Advertisement

Acute Renal Failure

  • David M. Gillum
  • John D. Conger
  • Robert J. Anderson

Abstract

Acute renal failure (ARF) is broadly defined as an abrupt decrease in renal function sufficient to result in retention of nitrogenous waste in the body. Thus, the hallmark of ARF is rising plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen and creatinine. It is important to note that ARF can occur in the setting of well-maintained urine output as well as oligonanuria. In fact, urine output of 1–21/day is the most common form of ARF encountered in contemporary medical practice (1).

Keywords

Peritoneal Dialysis Acute Renal Failure Acute Tubular Necrosis Prerenal Azotemia Acute Renal Failure Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Dixon BS, Anderson RJ: Non-oliguric acute renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 6:71–80, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hou SH, Bushinsky DA, Wish JB, Cohen JJ, Harrington JT: Hospital-acquired renal insufficiency: A prospective study. Am J Med 74:243–248, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shusterman N, Strom BL, Murrary TG, Morrison G, West SL, Maislin G: Risk factors and outcome of hospital-acquired acute renal failure. Am J Med 83:65–71, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Frankel MC, Weinstein AM, Stenzel KH: Prognostic patterns in acute renal failure. Clin Exp Dialysis Apheresis 7:145–167, 1983.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rasmussen HH, Ibels LS: Acute renal failure. Multivariate analysis of causes and risk factors. Am J Med 73:211–218, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bullock ML, Urnen AJ, Finkelstein M, Keane WF: The assessment of risk factors in 462 patients with acute renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 5:97–103, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rasmussen HH, Pitt EG, Ibels LS, McNeil DR: Prediction of outcome in acute renal failure by discriminant analysis of clinical variables. Arch Int Med 145:2015–2018, 1985.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cameron JS: Acute renal failure — the continuing challenge. Q J Med 59: 337–343, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wheeler DC, Feehally J, Walls J: High risk acute renal failure. Q J Med 61:977–984, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Abreo K, Maorthy AV, Osborne M: Changing patterns and outcome of acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis. Arch Int Med 146:1338–1341, 1986.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Corwin HL, Teplick RS, Schreiber MJ, Fany LS, Bonventre JV, Coggins CH: Prediction of outcome in acute renal failure. Am J Nephrol 7:8–12, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    McInnes EG, Levy DW, Chaudhuri MD, Bhan GL: Renal failure in the elderly. Q J Med 64:583–588, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dal Canton A, Corradi A, Stanziale R, Maruccio G, Migone L: Glomerular hemodynamics before and after release of 24-hour bilateral ureteral obstruction. Kidney Int 17:491–496, 1980.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yarger WE, Schocken DD, Harris RH: Obstructive nephropathy in the rat: Possible roles for the reninangiotensin system, prostaglandins and thromboxanes in postobstructive renal function. J Clin Invest 65:400–412, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hessman RK, Johnson SF, Coburn JW, Kaufman JJ: Renal artery embolism. Ann Int Med 89:477–482, 1978.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Textor SC, Novick AC, Tarazi RC, Klimas V, Vidt DG, Pohl M: Critical renal perfusion pressure for renal function in patients with bilateral atherosclerotic renal vascular disease. Ann Int Med 102:308–314, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Myers BD, Mitler DC, Mehigan JT, Olcott C, Golbetz H, Robertson CR, Derby G, Spencer R, Friedman S: Nature of the renal injury following total renal ischemia in man. J Clin Invest 73:329–341, 1984.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    McPhaul JJ: Acute glomerular disease presenting as acute renal failure. Semin Nephrol 1:21–26, 1981.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hinton AL, Clark WF, Drudger AA: Acute interstitial nephritis due to drugs. Ann Int Med 93:735–741, 1980.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pusy CD, Saltissi B, Bloodworth L: Drug-associated acute interstitial nephritis: Clinical and pathological features and the response to high dose steroid therapy. Q J Med 52:194–211, 1983.