Cooling of High Power Density Electronic Chips

  • G. M. Chrysler
  • R. C. Chu
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 35)

Abstract

The first part of this paper presents a summary of cooling technology for high power density electronic chips at room temperature. Both immersion and conduction cooling techniques are included. The second part of this paper is a survey of low temperature cooling technology for electronics as published by both university researchers and industry practitioners. The final part of the paper is an outline of a logical extension of room temperature cooling technology to the liquid nitrogen temperature regime. Emphasis is placed on a possible extrapolation of cooling capabilities based on room temperature models to low temperature applications. This paper draws input entirely from published information as listed in the references.

Keywords

Convection Helium Expense Boiling Refrigeration 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A. Bar-Cohen, I. Mudawwar, and B. Whalen, in “Research Needs in Electronic Cooling”, F. P. Incropera, ed, National Science Foundation and Purdure University, Andover, Massachusetts, (1986), p. 70.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. K. Kirschman, P. J. Kerney, R. C. Longsworth, J. R. Olson, and R. V. Schurter, Refrigeration for Electronics: Summary of a Panel Session, in: “Advances in Cryogenic Engineering”, Vol. 33, Plenum Press, New York, (1987), p. 683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. K. Chan, Survey of Cooling Techniques for Electronic and Sensor Devices in: “Proceedings of the Symposium on Low Temperature Electronics and High Temperature Superconductors”, Honolulu, Hawaii, (1987), p. 219.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. J. Krane, J. R. Parsons, and A. Bar-Cohen, Design of a Candidate Thermal Control System for a Cryogenically-Cooled Computer, in: “1988 Proceedings: InterSociety Conference on Thermal Phenomena in the Fabrication and Operation of Electronic Components”, Los Angeles, California, (1988), p. 115.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. C. Chu, IJ. P. Hwang, and R. E. Simons, Conduction Cooling for an LSI Package: A One- Dimensional Approach, IBM Journal of Research and Development 26:45 (1982). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. D. Danielson, N. Krajewski, and J. Brost Cooling a Supcrfast Computer, in: “Electronic Packaging and Production”, 26:44 (1986).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    K.-A. Park, and A. E. Bergles, “Heat Transfer Characteristics of Simulated Microelectronic Chips under Normal and Enhances Conditions”, ISU-ERI-Ames-86211, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, (1985).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    T. Fujii, and M. Fujii, The Dependence of Local Nusselt Number on Prandtl Number in the Case of Free Convection along a Vertical Surface with Uniform Heat Flux, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 19:121 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    C.-J. Kim, and A. E. Bergles, “Structured Surfaces for Enhanced Nucleate Boiling”, ISU-ERI-Ames-86220, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, (1985).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    L, M. Jiji et al., “Feasibility of Multi-Jet Impingement Cooling of an Array of Microelectronic Heat Sources”, First Annual Report, IBM Research Agreement No. 673, CCNY, New York, New York, (1986). Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. M. Jiji et al., “Boiling Jet Impingement Cooling of Microelectronic Heat Sources”, Second Annual Report, IBM Research Agreement No. 673, CCNY, New York, New York, (1987). Google Scholar
  12. D. F. Moffatt et al., “Enhancement of Convective Heat Transfer from Miniature Heat Sources”, First Annual Report, IBM Research Agreement No. 587, Purdue University, West Iafayette, Indiana, (1985). Google Scholar
  13. T. R. Craig, S. Ramadhyani, and F. P. Incropera, “Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop for High Density Staggered Pin Fin Arrays”, Final Report, IBM Research Agreement No. 587, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, (1987). Google Scholar
  14. D. Maddox, and I. Mudawar, “Enhancement of Forced Convection Boiling from a Simulated Microelectronic Heat Source in a Rectangular Channel”, Final Report, IBM Research Agreement No. 672, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, (1988). Google Scholar
  15. T. M. Anderson, and I. Mudawar, “Enhancement of Pool Boiling from a Simulated Microelectronic Heat Source”, Final Report - Part II, IBM Research Agreement No. 672, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, (1988). Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. Beduz, R. G. Scurlock, and A. J. Sousa, Angular Dependence of Boiling Heat Transfer Mechanisms in liquid Nitrogen, in: “1987 Joint Cryogenic Engineering Conference/International Cryogenic Materials Conference”, St. Charles, Illinois, (1987), p. 363.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    N. Kamehara, K. Yokouchi, and K. Niwa, Studies on Immersion Cooling for High Density Packaging, in: “ISHM Proceedings of the International Symposium on Microelectronics”, Minneapolis, Minnesota, (1987), p. 175.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    K. Yokouchi et al., High-Capability Coolant for Cryogenic Devices, in: “NEPCON EAST”, Boston, Massachusette, (1989), p. 1023.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    T. J. Crowley et al., Convective Boiling of Nitrogen on a Short Vertical Surface, in: “1988 Proceedings: InterSociety Conference on Thermal Phenomena in the Fabrication and Operation of Electronic Components”, Los Angeles, California, (1988), p. 127.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. M. Chrysler
    • 1
  • R. C. Chu
    • 1
  1. 1.MIIV Development Laboratory Data Systems DivisionIBM CorporationPoughkeepsieUSA

Personalised recommendations