Advertisement

Biochemical Adaptations to Anoxia in Rice and Echinochloa Seeds

  • Robert A. Kennedy
  • Theodore C. Fox
  • Leslie D. Dybiec
  • Mary E. Rumpho
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 187)

Abstract

The genus Echinochloa contains some of the most well studied flood tolerant plant species. These plants are interesting for their extreme flood tolerance, their economic importance as weeds in numerous crops around the world, particularly in rice (Oryza sativa [L.]), and because they represent a complete spectrum of flood tolerance within one genus (Barrett and Wilson, 1981, Kennedy et al., 1987b). Of the five species studied here, E. phyllopogon (Stev.) Koss and E. oryzoides (Ard.) Fritsch Clayton are flood tolerant and confined to aquatic environments. E. muricata (Beauv.) Fern is semi-tolerant and found along streambanks, whereas E. crus- galli (L.) Beauv. and E. crus- pavonis (H.B.K.) Schult. are intolerant and found only in drier sites (Barrett and Wilson, 1981). In nature, these species can all be found in or around the rice agro-ecosystem. In the laboratory, all of the species except E. crus- pavonis are able to germinate and grow in a strict N2 atmosphere, as does rice.

Keywords

Anaerobic Condition Flood Tolerance Barnyard Grass Seed Reserve Substrate Level Phosphorylation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bailey-Serres J., Kloeckener-Gruissem, B., and Freeling, M., 1988, Genetic and molecular approaches to the study of the anaerobic response and tissue specific gene expression in maize, Plant Cell Environ. , 11:351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barrett, S. C. H., and Wilson, B. F., 1981, Colonizing ability in the Echinochloa crus-qallicomplex (barnyardgrass). I. Variation in life history, Can. J. Bot. , 59:1844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bewley, J. D., and Black, M., 1983, “Physiology and Biochemistry of Seeds in Relation to Germination,” Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  4. Bozarth, C. S., 1983, Greening and photosynthesis in anaerobically grown Echinochloa crus-cralliand Oryza sativaafter exposure to air. Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, Pullman, WA.Google Scholar
  5. Cobb, B. G., and Kennedy, R. A., 1987, Distribution of alcohol dehydrogenase in roots and shoots of rice ( Orvza sativa) and Echinochloaseedlings, Plant Cell Environ. , 10:633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crawford, R. M. M., 1977, Tolerance of anoxia and ethanol metabolism in germinating seeds, New Phytol. , 79: 511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Everard, J. D., and Kennedy, R. A., 1985, Physiology of lipid metabolism during anaerobic germination of Echinochloa crus-qallivar. oryzicola, Plant Physiol. , 77:S-98.Google Scholar
  8. Fox, T. C., and Kennedy, R. A., 1988, Modeling of energy requirements for growth of barnyard grass seedlings under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, Plant Physiol. , 86:S-54.Google Scholar
  9. Fox, T. C., and Kennedy, R. A., 1989, Mitochondrial enzymes in aerobically and anaerobically germinated seedlings of Echinochloaand rice, Planta(in press).Google Scholar
  10. Hoek, J. B., and Taraschi, T. F., 1988, Cellular adaptation to ethanol, TIBS, 13:269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Jackson, M. B., 1982, An examination of the importance of ethanol in causing injury to flooded plants, Plant Cell Environ. , 8:163.Google Scholar
  12. Kelley, P. M., and Freeling, M., 1984, Anaerobic expression of maize fructose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase, J. Biol. Chem. , 259:14180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kennedy, R. A., Barrett, S. C. H., VanderZee, D., and Rumpho, M.E., 1980, Germination and seedling growth under anaerobic conditions in Echinochloa crus-qalli(barnyard grass), Plant Cell Environ. , 3:243.Google Scholar
  14. Kennedy, R. A., Fox, T. C., Siedow, J. N., 1987a, Activities of isolated mitochondria and mitochondrial enzymes from aerobically and anaerobically germinated barnyard grass ( Echinochloa) seedlings, Plant Physiol. , 85:474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kennedy, R. A., Rumpho, M. E., Fox, T. C., 1987b, Germination physiology of rice and rice weeds: metabolic adaptations to anoxia, in: “Plant Life in Aquatic and Amphibious Habitats,” R. M. M.Crawford, ed., Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.Google Scholar
  16. Kennedy, R. A., Rumpho, M. E., VanderZee, D., 1983, Germination of Echinochloa crus-cralli(barnyard grass) seeds under anaerobic conditions. Respiration and response to metabolic inhibitors, Plant Physiol. , 72: 787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Knowles, L. O., and Kennedy, R. A., 1984, Lipid biochemistry of Echinochloa crus-qalliduring anaerobic germination, Phytochem. , 23:529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Laemmli U. K., 1970, Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4, Nature, 227:680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mocquot, B., Ricard, B., and Pradet, A., 1987, Rice embryos can express heat-shock genes under anoxia, Biochimie, 69:677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mocquot, B., Prat, C., Mouches, C., and Pradet, A., 1981, Effect of anoxia on energy charge and protein synthesis in rice embryo, Plant Physiol. , 68:636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Oliveira, L., 1977, Changes in ultrastructure of mitochondria of roots of Triticalesubjected to anaerobiosis, Protoplasma, 91:267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Penning Vries, F. W. T., Brunsting, A. H. M., van Laar, H. H., 1974, Products, requirements and efficiency of biosynthesis. A quantitative approach, J. Theor. Biol. , 45:339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. de Penning Vries, F. W. T., van Laar, H. H., 1982, Simulation of Plant Growth and Crop Production. Centre for Agricultural Publications and Documentation, Wageningen.Google Scholar
  24. Pradet, A., Mocquot, B., Raymond, P., Morisset, C., Aspart, L., and Delsem, M., 1985, Energy metabolism and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins under anoxic stress, in: “Cellular and Molecular Biology of Plant Stress,” J. L. Key and T. Kusuge, eds., Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  25. Ramagopal, S., 1988, Regulation of protein synthesis in root, shoot and embryonic tissues of germinating barley during salinity stress, Plant Cell Environ. , 11:501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Roberts, J. K. M., Chang, K., Webster, C., Callis, J., and Walbot, V., 1989, Dependence of ethanolic fermentation, cytoplasmic pH regulation, and viability on the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in hypoxic maize root tips, Plant Physiol. , 89:1275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rumpho, M. E., and Kennedy, R. A., 1981, Anaerobic metabolism in germinating seeds of Echinochloa crus-qalli(barnyard grass). Metabolite and enzyme studies, Plant Physiol. , 68:165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rumpho, M. E., and Kennedy, R. A., 1983a, Activity of the pentose phosphate and glycolytic pathways during anaerobic germination of Echinochloa crus-qalli (barnyard grass) seeds, J. Exp. Bot. , 155:1.Google Scholar
  29. Rumpho, M. E., and Kennedy, R. A., 1983b, Anaerobiosis in Echinochloa crus-qalli(barnyard grass) seedlings. Intermediary metabolism and ethanol tolerance, Plant Physiol., 72:44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sachs, M. M., Freeling, M., and Okimoto, R., 1980, The anaerobic proteins of maize, Cell, 20:761.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Smith, A. M., and apRees, T., 1979, Pathways of carbohydrate fermentation in the roots of marsh plants, Planta, 146:327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ueda, K., and Tsuji, H., 1971, Ultrastructural changes of organelles in coleoptile cells during anaerobic germination in rice seeds, Protoplasma, 73:203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. VanderZee, D., and Kennedy, R. A., 1981, Germination and seedling growth in Echinochloa crus-qallivar. oryzicolaunder anoxic germination conditions, Planta, 155:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Vartapetian, B. B., Andreeva, I. N., Kozlova, G. I., and Agapova, L. P., 1977, Mitochondrial ultrastructure in roots of mesophytes and hydrophytes under anoxia after glucose feeding, Protoplasma, 91:243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert A. Kennedy
    • 1
  • Theodore C. Fox
    • 1
  • Leslie D. Dybiec
    • 2
  • Mary E. Rumpho
    • 1
  1. 1.Botany DepartmentUniversity of Maryland College ParkUSA
  2. 2.Horticulture DepartmentOhio State UniversityColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations