Immunosuppression and Treatment of Rejection

  • Yves F. Ch. Vanrenterghem


When a kidney is transplanted in a recipient other than a monozygous twin, antigenic disparity between the donor and the recipient will elicit a cascade of immunologic reactions, resulting in progressive damage and ultimate loss of the grafted kidney unless some form of immunosuppression is given. New insights into the immunologic events involved in the recognition and response to the histocompatibility or transplantation antigens has led to a better understanding of the action of various immunosuppressive agents and constitute a basis for a more rational use of these agents in clinical transplantation.


Renal Transplantation Renal Allograft Transplant Proc Renal Allograft Recipient Antilymphocyte Globulin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Thorsby E: Structure and function of HLA-molecules. Transplant Proc 19:29, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fabre JW, Milton AD, Spencer S, Settaf A, Houssin D: Regulation of alloantigen expression in different tissues. Transplant Proc 19:45, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moore RN, Oppenheim JJ, Farrar JJ, Carter CS, Waheed A, Shadduck RK: Production of LAF (IL1) by macrophages activated with colony stimulating factors. J Immunol 125:1302, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Robb RJ, Munck A, Smith KA: T cell growth factor receptors quantitation, specificity and biological relevance. J Exp Med 154:1455, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Smith KA, Lachman LB, Oppenheim JJ, Favata MF: The functional relationship of the interleukins. J Exp Med 151:1551, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Farrar WL, Johnson HM, Farrar JJ: Regulation of the production of immune interferon and cytotoxic T lymphocytes by interleukin-2. J Immunol 126:1120, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hall BM: Cellular infiltrates in allografts. Transplant Proc 19:50, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Billingham RE, Krohn PL, Medawar PB: Effects of cortisone on survival of skin homografts in rabbits. Br Med J 1:1157, 1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dupont E, Wybran J, Toussaint C: Glucocorticosteroids and organ transplantation. Transplantation 37:331, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cupps TR, Fauer AS: Corticosteroid-mediated immuno-regulation in man. Immunol Rev 65:113, 1982.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Claman HN: How corticosteroids work. J Allergy Clin Immunol 55:145, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bunjes D, Hardt C, Rollinghoff M, Wagner H: Cyclosporin A mediates immunosuppression of primary cytotoxic T cell responses by impairing the release of interleukin-1 and interleukin-2. Eru J Immunol 11:657, 1981.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hutchinson IF, Shadur CA, Duarte AJS, Strom TB, Tilney NL: Cyclosporin A spares selectively lymphocytes with donor specific suppressor characteristics. Transplantation 32:210, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Elion GB: Biochemistry and pharmacology of purine analogues. Fed Proc 26:898, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wheeler GP, Bowdon BJ, Adamson DJ, Wail MH: Comparison of the effects of several inhibitors of the synthesis of nucleic acids upon the viability and progression through the cell cycle of cultured H.Ep No-2 cells. Cancer Res 32:2661, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Monaco AP: Antilymphocyte globulin: A clinical transplantation research opportunity. Am J Kidney dis 2:67, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lance EM, Medawar PB, Taub RN: Antilymphocyte serum. Advances Immunol 17:1, 1973.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tyler RW, Everett NB, Schwartz MR: Effect of antilympho-cyte serum on rate lymphocytes. J Immunol 102:179–186, 1968.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Maki T, Simpson M, Monaco AP: Development of suppressor T cells by antilymphocyte serum treatment in mice. Transplantation 34:376, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Thomas JM, Carver FM, Haisch CE, Fahrenbruck G, Deepe RM, Thomas FT: Suppressor cells in Rhesus monkeys treated with antithymocyte globulin. Transplantation 34:83, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Reinherz EL, Meuer S, Fitzgerald KA, Mussey RE, Levine H, Schlossman SF: Antigen recognition by human T lymphocytes is linked to surface expression of the T3 molecular complex. Cell 30:735, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bach JF, Chatenoud L: Immunologic monitoring of ortho-clone OKT3 treated patients: The problem of antimonoclonal immune response. Transplant Proc 19 (suppl 1):17, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Trowell OA: The sensitivity of lymphocytes to ionizing radiation. J Path Bact 64:687, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Godfrey AM, Salaman JR: Is graft irradiation of value in renal transplant rejection? Transplant Proc 9:1005, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fuks Z, Strober S, Bobrove AM, Sasazuki T, McMicheal A, Kaplan HS: Longterm effects of radiation on T and B lymphocytes in peripheral blood of patients with Hodgkin’s disease. J Clin Invest 58:803, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Strober S: Natural suppressor (NS) cells, neonatal tolerance, and total lymphoid irradiation: Exploring obscure relationships. Ann Rev Immunol 2:97, 1984.