Surface Studies by SEM and STEM

  • J. A. Venables
  • P. A. Bennett
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 203)


Scanning electron (SEM) and scanning transmission (STEM) electron microscopy are versatile, well established, techniques for characterisation of materials. Other papers in this volume attest to their widespread use for understanding semiconductors, and devices based on these various material combinations. This paper concentrates on studies performed in ultra-high vacuum (UHV), so that clean surfaces can be produced and maintained during the experiments. Under such conditions, several SEM and STEM signals have sensitivity at the monolayer (ML) level, so that true surface studies can be carried out.


Auger Electron Spectroscopy Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction Pattern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J.A. Venables, Ultramicroscopy 7, 81 (1981); in: Chemistry and Physics of Solid Surfaces IV, Eds. R. Vanselow and R. Howe (Springer, Berlin, 1982) Ch. 6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.A. Venables, D.R. Batchelor, M. Hanbücken, C.J. Harland, G.W. Jones, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A318, 243 (1986).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.A. Venables, D.J. Smith and J.M. Cowley, Surface Sci. 181, 235 (1987), and refs. quoted.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    For recent STM conferences proceedings, see Surface Sci. 181 (1987); J. Vac. Sci. Tech. (1988, in press); J. Microscopy (1988, in press).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. Telieps and E. Bauer, Ultramicroscopy 17, 57 (1987); Scanning Microscopy Suppl. 1, 99 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 5.
    W. Telieps, Appl. Phys. A44, 55 (1987); E. Bauer, this volume, and refs. quoted.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    K. Yagi, J. Appl. Cryst. 20, 147 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 7.
    J. A. Venables and G. Cox, Ultramicroscopy 21, 33 (1987) and refs. quoted;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 7.
    C. Mory, C. Colliex and J.M. Cowley, Ultramicroscopy 21, 171 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 8.
    The techniques CBED, EELS and EDX are extensively covered in other papers in this volume.Google Scholar
  11. 9.
    P.A. Bennett, B.N. Halawith and A.P. Johnson, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. A5, 2121 (1987); Phys. Rev. B37, 4268 (1988).Google Scholar
  12. 10.
    M. Ichikawa, T. Doi, M. Ichihashi and K. Hayakawa, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 913 (1984); Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1141 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 11.
    T. Ichinokawa and Y. Ishikawa, Ultramicroscopy 15, 193 (1984);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 11.
    T. Ichinokawa, Y. Ishikawa, M. Kemmochi, N. Ikeda, Y. Hosokawa and J. Kirschner, Scanning Microscopy Suppl. 1, 93 (1987).Google Scholar
  15. 12.
    M. Prutton, R. Browning, M.M. El Gomati and D.C. Peacock, Vacuum 32, 351 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 12.
    M. Prutton and M.M. El Gomati, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 93, 255 (1988).Google Scholar
  17. 13.
    G.D.T. Spiller, P. Akhter and J.A. Venables, Surface Sci. 131, 517 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 14.
    M. Hanbücken, M. Futamoto and J.A. Venables, Surface Sci. 147, 433 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 15.
    M. Futamoto, M. Hanbücken, C.J. Harland, G.W. Jones and J.A. Venables, Surface Sci. 150, 430 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 15.
    C.J. Harland and J.A. Venables, Ultramicroscoy 17, 9 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 15.
    J.A. Venables, Proc. Int. Cong, on Electron Microscopy, Kyoto 1, 75 (1986).Google Scholar
  22. 16.
    C.J. Harland, G.W. Jones, T. Doust and J.A. Venables, Scanning Microscopy Suppl. 1, 109 (1987).Google Scholar
  23. 17.
    G.W. Jones and J.A. Venables, Ultramicroscopy 18, 439 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 18.
    J.A. Venables, T. Doust and R. Kariotis, Materials Research Symp. 94, 3 (1987); to be published.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 19.
    E.J. van Loenen, J.F. van der Veen and F.K. LeGoues, Surface Sci. 157, 1 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 20.
    J.M. Gibson, J.L. Batstone, R.T. Tung and F.C. Unterwald, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1158 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 21.
    See e.g., P.J. Dobson, these proceedings, and refs. quoted.Google Scholar
  28. 22.
    J.A.D. Matthew, M. Prutton, M.M. El Gomati and D.C. Peacock, Surf. Interface Analysis 11, 173 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 23.
    D.R. Batchelor, P. Rez, D.J. Fathers and J.A. Venables, Surf. Interface Analysis in press; D.R. Batchelor, H.E. Bishop and J.A. Venables, ibid, submitted.Google Scholar
  30. 24.
    P.A. Bennett, X. Tong and J.R. Butler, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B6, 13S6 (1988).Google Scholar
  31. 25.
    P.A. Bennett, J.R. Butler and X. Tong, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. in press.Google Scholar
  32. 26.
    M.M. El Gomati and J.A.D. Matthew, J. Microscopy 147, 137 (1987); Appl. Surface Sci. 32, 320 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 27.
    J.A. Venables, J.M. Cowley and H.S. von Harrach, Institute of Physics Conf. Ser. 90, 85 (1987).Google Scholar
  34. 28.
    The tests were performed by S. von Harrach, R.J. Keyse, G.G. Hembree and J.M. Cowley.Google Scholar
  35. 29.
    P. Kruit and J.A. Venables, Ultramicroscopy 25, 183 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 30.
    G.G. Hembree, Luo Chuan-Hong, P.A. Bennett and J.A. Venables, Proc. 46th EMSA meeting (1988) 666.Google Scholar
  37. 31.
    J. Liu and J.M. Cowley, Scanning Microscopy 2, 65 (1988); Ultramicroscopy 23, 463 (1987).Google Scholar
  38. 32.
    D. Imeson, R.H. Milne, S.D. Berger and D. McMullan, Ultramicroscopy 17, 243 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 33.
    R.L. Gerlach and N.C. McDonald, Scanning Electron Microscopy 1, 199 (1976);.Google Scholar
  40. R.L. Gerlach and N.C. McDonald, Scanning Electron Microscopy 1, 213 (1979).Google Scholar
  41. G. Todd, H. Poppa and L.H. Veneklasen 1, 207 (1979);Google Scholar
  42. G. Todd, H. Poppa and L.H. Veneklasen, Thin Solid Films 57, 213 (1979).Google Scholar
  43. 34.
    C.J. Harland, G. Cox, D.J. Fathers, P.S. Flora, M. Hardiman, G. Raynerd, M. Whitehouse-Yeo and J.A. Venables, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 90, 9 (1987).Google Scholar
  44. 35.
    J.A. Venables, D.R. Batchelor, P.S. Flora, C.J. Harland, G.G. Hembree and Luo Chuan-Hong, J. Micr. et Spectr. Electronique, in press.Google Scholar
  45. 36.
    P. Kruit and J.A. Venables, Scanning Microscopy Suppl. 1, 115 (1987).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Venables
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. A. Bennett
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Mathematical & Physical SciencesUniversity of SussexBrightonUK
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations