T. G., Olson, J. G., Irving, G. S., Settle,C. S., White, R., and Petrusso, R., An influenza outbreak due to A/USSR/77-like (H1N1) virus aboard a U.S. Navy ship,Am. J. Epidemiol 112: 487 – 494 (1980).Google Scholar
  173. 172.
    Kyriazopoulou-Dalaina, V., Distribution of influenza viruses in Northern Greece during 1972–1983,J. Hyg. (Camb). 93: 263 – 267 (1984).Google Scholar
  174. 173.
    Lamb, R. A., and Choppin, P. W., Segment 8 of the influenza virus genome is unique in coding for two polypeptides,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76: 4908 – 4912 (1979).Google Scholar
  175. 174.
    Lamb, R. A., and Choppin, P. W., Identification of a second protein (M2) encoded by RNA segment 7 of influenza virus,Virology 112: 729 – 737 (1981).Google Scholar
  176. 175.
    Langmuir, A. D., Pizzi, M., Trotter, W. Y., and Dunn, F. L., Asian influenza surveillance,Public Health Rep 73: 114 – 120 (1958).Google Scholar
  177. 176.
    Langmuir, A. D., Worthen, T. D., Solomon, J., Ray, C. G., and Peterson, E., The Thucydides syndrome: A new hypothesis for the cause of the plague of Athens,N. Engl. J. Med. 313: 1027 – 1030 (1985).Google Scholar
  178. 177.
    Larson, E. W., Dominik, J. W., Rowberg, A. H., and Higbee, G. A., Influenza virus population dynamics in the respiratory tract of experimentally infected mice,Infect. Immun. 13: 438 – 447 (1976).Google Scholar
  179. 178.
    Laver, W. G., and Webster, R. G., Studies on the origin of pandemic influenza. III. Evidence implicating duck and equine influenza viruses as possible progenitors of the Hong Kong strain of human influenza,Virology 51: 383 – 391 (1973).Google Scholar
  180. 179.
    Layde, P. M., Engelberg, A. L., Dobbs, H. I., Curtis, A. C., Craven, R. B., Graitcer, P. L., Sedmak, G. V., Erickson, J. D., and Noble, G. R., Outbreak of influenza A/USSR/77 at Marquette University,J. Infect. Dis. 142: 347 – 352 (1980).Google Scholar
  181. 180.
    Lebiush, M., Rannon, L., and Kark, J. D., An outbreak of A/USSR/90/77 (H1N1) influenza in army recruits: Clinical and laboratory observations,Milit. Med. 147: 43 – 48 (1982).Google Scholar
  182. 181.
    Lefrak, E. A., Stevens, P; M., Pitha, J., Balsinger, E., Noon, G. P., and Mayor, H. D., Extracorporal membrane oxygenation for fulminant influenza pneumonia,Chest 66: 385 – 388 (1974).Google Scholar
  183. 182.
    Lennon, D. R., Cherry, J. D., Morgenstein, A., Champion, J. C., and Bryson, Y. J., Longitudinal study of influenza B symptomatology and interferon production in children and college students,Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 2: 212 – 215 (1983).Google Scholar
  184. 183.
    Leuna, K. N., and Ada, G. L., Induction of natural killer cells during murine influenza virus infection,Immunobiology 160: 352 – 366 (1981).Google Scholar
  185. 184.
    Little, J. W., Hall, W. J., Douglas, R. G., Jr., Mudholkar, G. S., Speers, D. M., and Patel, K., Airway hyperreactivity and peripheral airway dysfunction in influenza A infection,Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 118: 295 – 303 (1978).Google Scholar
  186. 185.
    Longini, I. M., Jr., and Koopman, J. S., Household and community transmission parameters from final distributions of infections in households,Biometrics 38: 115 – 126 (1982).MATHGoogle Scholar
  187. 186.
    Longini, I. M., Jr., Koopman, J. S., Monto, A. S., and Fox, J. P., Estimating household and community transmission parameters for influenza,Am. J. Epidemiol. 115: 736 – 748 (1982).Google Scholar
  188. 187.
    Loosli, C. G., The pathogenesis and pathology of experimental airborne influenza virus A infections in mice,J. Infect. Dis. 84: 153 – 168 (1949).Google Scholar
  189. 188.