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Waer M, Vanrenterghem Y, Roels L, Ang K, Bouillon R, Lerut T, Gruwez J, van der Schueren E, Vandeputte M, Michielsen P: Immunologic and clinical observations in diabetic kidney graft recipients pretreated with total lymphoid irradiation. Transplantation 43:371, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    McGeown MG, Douglas JF, Brown WA, Donaldson RA, Kennedy JA, Loughridge WG, Mehta S, Nelson SD, Dohertry CC, Johnstone R, Todd G, Hill CM: Advantages of low dose steroid from the day after renal transplantation. Transplantation 29:287, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gore SM, Oldhan JA: Randomized trials of high-versus-low-dose steroids in renal transplantation. Does the evidence favor a consensus? Transplantation 41:319, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Morris PJ, French ME, Chan L, Ting A: Low dose oral prednisolone in renal transplantation. Lancet 1:525, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    d’Apice AJF, Becker GJ, Kincaid-Smith P, Mathew TH, Ng J, Hardie IR, Petrie JJB, Rigby RJ, Dawborn J, Heale WF, Miach PJ: A prospective randomized trial of low-dose versus high-dose steroids in cadaveric renal transplantation. Transplantation 37:373, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vanrenterghem Y, Roels L, Lerut T, Waer M, Gruwez J, Michielsen P: Evaluation of cyclosporine in a center with high survival rates using conventional immunosuppression. Transplant Proc 17:2666, 1985.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Stjernholm MR, Katz FH: Effects of diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbital and diazepam on the metabolism of methyl-prednisolone and its sodium succinate. J Clin Endocr 41:887–893, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hendrickse W, McKierman J, Pickup M, Lowe J: Rifampi-cin-induced non-responsiveness to corticosteroid treatment in nephrotic syndrome. Brit Med J 1:306, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Buffington Ga, Comingues JH, Piering WF, Hebert LA, Kauffmen N, Lemann J Jr: Interaction of rifampicin and glucocorticoids. Adverse effects on renal function. JAMA 236:1958, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gambertoglio JG, Holford NHG, Kapusnik JE, Nishikawa R, Saltiel M, Stanik-Lizak P, Birnbaum JL, Hau T, Amend WJC Jr: Disposition of total and unbound prednisolone in renal transplant patients receiving anticonvulsants. Kidney Int 25:119, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wassner SJ, Malekzadeh MH, Pennisi AJ, Ettenger RB, Uittenbogaart CH, Fine RN: Allograft survival in patients receiving anticonvulsant medication. Clin Nephrol 8:293, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Knapp MS, Byrom NP, Pownall R, Mayor P: Time of day of taking immunosuppressive agents after renal transplantation: A possible influence on graft survival. Brit Med J 281:1382, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Harter JG, Reddy WJ, Thorn GW: Studies on an intermittent corticosteroid dosage regimen. N Engl J Med 269:591, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kabler TA, Knapp MS, Pownall R: The effects of corticosteroids given at various clock times on cell-mediated immunity to oxazolone. Br J Pharmacol 64:427P, 1978.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pownall R, Knapp MS: A circadian study of corticosteroid suppression of delayed hypersensitivity. Int J Immunopharmacol 1:293, 1980.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pickup ME: Clinical pharmacokinetics of prednisone and prednisolone. Clin Pharmacokinet 4:111, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Davis M, Williams R, Chakraborty J, English J, Marks V, Ideo G, Tempini S: Prednisone or prednisolone for the treatment of chronic active hepatitis? A comparison of plasma availability. Br J Clin Pharmacol 5:301, 1978.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Burleson RI, Marberger PD, Jermanovich N, Brennan AM, Scruggs BF: A prospective study of methylprednisolone and prednisone as immunosuppressive agents in clinical renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 13:339, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Henderson RC, Wheatly T, English J, Chakraborty J, Marks V: Variation in plasma prednisolone concentration in renal transplant recipients given enteric-coated prednisolone. Br Med J 1:1534, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Vanrenterghem Y, Roels L, Michielsen P: Prohylactic treatment with Cimetidine after renal transplantation. In: Further Experience with H 2 -Receptor Antagonists in Peptic Ulcer Disease and Progress in Histamine Research. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, Congress Series No 521, pp 159, 1980.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bennett WM, Barry JM: Failure of dexamethasone to provide adequate chronic immunosuppression for renal transplantation. Transplantation 27:218, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Harter JG, Reddy WJ, Thorn GW: Studies on an intermittent corticosteroid dosage regimen. N Engl J Med 269:591, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dale DC, Fauci AS, Wolff SM: Alternate-day prednisone: Leukocyte kinetics and susceptibility to infections. TV Engl J Med 291:1154, 1974.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Reed WP, Lucus ZJ, Cohn R: Alternate-day prednisone therapy after renal transplantation. Lancet 1:741, 1970.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Siegel RR, Luke RG, Hellebusch AA: Reduction of toxicity of corticosteroid therapy after renal transplantation. Am J Med 53:159, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wilson CJ, Kaye J, Beizer FO, Kountz SL, Potter DE: Growth following renal transplantation: Daily vs. alternate-day steroid therapy. Pediat Res 6:415, 1972.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sampson D, Albert DJ: Alternate-day therapy with methylprednisolone after renal transplantation. J Urol 109:345, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    McEnery PT, Gonzalez LL, Martin LW, West CD: Growth and development of children with renal transplantation. Use of alternate-day steroid therapy. J Pediat 83:806, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Potter D, Beizer FO, Rames L, Holliday NA, Kountz SL, Najarian JS: The treatment of chronic uremia in childhood. 1. Transplantation. Pediatrics 45:432, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Diethelm AG, Sterling WA, Hartley MW, Morgan JM: Alternate-day prednisone therapy in recipients of renal allografts. Arch Surg 111:867, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    McDonald FD, Horenstein ML, Moyor GB, Turcotte JG, Selezinka W, Schork MA: Effect of alternate-day steroids on renal transplant function. A controlled study. Nephron 17:415, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    DeVecchi A, Cantaluppi A, Montagnino G, Tarantino A, Maestri O, Ponticelli C: Longterm comparison between single-morning daily and alternate-day steroid treatment in cadaver kidney recipients. Transplant Proc 12:327, 1980.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Owens ML, Maxwell JG, Goodnight J, Wolcatt MW: Discontinuance of immunosuppression in renal transplant patients. Arch Surg 110:1450, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Di Padova F, Morandi E, Mazzei D: Is long-term immunosuppressive treatment necessary to maintain good kidney graft function? Br Med J 2:421, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zoller KM, Cho SI, Cohen JJ, Harrington JT: Cessation of immunosuppressive therapy after successful transplantation: A national survey. Kidney Int 18:110, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Najarian JS: Editorial comment. Arch Surg 110:1451, 1975.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ueling DT, Hussey JL, Weinstein AB, Wank R, Bach FH: Cessation of immunosuppression after renal transplantation. Surgery 79:278, 1976.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Naik RB, Abdeen H, English J, Chakraborty J, Slapak M, Lee HA: Prednisolone withdrawal after 3 years in renal transplant patients receiving only this form of immunosuppression. Transplant Proc 11:39, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    First MR, Munda R, Kant KS, Fidler JP, Alexander JW: Steroid withdrawal following HLA-identical related donor transplantation. Transplant Proc 13:319, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Turcotte JG, Dickerman RM, Harper ML: Minimum steroid requirements in the late post-transplant period. Transplant Proc 7:83, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Thaysen JH, Lokkegaard H: Permanent withdrawal of prednisone in necro-kidney transplantation. Scand J Urol Nephrol 42:198, 1977.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Steinman TI, Zimmerman CE, Monaco AP, Brown RS, Yager HM, Clive DM, Ransil BJ: Steroids can be stopped in kidney transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 13:323, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sheriff MHR, Yayha T, Lee HA: Is azathioprine necessary in renal transplantation? Lancet 1:118, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pirson Y, van Ypersele de Strihou C, Alexandre GPJ: Is azathioprine necessary in renal transplantation (letter)? Lancet 1:506, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Schmidt P, Kapsa H, Zazgornik J, Pils P, Balcke P: Renal graft acceptance without azathioprine. Lancet 2:314, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Dandavino R, Trunet P, Descamps B, Kreis H: Prolonged withdrawal of azathioprine in kidney transplantation. Transplant Proc 10:655, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ozaki A, Ywazaki Y, Miyaji T: Withdrawal of azathioprine after renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 12:513, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Haesslein HC, Pierce JC, Lee HM, Hume DM: Leukopenia and azathioprine management of renal homotransplantation. Surgery 71:598, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Woods JE, de Weerd JH, Johnson WJ, Anderson CF: Splenectomy in renal transplantation — Influence on azathioprine sensitivity. JAMA 218:1430, 1972.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Toussaint C, Kinnaert P, Vereerstraeten P, Dupont E, Van Geertruyen J: Azathioprine is necessary in kidney transplantation. Transplantation 27:145, 1979.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Parfrey PS, Hutchinson TA, Lowny RP, Knaack J, Gutt-mann RD: The role of azathioprine reduction in late renal allograft failure. Transplantation 39:147, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Pierce JC, Hume DM: Toxicity of azathioprine. Laval Méd 41:295, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Stockhausen G, Hopf U, Glogner P: Panzytopenie nach kombinations-behandlung mit allopurinol and azathioprin. Med Welt 28:198, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hulme B, Reeves DS: Leukopenia associated with trime-thoprim-sulphamethoxazole after renal transplantation. Br Med J 3:610, 1977.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bradley PP, Warden GD, Maxwell JG, Rothstein G: Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in renal allograft recipient treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Ann Intern Med 93:560.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hamburger J, Crosnier J, Dormont J, Bach JF: La Transplantation Rénale. Flammarion Médecine-Sciences, Paris, p 213, 1971.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ebel H, Lange H: Conversion from azathioprine and/or prednisolone to cyclosporine A in renal allograft recipients. Transplant Proc 19:2005, 1987.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Starzl TE, Marchioro TL, Porter KA, Taylor PD, Faris TD, Herrmann TH, Alad CJ, Waddell WR: Factors determining short- and long-term survival after orthotopic liver homo-transplantation in the dog. Surgery 58:131, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Penn I, Hammond W, Bell P: Hepatic disorders in renal homograft recipients. Curr Top Surg Res 1:67, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Freise J, May B, Schmidt E: Cholestatischer ikterus nach azathioprin (cholestatic jaundice after azathioprine treatment). Dtsch Med Wschr 101:1223, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Haas J, Stamm T: Intrahepatische cholestase eine allergische reaktion bei azathioprine-therapie? (Intrahepatic cholestasis: an allergic reaction to azathioprin therapy?) Dtsch Med Wschr 103:1576, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Davis M, Eddeston AL, Williams R: Hypersensitivity and jaundice due to azathioprine. Postgrad Med J 56:274, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Golby M: Fertility after renal transplantation. Transplantation 10:201, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Penn I, Makowski E, Froegemueller W, Halgrimson C, Starzl TE: Parenthood in renal homograft recipients. JAMA 216:1755, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Phadke AG, Mac Kinnan KJ, Dossetor JB: Male fertility in uraemia: Restoration by renal allografts. Can Med Ass J 102:607, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Rudolph JE, Schweizer RT, Bartus SA: Pregnancy in renal transplant patients. A review. Transplantation 27:26, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Rifle G, Traeger J: Pregnancy after renal transplantation: An international survey. Transplant Proc 7:723, 1957.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sciarra JJ, Toledo-Pereyra LH, Bendel RP, Simmons RL: Pregnancy following renal transplantation. Am J Obstet Gynec 125:141, 1975.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Penn I, Makowski EL, Harris P: Parenthood following renal transplantation. Kidney Int 18:221, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Startzl TE, Marchioro TL, Porter KA, Iwasaki Y, Cerilli GJ: The use of heterologous antilymphoid agents in canine renal and liver homotransplantation and in human renal transplantation. Surg Gynecol Obstet 124:301, 1967.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hardy MA: Beneficial effects of heterologous antilymphoid globulins in renal transplantation: One “believer’s” view. Am J Kidney Dis 2:79, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Squifflet JP, Pirson Y, Jamart J, Wallemacq K, Alexandre GPJ: Cyclosporine in cadaver renal transplantation at a center with good results using conventional treatment. Transplant Proc 17:1212, 1985.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sutherland DER, Strand M, Fryd DS, Ferguson RM, Simmons RL, Ascher NL, Najarian JS: Comparison of azathioprine-antilymphocyte globulin versus cyclosporine in renal transplantation. Am J Kidney Dis 3:456, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Cho SI, Bradley JW, Monaco AP, Tilney NL: Comparison of kidney transplant survival between patients treated with cyclosporine and those treated with azathioprine and antithymocyte globulin. Am J Surg 147:518, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Calne RY, White DJG, Thiru S, Evans DB, McMaster P, Dunn DC, Craddock GN, Pentlow BD, Rolles K: Cyclosporin A in patients receiving renal allografts from cadaver donors. Lancet 2:1323, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    European Multicentre Trial Group: Cyclosporin in cadaveric renal transplantation: One-year followup of a multicentre trial. Lancet 2:986, 1983.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Merion RM, White DJG, Thiru S, Evans DB, Calne RY: Cyclosporine: Five years’ experience in cadaver renal transplantation. N Engl J Med 310:148, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Starzl TE, Weil III R, Iwatsuki S, Klintmalm G, Schröter GPJ, Koep LJ, Iwaki Y, Terasaki PI, Porter KA: The use of cyclosporin and prednisone in cadaver kidney transplantation. Surg Gynec Obstet 151:17, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Johnson RWG, Wise MH, Bakram A, Short C, Dyer P, Mallick NP, Gokal R: A four-year prospective study of cyclosporine in cadaver renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 17:1197, 1985.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Griffin PJA, Gomes Da Costa CA, Salaman JR: A controlled trial of cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 43:505, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    MacDonald AS, Daloze P, Dandavino R, Jindal S, Bear L, Dossetor JB, Klassen J, Stiller CR, Lockwood B, Reeve CE, and the Canadian Transplant Group: A randomized study of cyclosporine with and without prednisone in renal allograft recipients. Transplant Proc 19:1865, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Albert FW, Schmidt U: Cyclosporine therapy with or without steroids in cadaveric kidney transplantation — a prospective randomized one-center study. Transplant Proc 17:2669, 1985.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kahan BD, Flechner SM, Lorber MI, Golden D, Conley S, Van Buren CT: Complications of cyclosporine-prednisone immunosuppression in 402 renal allograft recipients exclusively followed at a single center for from one to five years. Transplantation 43:197, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Gonwa TA, Nghiem DD, Schulak JA, Corry RJ: Cyclosporine use in early graft dysfunction. Transplant Proc 18:104, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Flechner SM, Payne WD, Van Buren C, Kerman R, Kahan BD: The effect of cyclosporine on early graft function in human renal transplantation. Transplantation 36:268, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Castro LA, Hillebrand G, Land W, Schneider B, Günther K, Gurland H: Cyclosporine in patients with oligoanuria after cadaveric kidney transplantation. Transplant Proc 15:2699, 1983.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Bradley JW, Cho SI, Cosimi AB, Monaco AP: Cyclosporine immunosuppression and perfusion preservation of cadaver kidneys. Transplant Proc 19:2104, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Hall BM, Tiller DJ, Duggin GG, Horvath JS, Farnsworth A, May J, Johnson JR, Sheil AGR: Post-transplant acute renal failure in cadaver renal recipients treated with cyclosporine. Kidney Int 28:178, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Canafax DM, Torres A, Fryd DS, Heil JE, Strand MH, Ascher NL, Payne WD, Sutherland DER, Simmons RL, Najarian JS: The effects of delayed function on recipients of cadaver renal allografts. Transplantation 41:177, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Novick AC, Ho-Hsieh H, Steinmuller D, Streem SB, Cunningham RJ, Steinhilber D, Goormastic M, Buszta C: Detrimental effect of cyclosporine on initial function of cadaver renal allografts following extended preservation. Transplantation 42:154, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Henny FC, Kootte AMM, Van Bockel JH, Baldwin WM, Hermans J, Bos B, van Es LA, Paul LC: A prospective randomised comparative study on the influence of cyclosporin and azathioprine on renal allograft survival and function. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1:44, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    The Canadian Multicentre Transplant Study Group: A randomized clinical trial of cyclosporine in cadaveric renal transplantation. Analysis at three years. N Engl J Med 314:1219, 1986.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Morris PJ, Allen RD, Thompson JF, Chapman JR, Ting A, Dunnill MS, Wood RFM: Cyclosporin conversion versus conventional immunosuppression: Long-term followup and histological evaluation. Lancet 1:586, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Gianello P, Squifflet JP, Pirson Y, Stoffel M, Dereme Th, Alexandre GPJ: Cyclosporine-steroids versus conventional therapy in cadaver kidney transplantation: Analysis of a randomized trial at two years. Transplant Proc 19:1867, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Taylor RJ, Landreneau MD, Makowka L, Rosenthal TJ, Gordon RD, Tzakis AG, Starzl TE, Hakala TR: Cyclosporine immunosuppression and delayed graft function in 455 cadaveric renal transplants. Transplant Proc 19:2100, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Rocher LL, Landis C, Dafoe DC, Keyserling C, Swartz RD, Campbell DA Jr: The long-term deleterious effect of delayed graft function in cyclosporine-treated renal allograft recipients. Transplant Proc 19:2093, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kahan BD, Mickey R, Flechner SM, Lorber MI, Wideman CA, Kerman RH, Terasaki P, Van Buren CT: Risk factors for cadaveric donor allograft survival in cyclosporine-prednisone-treated recipients. Transplant Proc 19:1835, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Keown PA, Stiller CR, Wallace AC, McKenzie FN, Wall W: Cyclosporine nephrotoxicity: Exploration of the risk factors and prognosis of the renal injury. Transplant Proc 17:247, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hoitsma AJ, Van Lier HJJ, Wetzels JFM, Berden JHM, Koene RAP: Cyclosporin treatment with conversion after three months versus conventional immunosuppression in renal allograft recipients. Lancet 1:584, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Myers BD, Ross J, Newton L, Luetscher J, Perlroth M: Cyclosporine-associated chronic nephropathy. N Engl J Med 311:699, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Tilney NL, Milford EL, Carpenter CB, Lazarus JM, Strom TB, Kirkman RL: Long-term results of cyclosporine treatment in renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 18:179, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Flechner SM, Van Buren CT, Kerman RH, Lorber MI, Barker CJ, Golden DL, Kahan BD: Long-term results of cyclosporine therapy in recipients of mismatched living related kidneys. Transplant Proc 18:44, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Thiel G, Mihatsch M, Landmann J, Hermle M, Brünner FP, Harder F: Is cyclosporin-A induced nephrotoxicity in recipients of renal allografts progressive? Transplant Proc 17 (Suppl 1):169, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Vanrenterghem Y, Waer M, Roels L, Lerut T, Michielsen P: Is cyclosporine associated nephrotoxicity progressive? Transplant Proc 1987, in press.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    McDonald AS, Belitzky P, Gupta R, Bitter-Suermann H, Campbell R, Cohen A, Lannon SC: Conversion from cyclosporine to azathioprine in renal graft recipients. Transplant Proc 17:1940, 1985.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Land WS, Castro LA, Hillebrand G, Günther K, Gokel JM: Conversion rejection consequences by changing the immunosuppressive therapy from cyclosporine to azathioprine after kidney transplantation. Transplant Proc 15 (Suppl 1):2857, 1983.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Flechner SM, Lorber M, Van Buren C, Kerman R, Kahan BD: The case against conversion to azathioprine in cyclos-porine-treated renal recipients. Transplant Proc 17 (Suppl 1):276, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Veitch PS, Taylor JD, Feehally J, Walls J, Bell PRF: Elective conversion from cyclosporine to azathioprine: Long-term follow-up. Transplant Proc 19:2017, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Vanrenterghem Y, Waer M, Michielsen P: A controlled trial of one versus three months’ cyclosporine and conversion to azathioprine in renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 17:1162, 1985.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Rocher LL, Milford EL, Kirkman RL, Carpenter CB, Strom TB, Tilney NL: Conversion from cyclosporine to azathioprine in renal allograft recipients. Transplantation 38:669, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Ramos CP: Cyclosporin A or azathioprine combined with prednisone in renal allotransplantation with conversion from cyclosporin A to azathioprine at four months. Proc Eur Dial Transpl Assoc-ERA 22:571, 1985.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Simmons RL, Canafax DM, Strand M, Ascher NL, Payne WD, Sutherland DER, Najarian JS: Management and prevention of cyclosporine nephrotoxicity after renal transplantation: Use of low doses of cyclosporine, azathioprine and prednisone. Transplant Proc 17 (Suppl 1):266, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Weimar W, Versluis DJ, Wenting GJ, Derkx FHM, Schalekamp MADH, Jeekel J: Prolonged cyclosporine therapy to induce solid engraftment after renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 19:1998, 1987.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Maddux MS, Veremis SA, Pollak R, Mozes MF: Conversion from cyclosporine to azathioprine improves renal function without increased risk of graft failure. Transplant Proc 19:2007, 1987.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Canafax DM, Martel EJ, Asscher NL, Payne WD, Sutherland DER, Simmons RL, Najarian JS: Two methods of managing cyclosporine nephrotoxicity: Conversion to azathioprine, prednisone, or cyclosporin, azathioprine and prednisone. Transplant Proc 17:1176, 1985.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Lorber MI, Flechner SM, Van Buren CT, Sorensen K, Kerman RH, Kahan BD: Cyclosporine toxicity: The effect of combined therapy using cyclosporine, azathioprine and prednisone. Am J Kidney Dis 9:476, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Henry ML, Sommer BG, Ferguson RM: Triple drug therapy: An alternative regimen in renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 19:1920, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Fries D, Hiesse C, Charpentier B, Rieu P, Neyrat N, Cántarovich M, Ouziala, Bellamy J, Benoit G: Triple combination of low-dose cyclosporine, azathioprine and steroids in first cadaver donor renal allografts. Transplant Proc 19:1911, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Slapak M, Shell T, Digard N, Gosling DC, Qerchi della Rovera G, Crockett RC, Ahmed K: Triple and quadruple therapy after renal transplantation in patients from developing countries. Transplant Proc 19:1922, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Fries D, Kechrid C, Charpentier B, Hammouche M, Moulin B: A prospective study of a triple association: Cyclosporine, corticosteroids, and azathioprine in immunologically high-risk renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 17:1231, 1985.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Salaman JR, Griffin PJA, Ross WB, Williams JD: A controlled trial of triple therapy in renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 19:1935, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    De Vecchi A, Tarantino A, Montagnino G, Egidi F, Vegeto A, Berardinelli L, Ponticelli C: A controlled prospective trial of triple therapy with low-dose azathioprine, cyclosporine and methylprednisolone in renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 19:1933, 1987.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Light JA, Aquino A, Ali A, Rodriguez R, Ali S: Quadruple drug therapy prevents graft loss from acute rejection without increasing mortality. Transplant Proc 19:1927, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Deierhoi MH, Sollinger HW, Kalayoglu M, Beizer FO: Quadruple therapy for cadaver renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 19:1917, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Halloran P, Ludwin D, Bear R, Aprile M, McQuarrie B, Poole R, White N: Intermodal immunosuppression for cadaver renal transplantation: Results using antilymphocyte globulin, azathioprine, cyclosporine and prednisone. Transplant Proc 19:1931, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Halloran P, Ludwin D, Aprile M and the Canadian Multicentre Transplant Study Group: Comparison of antilymphocyte globulinimuran, cyclosporine, and antilymphocyte globulin-cyclosporine therapy for cadaver renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 17:1201, 1985.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Kahan BD: Individualization of cyclosporine therapy using pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters. Transplantation 40:457, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Holt DW, Marsden JT, Johnston A, Bewick M, Taube DH: Blood cyclosporin concentrations and renal allograft dysfunction. Br Med J 293:1057, 1986.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Quesniaux V, Tees R, Schreier MH, Maurer G, van Regenmoortel MHV: Potential of monoclonal antibodies to improve therapeutic monitoring of cyclosporine. Clin Chem 33 (1):32, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Reid M, Gibbons S, Kwak D, Van Buren CT, Flechner S, Kahan BD: Cyclosporine levels in human tissues of patients treated for one week to one year. Transplant Proc 15:2434, 1983.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Kupin WL, Venkat KK, Norris C, Florence-Green Dollie, Dienst S, Oh HK, Feldkamp C, Levin NW: Effective long-term immunosuppression maintained by low cyclosporine levels in primary cadaveric renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 43:214, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Cockburn I: Cyclosporine A: A clinical evaluation of drug interactions. Transplant Proc 18 (Suppl 5):50, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Langhoff E, Madsen S: Rapid metabolism of cyclosporin and prednisone in kidney transplant patients on tuberculostatic treatment. Lancet 2:1303, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Freeman DJ, Laupacis A, Keown PA, Stiller CR, Carruthers SG: Evaluation of cyclosporin-phenytoin interaction with observations on cyclosporin metabolities. Br J Clin Pharmacol 18:887, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Carstensen H, Jacobsen N, Dieperink H: Interaction between cyclosporin A and phenobarbitone. Br J Clin Pharmacol 21:550, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Wallwork J, McGregor CGA, Wells FC, Cory-Pearce R, English TAH: Cyclosporin and intravenous sulphadimidine and trimethoprim therapy. Lancet 1:366, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Hourmant M, Le Bigot JF, Vernillet L, Sagniez G, Remi JP, Soulillou JP: Coadministration of erythromycin results in an increase of blood cyclosporine to toxic levels. Transplant Proc 17:2723, 1985.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Ferguson RM, Sutherland DER, Simmons RL, Najarian JS: Ketoconazole, cyclosporin metabolism, and renal transplantation. Lancet 2:882, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Whiting PH, Cunningham C, Thomson AW, Simpson JG: Enhancement of high dose cyclosporin A toxicity by furosemide. Biochem Pharmacol 33:1075, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Klintmalm G, Säwe J: High dose methylprednisolone increases plasma cyclosporin levels in renal transplant recipients. Lancet 1:731, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Kennedy MS, Deeg HJ, Siegel M, Crowley JJ, Storb R, Thomas ED: Acute renal toxicity with combined use of amphotericin B and cyclosporin after marrow transplantation. Transplantation 35:211, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Thompson JF, Chalmers DHK, Hunisett AGW, Wood RFM, Morris PJ: Nephrotoxicity of trimethoprim and cotri-moxazole in renal allograft recipients treated with cyclosporine. Transplantation 36:204, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Whiting PH, Simson JG, Davidson RJL, Thompson AW: The toxic effects of combined administration of cyclosporin A and gentamycin. Br J Exp Pathol 63:554, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Kahan BD: Cyclosporine nephrotoxicity: Pathogenesis, prosphylaxis, therapy, and prognosis. Am J Kidney Dis 8:323, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Shulman H, Striker G, Deeg HJ, Kennedy M, Strob R, Thomas ED: Nephrotoxicity of cyclosporin A after allogeneic marrow transplantation: Glomerular thromboses and tubular injury. N Engl J Med 305:1392, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Bonses RS, Adu D, Franklin I, McMaster P: Cyclosporin-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome in liver allograft recipient. Lancet 2:1337, 1984.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Neild GH, Reuben R, Hartley RB, Cameron JS: Glomerular thrombi in renal allografts associated with cyclosporin therapy. J Clin Pathol 38:253, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Vanrenterghem Y, Roels L, Lerut T, Gruwez J, Michielsen P, Gresele P, Deckmijn H, Colucci M, Arnout J, Vermylen J: Thromboembolic complications and haemostatic changes in cyclosporin-treated cadaveric kidney allograft recipients. Lancet 1:999, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Choudhury N, Neild GH, Brown Z, Cameron JS: Thromboembolic complications in cyclosporin-treated kidney allograft recipients. Lancet 2:606, 1985.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Allen RD, Michie CA, Morris PJ, Chapman JR: Venous thrombosis and cyclosporin. Lancet 2:1004, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Brunkwall J, Bergqvist D, Bergentz S-E, Bornmyr S, Husberg B: Postoperative deep venous thrombosis after renal transplantation. Effects of cyclosporine. Transplantation 43:647, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Zoja C, Furci L, Ghilardi F, Zilio P, Benigni A, Remuzzi G: Cyclosporin-induced endothelial cell injury. Lab Invest 55:455, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Neild GH, Rocchi G, Imberti L, Fumagalli F, Brown Z, Remuzzi G, Williams DG: Effect of cyclosporine on prostacyclin synthesis by vascular tissue in rabbits. Transplant Proc 15:2398, 1983.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Brown Z, Neild GH, Willoughby J, Somia NV, Cameron SJ: Increased factors VIII as an index of vascular injury in cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. Transplantation:42, 150, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Carlsen E, Mallet AC, Prydz H: Effect of cyclosporine A on procoagulant activity in mononuclear blood cells and monocytes in vitro. Clin Exp Immunol 60:407, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Vanrenterghem Y, Waer M, Kian Ang K, Lerut T, Bouillon R, Vandeputte I, Vandeputte M, van der Schueren E, Gruwez J, Michielsen P: Renal cadaveric transplantation after total lymphoid irradiation in patients with diabetes. Kidney Int 23 (Suppl 14):S-69, 1983.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Waer M, Vanrenterghem Y, Roels L, Kian Ang K, Bouillon R, Lerut T, Gruwez J, van der Schueren E, Vandeputte M, Michielsen P: Immunological and clinical observations in diabetic kidney graft recipients pretreated with total-lymphoid irradiation. Transplantation 43:371. 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Vanrenterghem Y, Waer M, Roels L, Michielsen P: A controlled trial comparing pretransplant total lymphoid irradiation versus posttransplant cyclosporine in type I diabetic cadaveric kidney graft recipients: Short-term results. Transplant Proc 19:1542, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Najarian S, Sutherland DER, Ferguson RM, Simmons RL, Kersey J, Mauer SM, Slavin S, Kim TH: Total lymphoid irradiation and kidney transplantation: A clinical experience.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Levin B, Hoppe RT, Collins G, Miller E, Waer M, Bieber C, Girinsky T, Strober S: Treatment of cadaveric renal transplant recipients with total lymphoid irradiation, anti-thymocyte globulin, and low-dose prednisone. Lancet 2: 1321, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Cortesini R, Berloco P, Famulari A, Trovati A, Iapelli M, Molajoni ER, Bachetoni A, Pretagostini R, Marinucci G, Capua A, Rossi M, Alfani D: Influence of total lymphoid irradiation plus cyclosporine on kidney graft outcome in high-risk patients. Transplant Proc 19:1949, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Myburgh JA, Meyers AM, Botha JR, Thomson PD, Smit JA, Browde S, Lakier R: Wide field low-dose total lymphoid irradiation in clinical kidney transplantation. Transplant Proc 19:1974. 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Bell PRF, Briggs JD, Calman KC, Paton AM, Wood RFM, McPherson SG, Kyle K: Reversal of acute clinical and experimental organ rejection using large doses of intravenous prednisolone. Lancet 1:876, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Nakajima N, Rao TKS, Sakai A, Butt KH, Kountz SL: Effects of intravenous bolus dosages of methylprednisolone and local irradiation on renal allograft rejection and patient mortality. Surg Gyn Obstet 144:63, 1977.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Kauffman HM Jr, Stromstad SA, Sampson D, Stawicki AT: Randomized steroid therapy of human kidney transplant rejection. Transplant Proc 9:36, 1979.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Shield CR, Cosimi AB, Tolkoff-Rubin N, Rubin RH, Herrin J, Russell PS: Use of antithymocyte globulin for reversal of acute allograft rejection. Transplantation 28:461, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Hoitsma AJ, Reekers P, Kreeftenberg JG, van Lier HJJ, Capel PJA, Koene RAP: Treatment of acute rejection of cadaveric renal allografts with rabbit antithymocyte globulin. Transplantation 33:12, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Broyer M, Niaudet P, Bijaoui, Gagnadoux MF: Treatment of acute rejection crisis by antilymphocyte globulins: A randomized prospective study in pediatric kidney transplantation. Transplant Proc 19:1886, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Filo RS, Smith EJ, Leapman SB: Therapy of acute cadaveric renal allograft rejection with adjunctive antithymocyte globulin. Transplantation 30:445, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Nowygrod R, Appel G, Hardy MA: Use of ATG for reversal of acute allograft rejection. Transplant Proc 13:469, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Light JA, Alijani MR, Biggers JA, Oddenino K, Reinmuth B: Antilymphocyte globulin (ALG) reverses irreversible allograft rejection. Transplant Proc 13:475, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Hardy MA, Nowygrod R, Erlberg A, Appel G: Use of ATG in treatment of steroid-resistent rejection. Transplantation 29:162, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Griffin PJA, Williams GT, Salaman JR: Antilymphocyte globulin for the treatment of steroid non-responsive acute renal allograft rejection. Clin Nephrol 21:115, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Veremis SA, Maddux MS, Pollak R, Kline SS, Mozes MF: Alternative antirejection treatment with steroids or antilym-phoblast globulin in renal transplant patients receiving cyclosporine. Transplant Proc 19:1893, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Benvenisty AI, Tannenbaum GA, Cohen DJ, Appel G, Hardy MA: Use of antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine to treat steroid-resistant rejection episodes in renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 19:1889, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Matas AJ, Tellis VA, Quinn T, Glichlick D, Soberman R, Weiss R, Karwa G, Veith FJ: ALG treatment of steroid-resistant rejection in patients receiving cyclosporine. Transplantation 41:579, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Ortho Multicenter Transplant Study Group: A randomized clinical trial of OKT3 monoclonal antibody for acute rejection of cadaveric renal transplants. N Engl J Med 313:337, 1985.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Ponticelli C, Rivolta E, Tarantino A, Egidi F, Banfi G, DeVecchi A, Montagnino G, Vegeto A: Clinical experience with Orthoclone OKT3 in renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 18:942, 1986.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Thistlethwaite JR Jr, Gaber AO, Haag BW, Aronson AJ, Broelsch CE, Stuart JK, Stuart FP: OKT3 treatment of steroid-resistant renal allograft rejection. Transplantation 43:176, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Ponticelli C, Rivolta E, Tarantino A, De Vecchi A, Vegeto A: Rescue of severe steroid-resistant rejection with OKT3.PAN. Transplant Proc 19:1908, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Norman DJ, Barry JM, Funnell B, Henell K, Goldstein G: OKT3 for treatment of acute and steroid- and ATG-resistant acute rejection in renal allograft transplantation. Transplant Proc 17:2744, 1985.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Flye W, Kashgarian M, Gáudio K, Siegel N, Smith D, Kliger A, Schiff M, Bia MJ: Cyclosporine and OKT3 salvage for steroid-and ATG-resistant renal transplant rejection.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Monaco A, Goldstein G, Bernes L: Use of Orthoclone OKT3 monoclonal antibody to reverse acute renal allograft rejection unresponsive to treatment with conventional immunosuppressive regimens. Transplant Proc 19 (Suppl 1):28, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Hirsch RL, Layton PC, Barnes LA, Kremer AB, Goldstein G: Orthoclone OKT3 treatment of acute renal allograft rejection in patients receiving maintenance cyclosporine therapy. Transplant Proc 19 (Suppl 1):32, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Takahashi H, Terasaki PI, Kinukawa T, Chia D, Miura K, Okazaki H, Iwaki Y, Taguchi Y, Hardiwidjaja S, Ishizaki M, Billing B: Reversal of transplant rejection by monoclonal antiblast antibody. Lancet 2:1155, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Kirkman RL, Araujjo JL, Busch GJ, Carpenter CB, Milford EL, Reinherz EL, Schlossman SF, Strom TB, Tilney NL: Treatment of acute renal allograft rejection with monoclonal anti-T12 antibody. Transplantation 36:620, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Cosimi AB: Treatment of rejection: Antithymocyte globulin versus monoclonal antibodies. Transplant Proc 17:1562, 1985.Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Norman DJ, Shield III CF, Barry J, Henell K, Funnell MB, Lemon J: A U.S. clinical study of Orthoclone OKT3 in renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 19 (suppl 1):21, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Van Wauwe JP, De Mey JR, Goossens JG: OKT3: A monoclonal antihuman T lymphocyte antibody with potent mitogenic properties. J Immunol 124:2708, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yves F. Ch. Vanrenterghem

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations