An Experimental Study of Free Convection in Horizontal Tubes with Different end Temperatures
Several kinds of cryogenic apparatuses employ horizontal vent tubes. This paper examines the gravity-induced flow in long horizontal tubes having ends maintained at different temperatures, i.e. one end cooled and one at room temperature. Two cases are tested: (1) when the cold end is open to the cryogenic fluid reservoir and (2) when both ends are closed. The temperature distribution along the tube wall is measured and the flow pattern visualized. The measurements demonstrate that a considerable amount of heat is transported by free convection from the end at room temperature to the cold end. The results are compared with analytical expressions.
KeywordsConvection Helium Smoke
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