Surface Studies by SEM and STEM

  • J. A. Venables
  • P. A. Bennett
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 203)

Abstract

Scanning electron (SEM) and scanning transmission (STEM) electron microscopy are versatile, well established, techniques for characterisation of materials. Other papers in this volume attest to their widespread use for understanding semiconductors, and devices based on these various material combinations. This paper concentrates on studies performed in ultra-high vacuum (UHV), so that clean surfaces can be produced and maintained during the experiments. Under such conditions, several SEM and STEM signals have sensitivity at the monolayer (ML) level, so that true surface studies can be carried out.

Keywords

Nickel Welding Tungsten Refraction Auger 

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Venables
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. A. Bennett
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Mathematical & Physical SciencesUniversity of SussexBrightonUK
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

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