Sleep State and Periodic Respiration

  • Allan I. Pack
  • Allan Gottschalk
  • Michael Cola
  • Adrian Goldszmidt


Periodic breathing occurs commonly in stage 1–2 non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep.1–4 When pronounced, apnea may occur at the nadir of ventilation. Thus, sleep apnea may be considered as a severe form of periodic breathing (see discussion, ref. 5). The degree of periodic breathing, however, varies with sleep stage. This was recognized in early, relatively qualitative studies.1,2 Recent quantitative studies in our laboratory have both confirmed and extended such earlier observations.4 The results of these studies led us to the hypothesis that oscillations in ventilation were secondary to oscillations in sleep state. Thus, in addition to the experimental studies, we have performed a theoretical study to determine the implications of the coupling between sleep state and ventilatory drive.


Sleep Apnea Sleep Stage Sleep Onset Ventilatory Response Sleep State 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allan I. Pack
    • 1
  • Allan Gottschalk
    • 2
  • Michael Cola
    • 1
  • Adrian Goldszmidt
    • 1
  1. 1.Pulmonary Section, Department of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiaUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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