    Louria, D. B., Blumenfeld, H. L., Ellis, J. T., Kilbourne, E. D., and Rogers, D. E., Studies on influenza in the pandemic of 1957–1958. II. Pulmonary complications of influenza,J. Clin. Invest. 38: 213 – 265 (1959).Google Scholar
  190. 189.
    Maass ab, H. F., and De Borde, C., Development and characterization of cold-adapted viruses as live virus vaccines,Vaccine 3: 355 – 369 (1985).Google Scholar
  191. 190.
    Machin, S. J., Potter, C. W., and Oxford, J. S., Changes in the antibody status of a population following epidemic infection by influenza virus A/2/Hong Kong/1/68,J. Hyg. (Camb.) 68: 497 – 504 (1970).Google Scholar
  192. 191.
    Marine, W. M., McGowan, J. E., Jr., and Thomas, J. E., Influenza detection: A prospective comparison of surveillance methods and analysis of isolates,Am. J. Epidemiol. 104: 248 – 255 (1976).Google Scholar
  193. 192.
    Marine, W. M., and Thomas, J. E., Antigenic memory to influenza A viruses in man determined by monovalent vaccines,Postgrad. Med. J. 55: 98 – 108 (1979).Google Scholar
  194. 193.
    Marine, W. M., and Workman, W. W., Hong Kong influenza recapitulation,Am. J. Epidemiol. 90: 406 – 415 (1969).Google Scholar
  195. 194.
    Martin, R. R., Couch, R. B., Greenberg, S. B., Cate, T. R., and Warr, G. A., Effects of infection with influenza virus on the function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, J.Infect. Dis. 144: 279 (1981).Google Scholar
  196. 195.
    Masurel, N., Swine influenza virus and the recycling of influenza A viruses in man,Lancet 2: 244 – 247 (1976).Google Scholar
  197. 196.
    Masurel, N., and Marine, W. M., Recycling of Asian and Hong Kong influenza A virus hemagglutinins in man,Am. J. Epidemiol. 97: 44 – 49 (1973).Google Scholar
  198. 197.
    McMichael, A. J., and Askonas, B. A., Influenza virus specific cytotoxic T cells in man: Induction and properties,Eur. J. Immunol. 8: 705 – 711 (1984).Google Scholar
  199. 198.
    McMichael, A. J., Michie, C. A., Gatch, F. M., Smith, G. L., and Moss, B., Recognition of influenza A virus nucleoprotein by human cytotoxic T lymphocyte,J. Gen. Virol. 67: 719 – 726 (1986).Google Scholar
  200. 199.
    Meier-Ewert, H., Nagoli, A., Herrler, G., Basak, S., and Compan, R. W., Analysis of influenza C structural proteins and identification of a virion RNA polymerase in the replication of negative strand viruses, in:Developments in Cell Biology, Vol. 7 (D. H. L. Bishop and R. W. Compans, eds.), pp. 173 – 180, Elsevier North-Holland, New York, 1980.Google Scholar
  201. 200.
    Meiklejohn, G., Viral respiratory disease at Lowry Air Force Base in Denver, 1952–1982,J. Infect. Dis. 148: 775 – 784 (1983).Google Scholar
  202. 201.
    Meikeljohn, G., Kempe, C. H., Thalman, W. G., and Lenette, E. H., Evaluation of monovalent influenza vaccines, II. Observations during an influenza A-prime epidemic,Am. J. Hyg. 55: 12 – 21 (1952).Google Scholar
  203. 202.
    Middleton, P. J., Alexander, R. M., and Szymanski, M. T., Severe myositis during recovery from influenza,Lancet 2: 533 – 535 (1970).Google Scholar
  204. 203.
    Minow, R. A., Gorbach, S., Johnson, B. L., Jr., and Dornfeld, L., Myoglobinuria associated with influenza A infection,Ann. Intern. Med. 80: 359 – 361 (1974).Google Scholar
  205. 204.
    Monto, A. S., Davenport, F. M., Napier, J. A., and Francis, T., Jr., Effect of vaccination of a school–age population upon the course of an A2/Hong Kong influenza epidemic,Bull. WHO 41: 537 – 542 (1969).Google Scholar
  206. 205.
    Monto, A. S., and Kioumehr, F., The Tecumseh study of respiratory illness. IX. Occurrence of influenza in the community, 1966–1971,Am. J. Epidemiol. 102: 553 – 563 (1975).Google Scholar
  207. 206.
    Monto, A. S., Koopman, J. S., and Longini, I. M., Jr., Tecumseh study of illness. XIII. Influenza infection and disease, 1976–1981,Am. J. Epidemiol. 121: 811 – 822 (1985).Google Scholar
  208. 207.
    Morens, D. M., Sullivan-Bolyai, J. Z., Slater, J. E., Schonberger, L. B., and Nelson, D. B., Surveillance of Reye’s syndrome in the United States, 1977,Am. J. Epidemiol. 114: 406 – 416 (1981).Google Scholar
  209. 208.
    Morgensen, J. L., Myoglobinuria and renal failure associated with influenza,Ann. Intern. Med. 80: 362 – 363 (1974).Google Scholar
  210. 209.
    Moser, M. R., Bender, T. R., Marelolis, N. S., Noble, G. R., Kendal, A. P., and Ritter, D. G., An outbreak of influenza aboard a commercial airliner,Am. J. Epidemiol. 110: 1 – 7 (1979).Google Scholar
  211. 210.
    Mulder, J., and Hers, J. F. P.,Influenza, Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen, The Netherlands, 1972.Google Scholar
  212. 211.
    Mulder, J., Masurel, N., and Webbers, P. J., Pre-epidemic antibody against 1957 strain of asiatic influenza in serum of older people living in the Netherlands,Lancet 1: 810 – 814 (1958).Google Scholar
  213. 212.
    Murphy, B. R., Kasel, J. A., and Chanock, R. M., Association with serum anti-neuraminidase antibody with resistance to influenza in man,N. Engl. J. Med. 25: 1329 – 1332 (1972).Google Scholar
  214. 213.
    Murphy,B.R.,Tierney,E.L.,Barbour,B. A.,Yolken, R. H., Alling, R. E., and Chanock, R. M., Use of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect serum antibody response of volunteers who received attenuated influenza A virus vaccines,Infect. Immun. 29: 342 – 347 (1980).Google Scholar
  215. 214.
    Murphy, B. R., and Webster, R. G., Influenza viruses, in:Virology(B. Fields, ed.), pp. 1179 – 1239, Raven Press, New York, 1985.Google Scholar
  216. 215.
    Nakajima, S., Cox, N. J., and Kendal, A. P., Antigenic and genomic analyses of influenza A (H1N1) viruses from different regions of the world, February 1978 to March 1980,Infect. Immun. 32: 287 – 294 (1981).Google Scholar
  217. 216.
    Nascimento, J. P., Krawczuk, M. M., Marcopito, L. F., and Baruzzi, R. G., Prevalence of antibody against influenza A viruses in the Kren-Akorere, an Indian tribe of central Brazil, first contacted in 1973,J. Hyg. (Camb.) 95: 159 – 164 (1985).Google Scholar
  218. 217.
    Nayak, D. P., and Jabbar, M. A., Expression of influenza viral hemagglutinin (HA) in the yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae: Biological and antigenic properties of genetically engineered wild type and mutant hemagglutinins, in:Options for the Control of Influenza(A. P. Kendal and P. A. Patriarca, eds.), pp. 357 – 373, Alan R. Liss, New York, 1986.Google Scholar
  219. 218.
    Newton-John, H. F., Yung, A. P., Bennett, N. M., and Forbes, J. A., Influenza virus pneumonitis: A report of ten cases,Med. J. Aust. 2: 1160 – 1166 (1971).Google Scholar
  220. 219.
    Noble, G. R., Kaye, H. S., Yarbrough, W. B., Fiedler, B. K., Reed, C. J., Felker, M. B., Kendal, A. P., and Dowdle, W. R., Measurement of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody to influenza virus in the 1976 influenza vaccine program: Methods and reproducability,J. Infect. Dis. 136(Supp.): S429 – S434 (1977).Google Scholar
  221. 220.
    Oseasohn, R., Adelson, L., and Kaji, M., Clinicopathologic study of thirty-three fatal cases of Asian influenza,N. Engl. J. Med. 260: 509 – 518 (1959).Google Scholar
  222. 221.
    Parkman, P. D., Hopps, H. E., Rastogi, S. C., and Meyer, H. M., Jr., Summary of clinical trials of influenza virus vaccines in adults,J. Infect. Dis. 136: S722 – S730 (1977).Google Scholar
  223. 222.
    Patriarca, P. A., Weber, J. A., Parker, R. A., Hall, W. N., Kendal, A. P., Bregman, D. J., and Schonberger, L. B., Efficacy of influenza vaccine in nursing homes. Reduction in illness and complications during an influenza A (H3N2) epidemic,J.A.M.A. 253: 1136 – 1139 (1985).Google Scholar
  224. 223.
    Pearl, R., Influenza studies: On certain general statistical aspects of the 1918 epidemic in American cities,Public Health Rep 34: 1743 – 1783 (1919).Google Scholar
  225. 224.
    Pereira, M.S., Global surveillance of influenza,Br. Med. J. 35: 9 – 14 (1979).Google Scholar
  226. 225.
    Pereira, M., Assaad, F. A., and Delon, P. J., Influenza surveillance,Bull. WHO 56: 193 – 203 (1978).Google Scholar
  227. 226.
    Pereira, M.S., and Chakraverty, P., The laboratory surveillance of influenza epidemics in the United Kingdom 1968–1976,J. Hyg. (Camb.) 79: 77 – 87 (1977).Google Scholar
  228. 227.
    Pereira, M. S., and Chakraverty, P., Influenza in the United Kingdom 1977–1981,J. Hyg. (Camb.) 88:501–512 (1982).Google Scholar
  229. 228.
    Perrotta, D. M., Decker, M., and Glezen, W. P., Acute respiratory disease hospitalizations as a measure of impact of epidemic influenza,Am. J. Epidemiol. 122: 468 – 476 (1985).Google Scholar
  230. 229.
    Petersdorf, R. G., Fusco, J. J., Harter, D. H., and Albrink, W. S., Pulmonary infections complicating Asian influenza,Arch. Intern. Med. 103: 262 – 272 (1959).Google Scholar
  231. 230.
    Ponka, A., Jalanko, H., Ponka, T., and Senvik, M., Viral and mycoplasmal antibodies in patients with myocardial infarction,Ann. Clin. Res. 13: 429 – 432 (1981).Google Scholar
  232. 231.
    Puck, J. M., Glezen, W. P., Frank, A. L., and Six, H. R., Protection of infants from infection with influenza A virus by transplacentally acquired antibody,J. Infect. Dis. 142: 844 – 847 (1980).Google Scholar
  233. 232.
    Pyhala, R., and Aho, K., Seroepidemiology of H1N1 infection: The infection and reinfection rate in winter 1978–79,J. Hyg. (Camb.) 86: 27 – 33 (1981).Google Scholar
  234. 233.
    Quinnan, G. V., Schooley, R., Dolin, R., Ennis, F. A., Gross, P., and Gwaltney, J. M., Serologic responses and systemic reactions in adults after vaccination with monovalent A/USSR/77 and trivalent A/USSR/77, A/Texas/77, B/Hong Kong/72 influenza vaccines,Rev. Infect. Dis. 5:748–757 (1983).Google Scholar
  235. 234.
    Rao, B. L., Kadam, S. S., Pavri, K. M., and Kothavale, V. S., Epidemiological, clinical, and virological features of influenza outbreaks in Pune, India, 1980,Bull. WHO 60: 639 – 642 (1982).Google Scholar
  236. 235.
    Remington, P. L., Rowley, D., McGee, H., Hall, W. N., and Monto, A. S., Decreasing trends in Reye’s syndrome and aspirin use in Michigan 1979–1984,Pediatrics 77: 93 – 98 (1986).Google Scholar
  237. 236.
    Retalliau, H. F., Gale, J. L., Beasley, R. P., and Hattwick, M. A. W., Excess mortality and influenza surveillance in Taiwan,Int. J. Epidemiol. 7: 223 – 229 (1978).Google Scholar
  238. 237.
    Retailliau, H. F., Storch, G. A., Curtis, A. C., Horne, T. J., Scally, M. J., and Hattwick, M. A., The epidemiology of influenza B in a rural setting in 1977,Am. J. Epidemiol. 109: 639 – 649 (1979).Google Scholar
  239. 238.
    Rodgers, B. C., and Mims, C. A., Interaction of influenza virus with mouse macrophages,Infect. Immun. 31: 751 – 757 (1981).Google Scholar
  240. 239.
    Salk, J. E., A simplified procedure of titrating hemagglutinating capacity of influenza virus and the corresponding antibody,J. Immunol. 49: 87 – 98 (1944).Google Scholar
  241. 240.
    Schafer, W., Vergleichende sero-immunoglische Untersuchungen ueber die Viren der Influenza und klassichen oefluegel Pest,Z. Naturforsch. 106: 81 – 91 (1955).Google Scholar
  242. 241.
    Schiff, L. J., Studies on the mechanisms of influenza virus infection in hamster trachea organ culture,Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 44: 195 – 204 (1974).Google Scholar
  243. 242.
    Schild, G. C., Pereira, M. S., and Chakraverty, P., Single-radial haemolysis: A new method for the assay of antibody to influenza haemagglutinin,Bull. WHO 52: 43 – 50 (1975).Google Scholar
  244. 243.
    Schild, G. C., and Stuart-Harris, C. H., Serological epidemiological studies with influenza A viruses,J. Hyg. (Camb.) 63: 479 – 490 (1965).Google Scholar
  245. 244.
    Schoenbaum, S. C., Coleman, M. T., Dowdle, W. R., and Mostow, S. R., Epidemiology of influenza in the elderly: Evidence of virus recycling,Am. J. Epidemiol. 103: 166 – 173 (1976).Google Scholar
  246. 245.
    Schoenbaum, S. C., Mostow, S. R., Dowdle, W. R., Coleman, M. T., and Kaye, H. S., Studies with inactivated influenza vaccines purified by zonal centrifiigation. II. Efficacy,Bull. WHO 41: 531 – 535 (1969).Google Scholar
  247. 246.
    Scholtissek, C., Influenza virus genetics,Adv. Genet. 20: 1 – 36 (1979).Google Scholar
  248. 247.
    Schonberger, L. B., Bregman, D. J., Sullivan-Bolyai, J. Z., Keenlyside, R. A., Ziegler, D. W., Retailliau, H. F., Eddis, D. L., and Bryan, J. A., Guillain-Barre syndrome following vaccination in the national influenza immunization program, United States, 1966–1967,Am. J. Epidemiol. 110: 105 – 123 (1979).Google Scholar
  249. 248.
    Schulman, J. L., and Kilbourne, E. D., Airborne transmission of influenza virus infection in mice,Nature 195: 119 (1962).Google Scholar
  250. 249.
    Schwarzmann, S. W., Adler, J. L., Sullivan, R. J., Jr., and Marine, W. M., Bacterial pneumonia during the Hong Kong influenza epidemic of 1968–1969,Arch. Intern. Med. 127: 1037 – 1041 (1971).Google Scholar
  251. 250.
    Scragg, R., Effect of influenza epidemics on Austrialian mortality,Med. J. Aust. 142: 98 – 102 (1985).Google Scholar
  252. 251.
    Serfling, R. E., Methods for current statistical analysis of excess pneumonia-influenza deaths,Public Health Rep 78: 494 – 506 (1963).Google Scholar
  253. 252.
    Shope, R. E., Swine influenza, I. Experimental transmission and pathology,J. Exp. Med. 54: 349 – 359 (1931).Google Scholar
  254. 253.
    Shope, R. E., Swine influenza. III. Filtration experiments and etiology,J. Exp. Med. 54: 373 – 385 (1931).Google Scholar
  255. 254.
    Shope, R. E., The incidence of neutralizing antibodies for swine influenza virus in the sera of human beings of different ages,J. Exp. Med. 63: 669 – 684 (1936).Google Scholar
  256. 255.
    Six, H. R., Glezen, W. P., Kasel, J. A., Couch, R. B., and Griffis, C., Heterogenicity of influenza viruses isolated from the Houston community during defined epidemic periods, in:ICN-UCLA Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology, Vol. XXI,Genetic Variation among Influenza Viruses(D. Nayak, ed.), pp. 505 – 513, Academic Press, New York, 1981.Google Scholar
  257. 256.
    Six, H. R., and Kasel, J. A., Radioimmunoprecipitation assay for quantitation of serum antibody to the hemagglutinin of type A influenza virus,J. Clin. Microbiol. 7: 165 – 171 (1978).Google Scholar
  258. 257.
    Six, H. R., Webster, R. G., Kendal, A. P., Glezen, W. P., Griffis, C., and Couch, R. B., Antigenic analysis of H1N1 viruses isolated in the Houston metropolitan area during four successive seasons,Infect. Immun. 42: 453 – 458 (1983).Google Scholar
  259. 258.
    Skehel, J. J., Bayley, P. M., Brown, E. B., Martin, S. R., Waterfield, M. D., White, J. M., Wilson, I. A., and Wiley, D. C., Changes in the conformation of influenza virus hemagglutinin at the pH optimum of virus-mediated membrane fusion,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79: 968 – 972 (1982).Google Scholar
  260. 259.
    Slepushkin, A. N., Ritova, V. V., Feklisova, L. V., Fedorova, G. I., Obrosova-Serova, N. P., Safonova, E. S., Kupryashina, L. M., Molibog, E. V., Slepushkin, V. A., and Zhdanov, V. M., Results of a two-year study of humoral immunity to influenza A and B viruses in children under the age of 14 years in Moscow and its suburbs,Bull. WHO 62: 75 – 82 (1984).Google Scholar
  261. 260.
    Smith, G. L., Bennink, J. R., Yewdell, J. W., Small, P. A., Jr., Murphy, B. R., and Moss, B., Vaccine virus recombinants expressing influenza virus genes, in:Options for the Control of Influenza(A. P. Kendal and P. A. Patriarca, eds.), pp. 375 – 389, Alan R. Liss, New York, 1986.Google Scholar
  262. 261.
    Smith, W., The complement-fixation reaction in influenza,Lancet 2: 1256 – 1259 (1936).Google Scholar
  263. 262.
    Smith, W., Andrewes, C. H., and Laidlaw, P. P., A virus obtained from influenza patients,Lancet 2: 66 – 68 (1933).Google Scholar
  264. 263.
    Smorodincev, A. A., The efficacy of live influenza vaccines,Bull. WHO 41: 585 – 588 (1969).Google Scholar
  265. 264.
    Snyder, M. H., Clements, M. L., Betts, R. F., Dolin, R., Buckler-White, A. J., Tierney, E. L., and Murphy, R., Evaluation of live avian-human reassortant influenza A H3N2 and H1N1 virus vaccines in seronegative adult volunteers,J. Clin. Microbiol. 23: 852 – 857 (1986).Google Scholar
  266. 265.
    Sonoguchi, T., Sakoh, M., Kumtas, N., Satsuta, K., Noriki, H., and Fukumi, H., Reinfection with influenza A (H2N2, H3N2, and H1N1) viruses in soldiers and students in Japan,J. Infect. Dis. 153: 33 – 40 (1986).Google Scholar
  267. 266.
    Spelman, D. W., and McHardy, C. J., Concurrent outbreaks of influenza A and influenza B,J. Hyg. (Camb.) 94: 331 – 339 (1985).Google Scholar
  268. 267.
    Stanley, E. D., and Jackson, G. G., Viremia in Asian influenza,Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians 79: 376 – 387 (1966).Google Scholar
  269. 268.
    Stiver, H. G., Graves, P., Eickhoff, T. C., and Meiklejohn, G., Efficacy of “Hong Kong” vaccine in preventing “England” variant influenza A in 1972,N. Engl. J. Med. 289: 1267 – 1271 (1973).Google Scholar
  270. 269.
    Sulkava, R., Rissanan, A., and Pyhala, R., Post-influenzal encephalitis during the influenza A outbreak in 1979/1980,J. Neurol Neurosurg. Psychiatry 44: 161 – 163 (1981).Google Scholar
  271. 270.
    Sullivan-Bolyai, J. Z., and Corey, L., Epidemiology of Reye syndrome,Epidemiol. Rev. 3: 1 – 26 (1981).Google Scholar
  272. 271.
    Sullivan-Bolyai, J. Z., Nelson, D. B., Morens, D. M., and Schonberger, L. B., Reye syndrome in children less than one year old: Some epidemiologic observations,Pediatrics 65: 627 – 629 (1980).Google Scholar
  273. 272.
    Taber, L. H., Paredes, A., Glezen, W. P., and Couch, R. B., Infection with influenza A/Victoria virus in Houston families, 1976,J. Hyg. (Camb.) 86: 303 – 313 (1981).Google Scholar
  274. 273.
    Taylor, R. M., Studies on survival of influenza virus between epidemics and antigenic variants of the virus,Am. J. Public Health 39: 171 – 178 (1949).Google Scholar
  275. 274.
    Tillett, H. E., Smith, J. W. G., and Clifford, R. E., Excess morbidity and mortality associated with influenza in England and Wales,Lancet 1: 793 – 795 (1980).Google Scholar
  276. 275.
    Tillett, H. E., and Spencer, I. L., Influenza surveillance in England and Wales using routine statistics,J. Hyg. (Camb.) 88: 83 – 94 (1982).Google Scholar
  277. 276.
    Townsend, J. F., History of influenza epidemics,Ann. Med. History 5: 533 – 547 (1933).Google Scholar
  278. 277.
    Tumova, B., Scharfenorth, H., and Adamczyk, G., Incidence of influenza C virus in Czechoslovokia and German Democratic Republic,Acta Virol 27: 502 – 510 (1983).Google Scholar
  279. 278.
    Utell, M. J., Aquilina, A. T., Hall, W. J., Speers, D. M., Douglas, R. G., Jr.,Gibb, F. R., Morrow, P. E., and Hyde, R. W., Development of airway reactivity to nitrates in subjects with influenza,Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 121: 233 – 241 (1980).Google Scholar
  280. 279.
    Waldman, R. H., Bond, J. O., Levitt, L. P., Hartwig, E. C., Prather, E. C., Buratta, R. L., Neill, J. S., and Small, P. A., Jr., An evaluation of influenza immunization,Bull. WHO 41: 543 – 548 (1969).Google Scholar
  281. 280.
    Walsh, J. J., Dietlein, L. F., Low, F. N., Burch, G. E., and Mogabgab, W. J., Bronchotracheal response in human influenza,Arch. Intern. Med. 108: 376 – 388 (1961).Google Scholar
  282. 281.
    Webster, R. G., Campbell, C. H., andGranoff, A., The“in vivo”production of “new” influenza A viruses,Virology 44: 317 – 328 (1971).Google Scholar
  283. 282.
    Wiley, D. C., Wilson, I. A., and Skehel, J. J., Structural identification of the antibody-binding sites of Hong Kong influenza hemagglutinin and their involvement in antigenic variation,Nature 289: 373 – 378 (1981).Google Scholar
  284. 283.
    Willers, H., and Hopken, W., Epidemiology of influenza in lower Saxony during the period 1968–1978 with particular emphasis on subtypes A (H3N2) and A (H1N1) in winter 1977–78,Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 167: 21 – 27 (1979).Google Scholar
  285. 284.
    Wilson, A. B., Planterose, D. N., Nagington, J., Park, J. R., Barry, R. D., and Coombs, R. R. A., Influenza A antigens on human lymphocytesin vitroand probablyin vivo, Nature 259: 582 – 584 (1976).Google Scholar
  286. 285.
    World Health Organization, Influenza in the world,Week. Epidemiol Rec. 59: 5 – 10 (1984).Google Scholar
  287. 286.
    World Health Organization, A revision of the system of nomenclature for influenza viruses,Bull. WHO 58: 585 – 591 (1980).Google Scholar
  288. 287.
    Wright, P. F., Bryant, J. D., and Karzon, D. T., Comparison of influenza B/Hong Kong virus infections among infants, children, and young adults,J. Infect. Dis. 141: 430 – 435 (1980).Google Scholar
  289. 288.
    Wright, P. F., Thompson, J., and Karzon, D. T., Differing virulence of H1N1 and H2N2 influenza strains,Am. J. Epidemiol. 112: 814 – 819 (1980).Google Scholar
  290. 289.
    Yap, K. L., and Ada, G. L., The recovery of mice from influenza virus infection. Adoptive transfer of immunity with immune T lymphocytes,Scand. J. Immunol. 7: 389 – 397 (1978).Google Scholar
  291. 290.
    Yorke, J. A., Nathanson, N., Pianigiani, G., and Martin, J., Seasonality and the requirements for perpetuation and eradication of viruses in populations,Am. J. Epidemiol. 109: 103 – 123 (1979).Google Scholar
  292. 291.
    Young, J. F., and Palese, P., Evolution of human influenza viruses in nature: Recombination contributes to genetic variation of H1N1 strain,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76: 6547 – 6551 (1979).Google Scholar
  293. 292.
    Zebedee, S. L., and Lamb, R. A., Influenza A virus M2 protein: Monoclonal antibody restriction of virus growth and detection of M2 in virions,J. Virol. 62: 2762 – 2772 (1988).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Paul Glezen
    • 1
  • Robert B. Couch
    • 1
  1. 1.Influenza Research Center, Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations