Structures and Phase Transitions in Thermotropic Liquid Crystals

  • Tormod Riste
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 211)


Liquid crystals1 have structural order intermediate between conventional liquids and solids. Thermotropic liquid crystal phases form in pure compounds or homogeneous mixtures as the temperature is changed. Lyotropic liquid crystals form when amphiphilic molecules are dissolved in water, or another suitable solvent, and concentration is the main physical variable. Polymeric liquid crystalline order occurs in fluid polymer melts and solutions. We shall limit our discussion to thermotropic liquid crystals, for which the knowledge is most complete.


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  1. 1.
    >Extensive reviews are given in P.G. de Gennes, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, Oxford U.P., London (1974), and in S. Chandrasekhar, Liquid Crystals, Cambridge U.P., Cambridge (1977).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    >For a recent review, see D.C. Wright and N.D. Mermin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 61, 385 (1989).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.D. Litster and R.J. Birgeneau, Phys. Today 35, 26 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    >J. Als-Nielsen, J.D. Litster, R.J. Birgeneau, M. Kaplan and CR. Safinya, Ordering in Strongly Fluctuating Condensed Matter Systems, T. Riste, ed., Plenum, New York (1980), pp 57 and 357.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    >Fluctuations, Instabilities and Phase Transitions, T. Riste, ed., Plenum, New York and London (1975), p. 1.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tormod Riste
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Energy TechnologyKjellerNorway

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