Infertility pp 133-143 | Cite as

Immune Factors and Infections in Infertility

  • Melvin L. Taymor


For many years the role of immune factors in infertility had been a subject of controversy. However, in the last few years, with the availability of more precise and more specific tests for sperm antibodies, this relationship has been placed on a much firmer basis, and few can now question the fact that such a relationship does exist.


Phenol Corticosteroid Gelatin Prednisolone Tetracycline 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Landsteiner K: Zur kenntnis der spezifisch auf blutorperchen wirkenden sera. Zentralbl Bakteriol 25:546, 1899Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Metchnikoff S: Etudes sur la resorption des cellules. Ann Inst Pasteur Lille, 13:737, 1899Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Behrman SJ: The immune response and infertility. In Behrman SJ, Kistner RW, Patton GW Jr (eds): Progress in Infertility, 2nd ed. Boston, Little, Brown, 1975, pp 793–815Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wilson L: Sperm agglutinins in human semen and blood. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 85:652, 1954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Franklin RR, Dukes CI: Antispermatozoal antibody and unexplained infertility. Am J Obstet Gynecol 89:6, 1964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tyler A, Tyler ET, Denny PC: Concepts and experiments in immunoreproduction. Fertil Steril 18:153, 1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shulman S, Jackson H, Stone ML: Antibodies to spermatozoa: VI. Comparative studies of sperm agglutinating activity in groups of infertile and fertile women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 123:139, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ansbacher R: Sperm antibodies and infertility. Fertil Steril 36:446, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mathur S, Williamson HO, Baker ME, et al: Sperm motility on postcoital testing correlates with male autoimmunity to sperm. Fertil Steril 41:81, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mathur S, Baker ER, Williamson HO, Derrick FC, Teague KS, Fudenberg HH: Clinical significance of sperm antibodies in infertility. Fertil Steril 33:239, 1980Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bronson R, Cooper G, Rosenfeld D: Sperm antibodies and their role in infertility. Fertil Steril 42:171, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mandelbaum S, Diamond M, DeCherney A: Relationship of antisperm antibodies to oocyte fertilization in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 47:644, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bronson RA, Cooper GW, Rosenfeld DC: Sperm-specific antibodies and autoantibodies inhibit the bonding of human sperm to the human zona pellucida. Fertil Steril 38:724, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jones WJ: Immunology and infertility. In Behrman SJ, Kistner RW, Patton GW Jr (eds): Progress in Infertility, 3rd ed. Boston, Little, Brown, 1988, p 751Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bronson RA, Cooper GW, Rosenfeld DC: Autoimmunity to spermatozoa: Effect in sperm penetration of cervical mucus as reflected by post-coital testing. Fertil Steril 41:609, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sudo N, Shulman S, Stone ML: Sperm agglutination phenomenon in cervical mucus in vitro: A possible cause of infertility. Am J Obstet Gynecol 129:360, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schumacher GFB: Immunologic factors in infertility: Antibodies against spermatozoa. J Reprod Med 23:272, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shreiber AD: Clinical immunology of corticosteroid. Prog Clin Immunol 3:103, 1977Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shulman JF, Shulman S: Methylprednisone treatment of immunologic infertility in the male. Fertil Steril 38:591, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hendry WF, Stedronska J, Parslow J, Hughes L: The results of intermittent high dose steroid therapy for male infertility due to antisperm antibodies. Fertil Steril 36:351, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hendry WF, Trechuba K, Hughes L, et al: Cyclic prednisolone therapy for male infertility associated with autoantibodies to spermatozoa. Fertil Steril 45:249, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Smarr SC, Wing L, Hammond MG: Effect of therapy on infertile couples with antisperm antibodies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 158:969, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ackerman SB, Graff D, Van Clem J, Swanson RJ, Veeck LL, Acosta AA, Garcia JE: Immunologic infertility and in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 42:474, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sweet RC: Pelvic infections in infertility. In Behrman SJ, Kistner RW, Patton GW Jr (eds): Progress in Infertility, 3rd ed. Boston, Little, Brown, 1988, p 37Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Viberg L: Acute inflammatory conditions of the uterus adnexa. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 43(Suppl 4):5, 1964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kane JL, Woodland RM, Forsey T, Darougay, Elder MG: Evidence of chlamydial infection on infertile women and without fallopian tube obstruction. Fertil Steril 42:843, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Moss TR, Hawkswell J: Evidence of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease: Value of partner investigation. Fertil Steril 41:429, 1986Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hartford SL, Silva PS, diZerega GS, Yanekura ML: Serologic evidence of prior chlamydial infection in patients with tubal ectopic pregnancy and contralateral tubal disease. Fertil Steril 47:118, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Svenson L, Westrom L, Ripa K, et al: Differences in some clinical and laboratory parameters in acute salpingitis related to culture and serologic findings. Am J Obstet Gynecol 138:1017, 1980Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gnarpe H, Friberg J: Mycoplasma and human reproductive failure: I. The occurrence of different mycoplasmas in couples with reproductive failure. Obstet Gynecol 114:727, 1972Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Friberg J, Gnarpe H: Mycoplasma and human reproductive failure: III. Pregnancies in “infertile” couples treated with doxycyline for T-mycoplasma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 116:23, 1973Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kundsin RB: Mycoplasma infections of the female genital tract. In Taymor ML, Green TH (eds): Progress in Gynecology. New York, Grune and Stratton, 1976, p 291Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Horne HW, Hertig AT, Kundsin RB, Kosasa TS: Subclinical endometrial inflammation and T-mycoplasma. Int J Fertil 18:226, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gnarpe H: T-mycoplasma on spermatozoa and infertility. Nature 245:97, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fowlkes DM, Dooher GB, O’Leary WM: T-mycoplasma and human infertility. Correlation of infection with alternatives in seminal parameters. Fertil Steril 26:1212, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fowlkes DM, Macleod J, O’Leary WM: Evidence by scanning electron microscopy for an association between spermatozoa and T-mycoplasmas in men of infertile marriage. Fertil Steril 26:1203,1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Adler HE: Mycoplasmosis in animals. Adv Vet Sci Comp Med 10:205, 1965Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dunlop EMC, Hare M J, Jones BR, Robinson DT: Mycoplasmas and non-specific genital infection: II. Clinical aspects. Br J Vener Dis 45:274, 1969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    DeLouvois J, Stanley VC, Leak BG: Ecological studies of the microbial flora of the female generative tract. Proc Soc Med 68:269, 1975Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Matthews CD, Elmslie AR, Clapp, KH, Svigos JJ: Frequency of genital mycoplasma infection in human fertility. Fertil Steril 26:988, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schowb BC, Jacobs YR, Hylen E, Freedman R: The role of mycoplasma in human infertility. S Am Med J 50:445–447, 1976Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hayflick L: Tissue cultures and mycoplasmas. Tex Rep Biol Med 23 (Suppl 1): 285, 1965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Shepard MC, Luneford CD: Differential agar medium for identification of T-mycoplasma in primary cultures. Bacteriol Proc 83, 1970Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Idriss WM, Patton WC, Taymor ML: On the etiologic role of Ureaplasma urealyticum (T-mycoplasma) infection in infertility. Fertil Steril 30:293, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nagata Y, Iwasaka T, Wada T: Mycoplasma infection and infertility. Fertil Steril 31:392, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Robinson TD: Evaluation of role of Ureaplasma urealyticum in the female genital tract. Pediatr Infect Dis J 5:S262, 1986CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melvin L. Taymor
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations