Arctic Ocean Bryozoa

  • Valentina I. Gontar
  • Nina V. Denisenko


Bryozoans (Bryozoa, Polyzoa, Ectoprocta) are aquatic colonial animals. A few kinds live in fresh water (class Phylactolaemata) while the majority are marine (class Gymnolaemata and Stenolaemata). The phylum contains over 4,000 living species and about 15,000 extinct species. The colonies are formed by asexual reproduction from one individual, the ancestrula, that arises through metamorphosis of the larva developed by sexual reproduction. The bryozoan colony, the zoarium, is almost always firmly attached to the substratum and can be ramified, lobed, fan-shaped, and very frequently have the appearance of crusts covering the substratum. The size of colonies vary from several millimeters to several decimeters. The colonies consist of individuals, the zooids. Bryozoans are bilaterally symmetrical, coelomic, protostomian animals. As a result of their sessile and colonial way of life, their organization has undergone profound changes in different subclasses.


Arctic Ocean Arctic Species North American Coast Bryozoan Fauna Biogeographic Group 
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© Van Nostrand Reinhold 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valentina I. Gontar
  • Nina V. Denisenko

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