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Myers BD, Moran SM: Hemodynamically mediated acute renal failure. N Engl J Med 314:97–105, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Corwin HL, Bonventre JV: Renal insufficiency associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Am J Kidney Dis 4:147–152, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kleinknecht D, Handais P, Goldfarb B: Analgesic and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-associated acute renal failure: A prospective collaborative study. Clin Nephrol 25: 275–281, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gabow PA, Kaehny WD, Kelleher SP: The spectrum of rhabdomyolysis. Medicine 61:141–152, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moran SM, Myers BD: Pathophysiology of protracted acute renal failure in man. J Clin Invest 76:1440–1448, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Moran SM, Myers BD: Course of acute renal failure studied by a model of creatinine kinetics. Kidney Int 27:928–937, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Matzke GR, Lucarotti RL, Shapiro HS: Controlled comparison of gentamicin and tobramycin nephrotoxicity. Am J Nephrol 3:11–17, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Blachley JD, Hill JB: Renal and electrolyte disturbances associated with cisplatin. Ann Intern Med 95:628–632, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    D’Elia J, Gleason RE, Alday M: Nephrotoxicity from angiographic contrast material. Am J Med 72:719–725, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Miller TR, et al.: Urinary diagnostic indices in acute renal failure: A prospective study. Ann Intern Med 89:47, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Anderson RJ, Gabow PA, Gross PA: Urinary chloride concentration in acute renal failure. Miner Electrolyte Metab 10:92–97, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cirksena WJ, et al.: Pathogenetic studies in model of pigment nephropathy in the rat. In: U Gessler, K Schroder, Weidinger, eds, Pathogenesis and Clinical Findings with Renal Failure. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 105, 1971.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Finckh ES, Jeremy D, Whyte HM: Structural renal damage and its relation to clinical features in acute oliguric renal failure. Q I Med 31:429, 1962.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Oken DE, Arce ML, Wilson DR: Glycerol-induced hemog-lobinuric acute renal failure in the rat: I. Micropuncture study of the development of oliguria. J Clin Invest 45:724, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ayer G, et al.: Intrarenal hemodynamics in glycerol-induced myohemoglobinuric acute renal failure in the rat. Circ Res 29:128, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chedru MF, Baethke R, Oken DE: Renal cortical blood flow and glomerular filtration in myohemoglobinuric acute renal failure. Kidney Int 1:232, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hollenberg NK, Adams DF, Oken DE, et al.: Acute renal failure due to nephro toxins: Renal hemodynamic and angiographic studies in man. N Engl J Med 282:1329, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hollenberg NK, Epstein J, Rosen SM, et al.: Acute oliguric renal failure in man: Evidence for preferential renal cortical ischemia. Medicine (Baltimore) 47:455, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Flamenbaum W: Pathophysiology of acute renal failure. Arch Intern Med 131:911, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Conger JD, et al.: The effect of acetylcholine on the early phase of reversible norepinephrine-induced acute renal failure. Kidney Int 19:399, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Goormaghtigh N: Vascular and circulatory changes in renal cortex in anuric crush syndrome. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 59:303, 1945.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Brown JJ, et al.: Renin and acute renal failure: Studies in man. Br Med J 1:253, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kokot F, Kuska J: Plasma renin activity in acute renal insufficiency. Nephron 6:115, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    DiBona GF, McDonald FD, Flamenbaum W, et al.: Maintenance of renal function in salt-loaded rats despite severe tubular necrosis induced by HgCl2. Nephron 8:205, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    McDonald FD, et al.: The prevention of acute renal failure in the rat by long-term saline loading: A possible role of renin-angiotensin axis. So Exp Biol Med 131:610, 1969.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Conger JD, Schrier RW: Renal hemodynamics in acute renal failure. Ann Rev. Physiol 42:603–614, 1980.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Powell-Jackson JD, Brown JJ, Lever AF, et al.: Protection against acute renal failure in rats by passive immunization against angiotensin II. Lancet 1:774, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Baranowski RL, O’Conner GJ, Kurtzman NA: The effect of 1-sarcosine, 8-leucyl angiotensin II on the pressor effect of infused angiotensin II. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 209:75, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Reubi R, Grossweiler N, Gurtler R: The renal blood flow in acute renal failure. In: S Shaldon, GC Cooke, eds, Acute Renal Failure. Davis, Philadelphia, p 25, 1964.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cox JW, et al.: Studies on the mechanism of oliguria in a model of unilateral acute renal failure. J Clin Invest 53:1546, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Blantz RC: The mechanism of acute renal failure after uranyl nitrate. J Clin Invest 55:621, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Conger JD, Falk SA: Glomerular and tubular dynamics in mercuric chloride-induced renal failure. J Lab Clin Med 107:281–289, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Richards AN: Direct observations of change in function of the renal tubule caused by certain poisons. Trans Am Assoc Physic 44:64, 1929.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bank N, Mutz BF, Aynedjian HS: The role of “leakage” of tubular fluid in anuria due to mercury poisoning. J Clin Invest 46:695, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Steinhausen M, Eisenbach GM, Helmstadter V: Concentration of lissamine green in proximal tubules of antidiuretic-and mercury-poisoned rats and the permeability of these tubules. Pflügers Arch 311:1, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Donohoe JF, et al.: Tubular leakage and obstruction after renal ischemia: Structural-functional correlations. Kidney Int 13:208, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Venkatachalam MA, Bernard DB, Donohoe DF, et al.: Ischemic damage and repair in the rat proximal tubule: Differences among the S1, S2, S3 segments. Kidney Int 14:31, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Myers BD, Chui F, Hilberman M, Michaels A: Transtubular leakage of glomerular filtrate in human acute renal failure. Am J Physiol F319–F325, 1979.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Baker SI, Dodds EC: Obstruction of the renal tubules during excretion of hemoglobin. Br J Exp Pathol 6:247, 1925.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mason AD Jr, Teschan PE, Muirhead EE: Studies in acute renal failure. III. Renal histologic alterations in acute renal failure in the rat. J Surg Res 3:450, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Meroney WH, Rubini ME: Kidney function during acute tubular necrosis: Clinical studies and a theory. Metabolism 8:1, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Schrier RW, Cronin RE: Acute renal failure. In: CH Coggins, NB Cummings, eds, Fogarty International Center Monograph on Prevention of Kidney and Urinary Tract Disease. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Tanner GA, Sophasan S: Kidney pressure after temporary renal artery occlusion. Am J Physiol 230:1173, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Conger JD, Robinette JB, Kelleher SP: Nephron heterogeneity in ischemic acute renal failure. Kidney Int 26:422–429, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jaenike RJ: Micropuncture study of methemoglobin-induced acute renal failure in the rat. J Lab Clin Med 73:459, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ruiz-Guinazu A, Coelho JB, Pat RA: A methemoglobin-induced acute renal failure in the rat: In vivo observation, histology and micropuncture measurements of intratubular and postglomerular vascular pressures. Nephron 4:257, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Burke TJ, Cronin RE, Duchin KL, Peterson LN, Schrier RW: Ischemia and tubule obstruction during acute renal failure in dogs: Mannitol in protection. Am J Physiol 238 (Renal Fluid Electrolyte Physiol 7):F305–F314, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Farber JL: The role of calcium in cell death. Life Sci 29:1289, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hunt, D, Humes HD, Weinberg JM: Alterations of cell cation homeostasis during ischemic injury to isolated rabbit tubules (abstract). Kidney Int 25:231, 1984.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Weinberg JM, Humes HD, Hunt D: Anoxic injury to the renal tubule (abstract). Kidney Int 27:106, 1985.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Naylor WG, Poole-Wilson PA, Williams A: Hypoxia and calcium. J Mol Cell Cardiol 11:683, 1979.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Schieppati A, Van Putten V, Burke T, Schrier R: Anoxia increases calcium influx in rat nephron segments (abstract). Kidney Int 27:237, 1985.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Freudenrich CC, Snowdowne KW, Borle AB: The effect of anoxia on cytosolic free calcium in kidney cells (abstract). Fed Proc 43:769, 1984.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wilson P, Schrier RW: Nephron segment and calcium as determinants of anoxic cell death in primary renal cell cultures. Kidney Int 29:1172–1179, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bonventre JV: Cell response to ischemia. In: K Solez, A Whelton, ed, Acute Renal Failure: Clinical and Morphological Correlations. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1984.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Carafoli E, et al.: A study of Ca ion metabolism in kidney mitochondria during acute uranium intoxication. Lab Inv 25:516–527, 1971.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Borle A, Clark I: Effects of phosphate induced hyperparathyroidism and parathyroidectomy on rat kidney calcium in vivo. Am J Physiol 241:E136, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lehninger A, et al.: Transport and accumulation of calcium in mitochondria. Ann NY Acad Sci 307:160–178, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mergner WJ, et al.: Studies on the pathogenesis of ischemic cell injury. Virchows Arch B [Cell Pathol] 26:17–26, 1977.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Arnold PE, Lumlertgul D, Burke TJ, Schrier RW: In vitro versus in vivo mitochondrial calcium loading in ischemic acute renal failure. Am J Physiol 248 (Renal Fluid Electrolyte Physiol 17):F845–F850, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ardaillou R: Reactive oxygen species: Production and role in the kidney. Am J Physiol 251 (Renal Fluid Electrolyte Physiol 20):F765–F776, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Palier MS, Hoidal JR, Ferris TF: Oxygen free radicals in ischemic acute renal failure in the rat. J Clin Invest 74:1156–1164, 1984.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hansson R, Gustafsson R, Jonsson O, Lundstam S, Pettersson T, Schersten T, Waldenstrom J: Effect of xanthine oxidase inhibition on renal circulation after ischemia. Transplant Proc 14:51–58, 1982.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hansson R, Jonsson O, Lundstam S, Pettersson S, Schersten T, Waldenstrom J: Effects of free radical scavengers on renal circulation after ischaemia in the rabbit. Clin Sci 65:605–610, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Teschan PE, Lawson NL: Studies in acute renal failure. Nephron 3:1, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Thiel G, Wilson DR, Arce ML, et al.: Glycerol-induced hemoglobinuric acute renal failure in the rat: II. The experimental model, predisposing factors, and pathophysiologic features. Nephron 4:276, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Schrier RW, Conger JD: Acute renal failure: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. In: RW Schrier, ed, Renal and Electrolyte Disorders, 3rd ed. Boston: Little, Brown, pp 423–460, 1986.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Cronin RE, et al.: Pathogenic mechanism in early nore-pinephrine-induced acute renal failure. Functional and histological correlates of protection. Kidney Int 14:115, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    de Torrente A, et al.: Effects of furosemide and acetylcholine in norepinephrine-induced acute renal failure. Am J Physiol 235:F131, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mauk RH, Patak RV, Fadem SZ, Lifschitz MD, Stein JH: Studies on the effect of prostaglandin E administration in a nephrotoxic and a vasoconstrictor model of acute renal failure. Kidney Int 12:122, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Old CW, Duarte CM, Seidlecki LM, et al.: Effects of mannitol in the prevention of radiocontrast acute renal failure in patients with pre-existing chronic renal failure. Proc Am Soc Nephrol 14:31A, 1981.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Powers SR, Bora A, Hostnik W, et al.: Prevention of postoperative acute renal failure with mannitol in 100 cases. Surgery 55:15–23, 1965.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Judson F, Eneas MD, Schoenfeld PY, Humphreys MH: The effect of infusion of mannitol-sodium bicarbonate on the clinical course of myoglobinuria. Arch Intern Med 139:801–805, 1979.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Klinenberg JR, Bluestone R, Schlosstein L, Waisman J, Whitehouse MW: Urate deposition disease. How is it regulated and how can it be modified? Ann Intern Med 78:99–111, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    McMartin KE, et al.: Methanol poisoning in human subjects: Role for formic acid accumulation in the metabolic acidosis. Am J Med 68:414, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Blackshear JL, Davidman M, Stillman T: Identification of risk for renal insufficiency from nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Arch Intern Med 143:1130, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kimberly RP, et al.: Reduction of renal function by newer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Am J Med 64:804, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Arisz L, et al.: The effect of indomethacin on proteinuria and kidney function in the nephrotic syndrome. Acta Med Scand 199:121, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Zipser RD, et al.: Prostaglandins: Modulators of renal function and pressor resistance in chronic liver disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 48:895, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Reymann MT, Bradac JA, Coggs CG, Dismukes WE: Correlation of aminoglycoside dosages with serum concentrations during therapy of serious gram-negative bacillary disease. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 16:353–361, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Moore RD, Smith CR, Lipsky JJ, Mellits ED, Lietman PS: Risk factors for nephrotoxicity in patients treated with aminoglycosides. Ann Intern Med 100:352–357, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Sawyers CL, Moore RD, Lerner SA, Smith CR: A model for predicting nephrotoxicity in patients treated with aminoglycosides. J Infect Dis 153:1062, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Billhardt RA, Rosenbush SW: Cardiogenic and hypovolemic shock. Med Clin North Am 70:853–876, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Karlson KE, Garzon AA, Shaftan GW, Chu CJ: Increased blood loss associated with administration of certain plasma expanders: Dextran 75, dextran 40, and hydroxyethyl starch. Surgery 62: 670, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Dzau VJ: Renal and circulatory mechanisms in congestive heart failure. Kidney Int 31:1402–1415, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Teschan PE, Baxter CR, O’Brien TF, et al.: Prophylactic hemodialysis in the treatment of acute renal failure. Ann Int Med 59:992, 1960.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Conger JD: A controlled evaluation of prophylactic dialysis in posttraumatic acute renal failure. J Trauma 15:1056, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Silva H, Pomery J, Rae AI, Rosen SM, Shaldon S: Daily haemodialysis in “hypercatabolic” acute renal failure. Br Med J 2:407, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Walsh A, O’Dwyer WF, Woodcock JA, Doyle G, Barry AP: Earlier dialysis in renal failure. Br J Urol 33:43, 1961.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Parsons FM, Hobson SM, Blagg CR, McCracken BH: Optimum time for dialysis in acute reversible renal failure. Description and value of an improved dialzyer with large surface area. Lancet 1:129, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kleinknecht D, Jungers P, Chanard J, Barband C, Ganeval D: Uremic and non-uremic complications in acute renal failure: Evaluation of early and frequent dialysis on prognosis. Kidney Int: 190, 1972.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Easterling RE, Forland M: A five year experience with prophylactic dialysis for acute renal failure. Trans Am Soc Artif Int Organs 10:200, 1964.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Fischer RP, Griffin WO Jr, Clark DS: Early dialysis in the treatment of acute renal failure. Surg Gynecol Obstet 123:1019, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Gillum DM, Dixon BS, Yanover MJ, et al.: The role of intensive dialysis in acute renal failure. Clin Nephrol 25:249–255, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Berlyne GM, Bazzard FJ, Booth EM: The dietary treatment of acute renal failure. Q J Med 36:59–83, 1967.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Abel RM, Beck CH, Abbott WM, Ryan JA, Barnett OG, Fischer JE: Improved survival from acute renal failure after treatment with intravenous essential L-amino acids and glucose. N Engl J Med 288:695, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Baek SM, Makaboli GG, Bryan-Brown CW: The influence of parenteral nutrition on the course of acute renal failure. Surg Gynecol Obstet 141:405–408, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Freund H, Harmian S, Fischer JE: Comparative studies of parenteral nutrition in renal failure using essential and nonessential amino acid containing solutions. Surg Gynecol Obstet 151:652–656, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Feinstein EI, Blumenkrantz MJ, Healy M, et al.: Clinical and metabolic responses to parenteral nutrition in acute renal failure. Medicine 6:124, 1981.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kopple JD: Acute renal failure: Conservative, non-dialytic management. In: RJ Glassock, ed, Current Therapy in Nephrology and Hypertension, 1984–1985. CV Mosby, St. Louis, pp 236–242, 1984.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Borah MF, Schoenfeld PY, Gotch FA, et al.: Nitrogen balance during intermittent dialysis therapy of uremia. Kidney Int 14:491, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Wesson DE, Mitch WE, Wilmore W: Nutritional considerations in the treatment of acute renal failure. In: BM Brenner, JM Lazarus, eds, Acute Renal Failure. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 618–642, 1983.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Blackburn GL, Desai SP, Keenan RA, et al.: Clinical use of branched chain amino acid enriched solution in the stressed and injured patients. In: M Walser, JR Williamson, eds, Metabolism and Clinical Implications of Branched Chain Amino and Ketoacids, Vol 18. Elsevier/North Holland, pp 521–526, 1981.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Freund HR, Lapidot A, Fischer JE: The use of branched chain amino acids in the injured septic patient. In: M Walser, JR Williamson, eds, Metabolism and Clinical Implications of Branched Chain Amino and Ketoacids, Vol 18. Elsevier/North Holland, pp 527–532, 1981.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Goldberg AL, Tischler ME: Regulatory effects of leucine on carbohydrate and protein metabolism. In: M Walser, JR Williamson, eds, Metabolism and Clinical Implications of Branched Chain Amino and Ketoacids, Vol 18. Elsevier/ North Holland pp 205–216, 1981.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Mitch WE, Walser M, Sapir DG: Nitrogen sparing induced by leucine compared with that induced by its ketoanalogue alpha ketoisocaproate, in fasting obese man. J Clin Invest 67:553, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Golper TA: Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration in acute renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 6:373–386, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kaplan AA: Predilution versus postdilution for continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 31:1985.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Paganini EP, O’Hara P, Nakamoto S: Slow continuous ultrafiltration in hemodialysis resistant oliguric acute renal failure patients. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 30:173–177, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Henrich WL, Woodard TD, Blachley JD, et al.: Role of osmolality in blood pressure stability after dialysis and ultrafiltration. Kidney Int 18:480–488, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Swartz RD, Somermeyer MG, Hsu CH: Preservation of plasma volume during hemodialysis depends on dialysate osmolality. Am J Nephrol 2:189–194, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Bergstrom J, Asaba H, Furst P, et al.: Dialysis, ultrafiltration and blood pressure. Proc Eur Dial Transpl Assoc 13:293–305, 1976.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Bartlett RH, Mault JR, Dechert RE, Palmer J, Swartz RD, Port FK: Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration: Improved survival in surgical acute renal failure? Surgery 100:400–408, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Thomas F, Burke JP, Parker J, Orme JT, Gardner RM, Clemmer TP, Hill GA, MacFarlane P: The risk of infection related to radial vs. femoral sites for arterial catheterization. Crit Care Med 11:807, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Russell JA, Joel M, Hudson RJ, Mangano DT, Schlobohm RM: Prospective evaluation of radial and femoral artery catheterization sites in critically ill adults. Crit Care Med 11:936, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Gurman GM, Kriemerman S: Cannulation of big arteries in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 13:217, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Soderstrom CA, Wasserman DH, Dunham CM, Caplan ES, Cowley RA: Superiority of the femoral artery for monitoring: A prospective study. Am J Surg 144:309, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Puri VK, Carlson RW, Bander JJ, Weil MH: Complications of vascular catheterization in the critically ill. A prospective study. Crit Care Med 8:495, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Ulbricht CJ: Vascular access for CAVH Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Acute Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy, pp 23–26, 1987.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Golper TA, Wedel SK, Kaplan AA, et al.: Drug removal during continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration: Theory and clinical observations. Int J Artif Organs 8:307, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Geronemus R, Schneider N: Continuous arteriovenous hemodialysis (abstract). Blood Purif 2:209, 1984.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Ing TS, Purandare VV, Daugirdas JT, et al.: Slow continuous hemodialysis. Int J Artif Organs 7:53, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Paganini EP, Nakamoto S: Continuous slow ultrafiltration in oliguric renal failure. Trans Am Soc Artif Int Organs 26:201, 1980.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Firmat J, Zucchini A: Peritoneal dialysis in acute renal failure. In: Trevino-Becerra A, Boen FS, eds, Today’s Art of Peritoneal Dialysis. Vol 17, Contributions to Nephrology. S Karger, Basel, p 33, 1979.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Alarconon Zurita A, Torre Carballada MA, Sanchez Casajus A, et al.: Complicaciones de la dialisis peritoneal. Revta Clin Esp 137:315, 1975.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Aye MM, Kulatilake AK, Shackman R: Peritoneal dialysis in surgery. In: DN Kerr, et al., eds, Proceedings of the European Dialysis Transplant Association, Vol 2. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, p 49, 1965.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Barry KG, Schwartz FD, Hano JE, et al.: Peritoneal dialysis: Current applications and recent developments. In: Proceedings of the Third International congress on Nephrology. Karger, Basel p 288, 1966.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Cameron JS, Ogg C, Trounce JR: Peritoneal dialysis in hypercatabolic acute renal failure. Lancet 1:1188, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Derot M, Legrain M, Jacobs C: Indications respectives du rein artificiel et de la dialyse peritoneale dans le traitement de l’insuffisance renale aigue (a propos 537 observations). In: DN Kerr, et al. eds, Proceedings of the European Dialysis Transplant Association, Vol 2. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, p 44, 1965.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Odel HM, Ferris DO, Power MH: Peritoneal lavage as an effective means of extrarenal excretion. Am J Med 9:63, 1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Orofino L, Lampreabe I, Muniz R, et al.: Supervivencia del fracaso renal agudo (FRA) sometido a dialisis. Revision de 82 pacientes. Revta Clin Esp 141:155, 1976.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Rentero R, Vidaur F, Naranjo P, et al.: Nuestra experiencia en 191 casos de insufficiencia renal aguda. Revta Clin Esp 140:243, 1976.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Stott RB, Ogg CS, Cameron JS, Bewick M: Why the persistently high mortality in acute renal failure? Lancet 2:75, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Tzamaloukas AH, Garella S, Chazan JA: Peritoneal dialysis for acute renal failure after major abdominal surgery. Arch Surg (London) 106:639, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Vaamonde CA, Michael UF, Metzger RA, Carroll KE: Complications of acute peritoneal dialysis. J Chron Dis 28:637, 1975.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Vitacco M, Medilaharzu RY, Caletti MG: Dialisis peritoneal en pediatria. Editorial Ergon, Buenos Aires, 1975.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Upadhyaya K, Barwick K, Fishaut M, et al.: The importance of non-renal involvement in hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Pediatrics 65(1):115, 1979.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Brown ST, Ahearn DJ, Nolph KD: Potassium removal with peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 4:67, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Dixon SR, McKean WI, Pryor JE, Irvine ROH: Changes in acid base balance during peritoneal dialysis with fluid containing lactate ions. Clin Sci 39:51, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Hayat JC: Treatment of lactic acidosis in the diabetic patient by peritoneal dialysis using sodium acetate. A report of cases. Diabetologia 10:485, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Sheppard JM, Lawrence JR, Oon RCS, et al.: Lactic acidosis recovery associated with use of peritoneal dialysis. Aust N ZJ Med 4:389, 1972.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Anagnostou A, Kurtzman NA: Hematological consequences of renal failure. In: BM Brenner, FC Rector eds, The Kidney WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1631–1656, 1986.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Hamet P, Stouder DA, Ginn E, et al.: Studies on the elevated extracellular concentration of cyclic AMP in uremic men.J Clin Invest 56:339, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Remuzzi G, Marchesi D, Livio M, Schieppati A, Mecca G, Donati MD, de Gaetano G: Prostaglandins, plasma factors, and hemostasis in uremia. In: G Remuzzi, G Mecca, G de Gaetano, eds, Hemostasis, Prostaglandin and Renal Disease. Raven Press, New York, p 273, 1980.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Howard MA, Whitworth JA, Hendrix LE, Thomas CB, Firkin BG: Abnormal factor VIII in chronic renal failure. Med J Aust 1:148, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Kleinknecht D, Jungers P, Channard J, Barbanel C, Ganeval D, Rondon-Nucete M: Factors influencing immediate prognosis in acute renal failure, with special references to prophylactic hemodialysis. Adv Nephrol 1:207, 1971.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Kerr DNS: Acute renal failure. In: DAK Black, NF Jones eds, Renal Disease. Blackwell Oxford, p 437, 19Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Janson PA, Jubeliner SJ, Weinstein MS, Peykin D. Treatment of bleeding tendency in uremia with cryoprecipitate. N Engl J Med 303:1318, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Mannucci PM, Remuzzi G, Pusiwerei F, et al.: Deamino-8-arginine vasopressin shortens the bleeding time in uremia. N Engl J Med 308:8, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Shapiro MD, Kelleher SP: Intransasal deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin shortens the bleeding time in uremia. Am J Nephrol 4:260, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Livio M, Mannucci PM, Vigano G, et al.: Conjugated estrogens for the management of bleeding associated with renal failure. N Engl J Med 315:731, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Pinnick RV, Wiegmann TB, Diederich DA: Regional citrate anticoagulation for hemodialysis in the patient at high risk for bleeding. N Engl J Med 308:258–261, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Morita Y, Johnson RW, Dorn RE, et al.: Regional anticoagulation during hemodialysis using citrate. Am J Med Sci 242:32–42, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Wiegmann TB, MacDougall ML, Diederich DA; Long-term comparisons of citrate and heparin as anti-coagulants for hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 9:430–435, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Schwab SJ, Onorato JJ, Sharar LR, Dennis PA: Hemodialysis without anticoagulation. Am J Med 83:405, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Cameron JS: Acute renal failure in the intensive care unit today. Intens Care Med 12:64–70, 1986.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Finn WF: Recovery from acute renal failure. In: BM Brenner, JM Lazarus, eds, Acute Renal Failure. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 753–774, 1983.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Corwin HL, Bonventre JV: Acute renal failure. Med Clin North Am 70:1037, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Routh GS, Briggs JD, Mone JG, Ledingham JMH: Survival from acute renal failure with and without multiple organ dysfunction. Postgrad Med J 56:244, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Moyer C, Cena AF, Chenier R, et al.: Multiple systems failure II. Death predictors in the trauma septic state. The most critical determinants. J Trauma 81: 862, 1981.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Fry DE, Garrison RN, Heitsch RC, Calhoun K, Polk HC, Jr: Determinants of death in patients with intra-abdominal abscess. Surgery 88:517, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Pine RW, Wertz MJ, Lennard ES, Dellinger EP, Carnico CJ, Minshers BH: Determinants of organ malfunction or death in patients with intra-abdominal sepsis. A discriminant analysis. Arch Surg 118:242, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Milligan SL, Luft FC, McMurray SD, Kleit SA: Intraabdominal infection and acute renal failure. Arch Surg 113:467, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Kornhall S. Acute renal failure in surgical disease with special regard to neglected complications. Acta Chir Scan Supp 419:7, 1971.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Dobbelstein H: Immune system in uremia. Nephron 17:409, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Zech P, Bouletreau R, Moskovtchenko JF, Bernard M, Favre-Bulle S, Blanc-Brunat N, Traeger J. Infection in acute renal failure. In: J Hamburger, J Crosnier, MH Maxwell, eds, Advances in Nephrology, Vol 1. Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, 1971.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Emanuel M, Metcalf RG; Quadriplegia in hyperkalemia. J Maine Med Assoc 157:134, 1966.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Epstein FH: Signs and symptoms of electrolyte disorders. In: MH Maxwell, CR Kleeman, eds, Clinical Disorders of Fluid and Electrolyte Metabolism. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Massry SG, Arieff AI, Coburn JW, Palmieri G, Kleeman CR: Divalent ion metabolism in patients with acute renal failure. Studies on the mechanism of hypocalcemia. Kidney Int 5:437, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Grossman HH, Lange H: Hypercalcemia in acute renal failure. Annals Intern Med 69:1332, 1969.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    deTorrente A, Berl T, Cohn PD, Kawamoto E, Hertz P, Schrier RW: Hypercalcemia of acute renal failure: Clinical significance and pathogenesis. Am J Med 61:119, 1976.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Llach F, Felsenfeld AJ, Haussler MR: The pathophysiology of altered calcium metabolism in rhabdomyolysis-induced acute renal failure. Interactions of parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and 1,25 dihydroxycholecal-ciferol. N Engl J Med 305:117–123, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Pietrek J, Kokot F, Kuska J: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone in patients with acute renal failure. Kidney Int 13:178, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • David M. Gillum
  • John D. Conger
  • Robert J. Anderson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations