Advertisement

Trophoblast Invasion and Placentation in the Human: Morphological Aspects

  • Robert Pijnenborg
Part of the Trophoblast Research book series (TR, volume 4)

Abstract

The evolution of viviparity in mammals has been possible because of the development of placentation, which means the apposition of two vascular systems, maternal and fetal to allow physiological exchanges between the two (Mossman, 1937). That trophoblast invasion is a key phenomenon in this regard has been recognized for many years (Grosser, 1927). The ultimate expression of this evolutionary tendency is found in species with hemochorial placentation which include the human being. It is obvious, however, that the invasive process needs to be restricted or modulated in order to allow a gradual succession of the different developemental steps. Different uterine tissue components need to be penetrated successively i.e., the uterine epithelium (during blastocyst implantation), endometrial stroma and vessels walls in order to reach the hemochorial condition (Pijnenborg et al., 1985). It may well be that for each step specialized trophoblastic cells have to be developed.

Keywords

Trophoblastic Cell Trophoblast Invasion Spiral Artery Uterine Epithelium Cytotrophoblastic Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Boyd, J.D., Hamilton, W.J. (1970) The Human Placent.,Cambridge: W. Heffer, p. 365.Google Scholar
  2. Brosens, I., Robertson, W.B., Dixon, H.G. (1967) The physiological response of the vessels of the placental bed to normal pregnancy. J. Path. Bad.93, 569–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brosens, I., Robertson, W.B., Dixon, H.G. (1972) The role of the spiral arteries in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. In: Obstet. Gynecol. Annua.,(ed.) R. Wynn, New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, pp. 177–191.Google Scholar
  4. Brettner, A. (1964) Zum Verhalten der Sekundaren Wand der Uteroplacentargefasse bei der Decidualen Reaktion. Acta Anat.57, 367–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. De Wolf, F., De Wolf-Peeters, C, Brosens, I. (1973) Ultrastructure of the spiral arteries in the human placental bed at the end of normal pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.117, 833–848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. De Wolf, F., Robertson, W.B., Brosens, I. (1975) The ultrastructure of acute atherosis in hypertensive pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.123, 164–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. De Wolf, F., De Wolf-Peeters, C, Brosens, I., Robertson, W.B. (1980) The human placental bed: Electron microscopic study of trophoblastic invasion of spiral arteries. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.137, 58–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Dunnill, M.S. (1968) Quantitative methods in histology. In: Recent Advances In Clinical Patholog.,(ed.) D Dyke, Edinburgh and London: Churchill Livingstone, pp. 401–416.Google Scholar
  9. Enders, A.C. (1976) Anatomical aspects of implantation. J. Reprod. Fert. Suppl.25, 1–15.Google Scholar
  10. Enders, A.C., Hendrickx, A.G., Schlafke, S. (1983) Implantation in the Rhesus monkey: Initial penetration of endometrium. Am. J. Anat.167, 275–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gerretsen, G., Huisjes, H.J., Elema, J.D. (1981) Morphological changes of the spiral arteries in the placentalbed in relation to pre-eclampsia and fetal growth retardation. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol.88, 876–881.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gerretsen, G., Huisjes, H.J., Hardonk, M.J., Elema, J.D. (1983) Trophoblast alterations in the placental bed in relation to physiological changes in spiral arteries. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol.90, 34–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Grosser, O. (1927) Fruhentwicklung, Eihautbildung und Placentation des Menschen und der Saugetier.,Munchen: J.F. Bergmann Verlag, p. 454.Google Scholar
  14. Hamilton, W.J., Boyd, J.D. (1960) Development of the human placenta in the first three months of gestation. J. Anat.94, 297–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Harris, J.W.S., Ramsey, E.M. (1966) The morphology of human uteroplacental vasculature. Contrib. Embryol.38, 43–58.Google Scholar
  16. Hertig, A.T. (1968) Human Trophoblas.,Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, p. 363.Google Scholar
  17. Heuser, C.H., Streeter, G.L. (1941) Development of the Macaque Embryo. Contrib. Embryol.29, 15–55.Google Scholar
  18. Jenkins, D.M. (1976) Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (Gestosis) and other pregnancy complications with possible immunologic basis. In: Immunology Of Human Reproductio.,(eds.) J.S. Scott, W.R. Jones, New York: Academic Press, pp. 297–328.Google Scholar
  19. Lindenberg, S., Hyttel, P., Lenz, S.,, Holmes, P.V. (1986) Ultrastructure of the early human implantation in vitro. Human Reproductio.1, 533–538.Google Scholar
  20. Moll, W., Kunzel, W., Herberger, J. (1975) Hemodynamic implications of hemochorial placentation. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Reprod. Biol.5, 67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mossman, H.W. (1937) Comparative morphogenesis of the fetal membranes and accessory uterine structures. Contrib. Embryol.26, 129–246.Google Scholar
  22. Park, W.W. (1971) Choriocarcinoma: A Study Of Its Patholog.,London: Heinemann, pp. 13–27.Google Scholar
  23. Pijnenborg, R., Robertson, W.B., Brosens, I. (1975) The role of ovarian steroids in placental development and endovascular trophoblast migration in the golden hamster. J. Reprod. Fert.44, 43–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pijnenborg, R., Dixon, G., Robertson, W.B., Brosens, I. (1980) Trophoblastic invasion of human decidua from 8 to 18 weeks of pregnancy. Placent.1, 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pijnenborg, R., Robertson, W.B., Brosens, I., Dixon, G. (1981a) Review article: Trophoblast invasion and the establishment of haemochorial placentation in man and laboratory animals. Placent.2, 71–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pijnenborg, R., Bland, J.M., Robertson, W.B., Dixon, G., Brosens, I. (1981b) The pattern of interstitial trophoblastic invasion of the myometrium in early human pregnancy. Placent.2, 303–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pijnenborg, R., Bland, J.M., Robertson, W.B., Brosens, I. (1983) Uteroplacental arterial changes related to interstitial trophoblast migration in early human pregnancy. Placent.4, 397–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pijnenborg, R., Robertson, W.B., Brosens, I. (1985) Morphological aspects of placental ontogeny and phylogeny. Placent.6, 155–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Robertson, W.B., Brosens, I., Dixon, H.G. (1967) The pathological response to the vessels of the placental bed to hypertensive pregnancy. J. Path. Bact.93, 581–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Robertson, W.B. Warner, B. (1974) The ultrastructure of the human placental bed. J. Pathol.112,203–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Robertson, W.B., Brosens, I.A., Dixon, H.G. (1981) Maternal blood supply in fetal growth retardation. In: Fetal Growth Retardatio.,(eds.) F.A. Van Assche, W.B. Robertson, M., Renaer, London: Churchill Livingstone, pp. 126–138.Google Scholar
  32. Robertson, W.B., Khong, T.Y., Brosens, I., De Wolf, F., Sheppard, B.L., Bonnar, J. (1986) The placental bed biopsy: Review from three European centers. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.155, 401–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Schlafke, S., Enders, A.C. (1975) Cellular basis of interaction between trophoblast and uterus at implantation. Biol. Reprod.12,41–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sheppard, B.L., Bonnar, J. (1974) The ultrastructure of the arterial supply of the human placenta in early and late pregnancy. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Cwlth.81,497–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sheppard, B.L., Bonnar, J. (1981) An ultrastructural study of uteroplacental spiral arteries in hypertensive and normotensive prenancy and fetal growth retardation. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol.88, 695-705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wood, C. (1964) The expansile behaviour of the human uterus. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Cwlth.71, 615–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wood, C. (1972) Myometrial and tubal physiology. In: >Human Reproductive Physiolog.,(ed.) R.P. Shearman, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 324–;375.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© University of Rochester 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Pijnenborg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyKatholieke UniversiteitLeuvenBelgium

Personalised recommendations