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Of Mice and Children

Reminiscences of a Teratogeneticist
  • Clarke Fraser

Abstract

I was conceived in a little log cabin on the shores of Lake Kejimakujik, which may be why I love the lakes and woods of Nova Scotia so much. My mother neither drank nor smoked (then) and the pregnancy was uneventful, except that my parents moved to Norwich, Connecticut, where in 1920 I was born and lived for 9 months. My zygodactylous toes were hidden at first from my mother, for fear she would think her firstborn son defective, but since my father had them too (as well as my grandfather and Aunt Eva) she was not surprised. Perhaps my web toes account for my love of genetics and teratology (and swimming?), but I do not recall in my youth a particular interest in either heredity or abnormal development.

Keywords

Genetic Counseling Down Syndrome Congenital Malformation Neural Tube Defect Cleft Palate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Reference

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  122. Fraser, F. C., and McKusick, V.A., eds. 1970. Congenital Malformations. Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Congenital Malformations. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  123. Fraser, F. C. 1970. Counselling in genetics: its intent and scope. Birth Defects 5(1):7–12.Google Scholar
  124. Pashayan, H. M., Pinsky, L., and Fraser, F. C. 1970. Hemifacial microsomia: oculo-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia. J. Med. Genet. 7:185–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Hamly, C.-A., Trasler, D. G., and Fraser, F. C. 1970. Reduction of 6-aminonicotinamide teratogenicity in mice by etherization. Teratology 3:293–294.Google Scholar
  126. Bornstein, S., Trasler, D. G., and Fraser, F. C. 1970. Effect of the uterine environment on the frequency of spontaneous cleft lip in CL/Fr mice. Teratology 3:295–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Pashayan, H. M., Levy, E. P., and Fraser, F. C. 1970. Can the deLange syndrome always be diagnosed at birth? Pediatrics 46:940–942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Preus, M., Fraser, F. C., and Levy, E. P. 1970. Dermatoglyphics in congenital heart malformations. Hum. Hered. 21:388–402.Google Scholar
  129. Fraser, F. C. 1971. Book review of An ABC of Medical Genetics, by C. O. Carter. Teratology 4:112.Google Scholar
  130. Seegmiller, R. E., Fraser, F. C., and Sheldon, H. 1971. A new chondrodystrophic mutant in mice: electron microscopy of normal and abnormal chondrogenesis. J. Cell Biol. 48:580–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Fraser, F. C. 1971. Etiology of cleft lip and palate, in: Cleft Lip and Palate, W. C. Grabb, S. W. Rosenstein, and K. R. Bzoch, eds. Little, Brown, Boston, pp. 54–65.Google Scholar
  132. Fraser, F. C. 1971. Genetic counselling. Hosp. Prac. 6:49–56.Google Scholar
  133. Lowry, B., Miller, J. R., and Fraser, F. C. 1971. A new dominant gene mental retardation syndrome. Am. J. Dis. Child. 121:496–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Pashayan, H. M., and Fraser, F. C. 1971. Nostril asymmetry not a microform of cleft lip. Cleft Pal. J. 8:185–188.Google Scholar
  135. Pashayan, H. M., Fraser, F. C., McIntyre, J. M., and Dunbar, J. S. 1971. Bilateral aplasia of the tibia, polydactyly and absent thumb in father and daughter. J. Bone J. Surg. 53B:459–499.Google Scholar
  136. Pashayan, H. M., and Fraser, F. C. 1971. Facial features associated with predisposition to cleft lip. Birth Defects 7(7):58–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Dallaire, L., Fraser, F. C., and Wigglesworth, F. W. 1971. Familial holoprosencephaly. Birth Defects 7(7):137–142.Google Scholar
  138. Fraser, F. C. 1971. Discussion of Third Conference on Clinical Delineation of Birth Defects. Birth Defects 7(7): 101–102.Google Scholar
  139. Fraser, F. C. 1971. The epidemiology of the common major malformations as related to environmental monitoring, in: Monitoring, Birth Defects and Environment, E. B. Hook, Academic Press, New York, pp. 85–96.Google Scholar
  140. Pashayan, H. M., Fraser, F. C., and Goldbloom, R. B. 1971. A family showing hereditary nephropathy. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 23:555–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Preus, M., and Fraser, F. C. 1971. Genetics of hereditary nephropathy with deafness (Alport’s disease). Clin. Genet. 2:331–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Pinsky, L., and Fraser, F. C. 1972 Atypical malformation syndromes. J. Pediatr. 80:141 – 144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Perry, T. B., and Fraser, F. C. 1972. Paternal age and congenital cleft lip and cleft palate. Teratology 6:241–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Cox, D., Fraser, F. C., and Sass-Kortsak, A. 1972. A genetic study of Wilson’s disease: evidence for heterogeneity. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 24:646–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Burdi, A., Feingold, M., Larsson, K. S., Leek, I., Zimmerman, E. F., and Fraser, F. C. 1972. Etiology and pathogenesis of congenital cleft lip and cleft palate, an NIDR state of the art report. Teratology 6:255–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Preus, M., and Fraser, F. C. 1972. Dermatoglyphics and syndromes. Am. J. Dis. Child. 124:933–943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Fraser, F. C. 1973. Survey of counselling practices, in: Ethical Issues in Human Genetics, B. Hilton, ed. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 7–22.Google Scholar
  148. Clow, C. L., Fraser, F. C., Laberge, C., and Scriver, C. R. 1973. On the application of knowledge to the patient with genetic disease, in: Progress in Medical Genetics, Volume 9, A. G. Steinberg and A. G. Beam, eds. Grune & Stratton, New York, pp. 159–213.Google Scholar
  149. Spriestersbach, D. C., Dickson, D. R., Fraser, F. C., Horowitz, S. L., McWilliams, B. J., Paradise, J. L., and Randall, P. 1973. Clinical research in cleft lip and cleft palate: the state of the art. Cleft Pal. J. 10:113–165.Google Scholar
  150. MacLeod, P. M., and Fraser, F. C. 1973. Case report 2. Syndr. Ident. 1:10–11.Google Scholar
  151. Pollard, D. R., and Fraser, F. C. 1973. Induction of a cytoplasmic factor increasing resistance to the teratogenic effect of 6-aminonicotinamide in mice. Teratology 7:267–270.Google Scholar
  152. Levy, E. P., Cohen, A., and Fraser, F. C. 1973. Hormone treatment during pregnancy and congenital heart defects. Lancet 1:611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Marsh, L., and Fraser, F. C. 1973. Chelating agents and teratogenesis. Lancet 2:846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Preus, M., and Fraser, F. C. 1973. The lobster claw defect with ectodermal defects, cleft lip/palate, tear duct anomaly and renal anomalies. Clin. Genet. 4:369–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. MacLeod, P. M., and Fraser, F. C. 1973. Congenital contractural arachonodactyly: a heritable disorder of connective tissue distinct from Marfan syndrome. Am. J. Dis. Child. 126:810–812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Perry, T. B., and Fraser, F. C. 1973. Variability of serum creatine phosphokinase activity in normal women and carriers of the gene for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Neurology 23:1316–1323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Fraser, F. C. 1974. Some aspects of maternal effects on congenital malformations, in: Congenital Defects. New Directions in Research, D. T. Janerich, R. G. Skalko, and I. H. Porter, eds. Academic Press, New York, pp. 17–22.Google Scholar
  158. Preus, M., Fraser, F. C., and Fuhrmann, W. 1974. Cleft palate lateral synechia syndrome without the lateral synechia (CP ± LS syndrome). Teratology 9:135–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Shih, L.-Y, Trasler, D. G., and Fraser, F. C. 1974. Relation of mandible growth to palate closure in mice. Teratology 9:191–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Berman, P., Desjardins, C., and Fraser, F. C. 1974. Inheritance of the Aarskog syndrome. Birth Defects 10(7): 151–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Fraser, F. C. 1974. Updating the genetics of cleft lip and palate. Birth Defects 10(8): 107–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Fraser, F. C. 1974. Genetic counselling. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 26:636–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Preus, M., and Fraser, F. C. 1974. The cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome. Clin. Genet. 5:636–659.Google Scholar
  164. Levy, E. P., Fletcher, B. D., and Fraser, F. C. 1974. Mohr syndrome with subclinical expression of the bifid great toe. Am. J. Dis. Child. 128:531–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Fraser, F. C., and Rosen, J. 1975. Association of cleft lip and atrial septal defect in mice: a preliminary report. Teratology 11:321–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Preus, M., Alexander, W. J., and Fraser, F. C. 1975. The C syndrome. Birth Defects 11(2):58–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Berman, P., Desjardins, C., and Fraser, F. C. 1975. The inheritance of the Aarskog facialdigital-genital-syndrome. J. Pediatr. 86:885–891.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Pashayan, H. M., Fraser, F. C., and Pruzansky, S. 1975. Variable limb malformations in the Brachmann-Cornelia leLange syndrome. Birth Defects 11(5):147–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Preus, M., Feingold, M., and Fraser, F. C. 1975. Internipple distance and hand measurements in various syndromes. Birth Defects 11(5):3–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Fraser, F. C. 1975. Non-scientific influences on decisions concerning human chemical exposure—a personal commentary. Mutat. Res. 33:93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Fraser, F. C., and Hunter, A. G. W. 1975. Etiologic relations among categories of congenital heart malformations. Am. J. Cardiol. 36:793–796.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Fraser, F. C. 1976. Letter to the editor. Clin. Genet. 9:444–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Benirschke, K., Carpenter, G., Epstein, C., Fraser, F. C., Jackson, L., Motulsky, A., and Nyhan, W. 1976. Genetic diseases, in: Prevention of Embryonic, Fetal, and Perinatal Disease, Fogarty International Center Series on Preventive Medicine 12:219–261.Google Scholar
  174. Fraser, F. C. 1976. Genetics as a health-care service. N. Engl. J. Med. 295:486–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Kaplan, P., Cummings, C., and Fraser, F. C. 1976. A “community” of face-limb malformation syndromes. J Pediatr. 89:241–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Fraser, F. C. 1976. The multifactorial/threshold concept—uses and misuses. Teratology 14:267–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Fraser, F. C., and Biddle, C. J. 1976. Estimating the risks for offspring of first-cousin matings: an approach. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 28:522–526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Fraser, F. C., and Sadovnick, A. 1976. Correlation of IQ in subjects with Down syndrome and their parents and sibs. J. Ment. Defic. Res. 20:179–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Preus, M., and Fraser, F. C. 1976. A methodology for establishing a diagnostic index for syndromes of unknown etiology. Clin. Genet. 10:249–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Gunn, T, Bortolussi, R., Little, J. M., Andermann, F., Fraser, F. C., and Belmonte, M. M. 1976. Juvenile diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, sensory nerve deafness and diabetes insipidus—a syndrome. J. Pediatr. 89:565–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Biddle, F. G., and Fraser, F. C. 1976. Genetics of cortisone-induced cleft palate in the mouse—embryonic and maternal effects. Genetics 84:743–754.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Kaplan, P., Hollenberg, R. D., and Fraser, F. C. 1976. A spinal arteriovenous malformation with hereditary cutaneous hemangiomas. Am. J. Dis. Child. 130:1329–1331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Fraser, F. C. 1977. Relation of animal studies to the problem in man, in: Handbook of Teratology, Volume 1, J. G. Wilson and F. C. Fraser, eds. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 75–96.Google Scholar
  184. Fraser, F. C. 1977. Interactions and multiple causes, in: Handbook of Teratology, Volume 1, J. G. Wilson and F. C. Fraser, eds. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 445–463.Google Scholar
  185. Biddle, F. G., and Fraser, F. C. 1977. Cortisone-induced cleft palate in the mouse. A search for the genetic control of the embryonic response trait. Genetics 85:289–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Trasler, D. G., and Fraser, F. C. 1977. Time-position relationships with particular reference to cleft lip and cleft palate, in: Handbook of Teratology, Volume 2, J. G. Wilson and F. C. Fraser, eds. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 271–292.Google Scholar
  187. Fraser, F. C. 1977. The chondrodystrophies, in: Diseases of the Newborn, 4th ed., A. J. Schaffer and M. E. Avery, eds. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 881–887.Google Scholar
  188. Fraser, F. C. 1977. Genetic counseling, in: Diseases of the Newborn, 4th ed., A. J. Schaffer and M. E. Avery, eds. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 920–927.Google Scholar
  189. Fraser, F. C. 1977. Factors influencing the occurrence of cleft lip and cleft palate, in: Gene-Environment Interaction in Common Diseases, Japan Medical Research Foundation, ed. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp. 96–104.Google Scholar
  190. Fraser, F. C., and Gunn, T. 1977. Diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and optic atrophy: an autosomal recessive syndrome? J. Med. Genet. 14:190–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Fraser, F. C., and Pressor, C. 1977. Attitudes of counselors in relation to prenatal sex-determination simply for choice of sex, in: Genetic Counselling, H. A. Lubs and F. de la Cruz, eds. Raven Press, New York, pp. 109–112.Google Scholar
  192. Seegmiller, R. E., and Fraser, F. C. 1977. Mandibular growth retardation as a cause of cleft palate in mice homozygous for the chondrodysplasia gene. J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 38:227–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. White, R. A., Preus, M., Watters, G. V., and Fraser, F. C. 1977. Familial occurrence of the Williams syndrome. J. Pediatr. 91:614–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Biddle, F. G., and Fraser, F. C. 1977. Maternal and cytoplasmic effects in experimental teratology, Handbook of Teratology, Volume 3, J. G. Wilson and F. C. Fraser, eds. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 3–33.Google Scholar
  195. Lippman-Hand, A., Fraser, F. C., and Cushman Biddle, C.J. 1978. Indications for prenatal diagnosis in relatives of patients with neural tube defects. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 51:72–76.Google Scholar
  196. Hunter, A. G. W., McAlpine, P. J., Rudd, N. L., and Fraser, F. C. 1977. A “new” syndrome of mental retardation with characteristic facies and brachyphalangy. J. Med. Genet. 14:430–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Fraser, F. C., Metrakos, J. D., and Zlatkin, M. 1978. Is the epileptic genotype teratogenic? Lancet 1:884.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Fraser, F. C. 1978. Prevention of birth defects: how are we doing? Teratology 17:193–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Scriver, C. R., Laberge, C., Clow, C. L., and Fraser, F. C. 1978. Genetics and medicine: an evolving relationship. Science 200:946–952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Fraser, F. C., and Challis, E. B. 1978. Genetic counseling, in: Family Practice, R. E. Rakel and H. F. Conn, eds. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 465–478.Google Scholar
  201. Fraser, F. C. 1978. Future prospects—clinical, in: Birth Defects. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference, J. W. Littlefield and J. de Grouchy, eds. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp. 396–400.Google Scholar
  202. Fraser, F. C., and Skelton, J. 1978. Possible teratogenicity of maternal fever. Lancet 2:634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Kalousek, D., Cushman Biddle, C. J., Rudner, M., Arronet, G. H., and Fraser, F. C. 1978. 47,X,i(Xq),Y karyotype in Klinefelter’s syndrome. Hum. Genet. 43:107–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Fraser, F. C., Ling, D., Clogg, D., and Nogrady, B. 1978. Genetic aspects of the BOR syndrome—branchial fistulas, ear pits, hearing loss, and renal anomalies. Am. J. Med. Genet. 2:241–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Halal, F., Gledhill, R. B., and Fraser, F. C. 1978. Dominant inheritance of Scheuermann’s juvenile kyphosis. Am. J. Dis. Child. 132:1105–1107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Theodosis, D. T., and Fraser, F. C. 1978. Early changes in the mouse neuroepithelium preceding exencephaly induced by hypervitaminosis A. Teratology 18:219–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Halal, F., and Fraser, F. C. 1979. Camptodactyly, cleft palate, and club foot (the Gordon syndrome): a report of a large pedigree. J. Med. Genet. 16:149–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Biddle, F. G., and Fraser, F. C. 1979. Genetic independence of the embryonic reactivity difference to cortisone- and 6-aminonicotinamide-induced cleft palate in the mouse. Teratology 19:207–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Lippman-Hand, A., and Fraser, F. C. 1979. Genetic counseling: provision and reception of information. Am. J. Med. Genet. 3:113–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Fraser, F. C. 1979. The development of genetic counseling. Birth Defects 15(2):5–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Vekemans, M., and Fraser, F. C. 1979. Stage of palate closure as one indication of “liability” to cleft palate. Am. J. Med. Genet. 4:95–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Lippman-Hand, A., and Fraser, F. C. 1979. Genetic counseling: the postcounseling period. I. Parents’ perceptions of uncertainty. Am. J. Med. Genet. 4:51–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Lippman-Hand, A., and Fraser, F. C. 1979. Genetic counseling: the postcounseling period. II. Making reproductive choices. Am. J. Med. Genet. 4:73–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Lippman-Hand, A., and Fraser, F. C. 1979. Genetic counseling: parents’ responses to uncertainty. Birth Defects 15(5C):325–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Fraser, F. C. 1980. Diagnostic prénatal des désordres génétiques, in: Le diagnostic prénatal, cahiers de bioéthique 2. University of Laval, Quebec, pp. 3–19.Google Scholar
  216. Juriloff, D. M., and Fraser, F. C. 1980. Genetic maternal effects on cleft lip frequency in A/J and CL/Fr mice. Teratology 21:167–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Fraser, F. C. 1980. The William Allen Memorial Award Address: evolution of a palatable multifactorial threshold model. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 32:796–813.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Fraser, F. C. 1980. Animal models for craniofacial disorders, in: Etiology of Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate, M. Melnick, D. Bixler, and E. D. Shields, eds. Liss, New York, pp. 1–23.Google Scholar
  219. Hall, J. G., Pallister, P. D., Clarren, S. K., Beckwith, J. B., Wigglesworth, F. W., Fraser, F. C., Cho, S., Benke, P. J., and Reed, S. D. 1980. Congenital hypothalamic hamartoblastoma, hypopituitarism, imperforate anus, and postaxial polydactyly—a new syndrome? Part I: Clinical, causal, and pathogenic considerations. Am. J. Med. Genet. 7:47–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Fraser, F. C. 1980. The genetics of cleft lip and palate: yet another look, in: Current Research Trends in Prenatal Craniofacial Development, R. M. Pratt and R. L. Christiansen, eds. Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 357–366.Google Scholar
  221. Fraser, F. C. 1980. The role of genetics in medicine. Birth Defects 16(5):1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Fraser, F. C., Sproule, J. R., and Halal, F. 1980. Frequency of the branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome in children with profound hearing loss. Am. J. Med. Genet. 7:341–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Fraser, F. C. 1981. The genetics of common familial disorders—major genes or multifactorial? Genetics Society of Canada, Award of Excellence Lecture. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 23:1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Fraser, F. C., and Nussbaum, E. 1980. Neural tube defects in sibs of children with tracheooesophageal dysraphism. Lancet 2:807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Fraser, F. C., and Lytwyn, A. 1981. Spectrum of anomalies in the Meckel syndrome, or: “Maybe there is a malformation syndrome with at least one constant anomaly.” Am. J. Med. Genet. 9:67–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Fraser, F. C. 1981. The genetics of common birth defects and diseases, in: Genetic Issues in Pediatric and Obstetric Practice, M. M. Kaback, ed. Year Book Medical, Chicago, pp. 45–54.Google Scholar
  227. Fraser, F. C., and Forse, R. A. 1981. On genetic screening of donors for artificial insemination. Am. J. Med. Genet. 10:399–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Vekemans, M., Taylor, B. A., and Fraser, F. C. 1981. The susceptibility to cortisone-induced cleft palate of recombinant inbred strains of mice: lack of association with the H-2 haplotype. Genet. Res. 38:327–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Fraser, F. C. 1982. Letter to the editor: how psychotherapeutic should genetic counselling be? Am. J. Med. Genet. 11:367–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Vekemans, M., and Fraser, F. C. 1982. Susceptibility to cleft palate and the major histocompatibility complex (H-2) in the mouse. Teratology 25:267–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Fraser, F. C., Czeizel, A., and Hanson, C. 1982. Increased frequency of neural tube defects in sibs of children with other malformations. Lancet 2:144–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Aymé, S., and Fraser, F. C. 1982. Possible examples of the Goltz syndrome (focal dermal hypoplasia) without linear areas of skin hypoplasia. Birth Defects 18(3B):59–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Glanz, A., and Fraser, F. C. 1982. Spectrum of anomalies in Fanconi anaemia. J. Med. Genet. 19:412–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Cole, D. E., Fraser, F. C., Glorieux, F. H., Jequier, S., Marie, P. J., Reade, T. M., and Scriver, C. R. 1983. Panostotic fibrous dysplasia: A congenital disorder of bone with unusual facial appearance, bone fragility, hyperphosphatasemia and hypophosphatemia. Am. J. Med. Genet. 14:725–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Fraser, F. C., Aymé, S., Halal, F., and Sproule, J. R. 1983. Autosomal dominant duplication of the renal collecting system, hearing loss, and external ear anomalies: a new syndrome? Am. J. Med. Genet. 14:473–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Preus, M., Fraser, F. C., and Wigglesworth, F. W. 1983. An oculocerebral hypopigmentaion syndrome. J. Genet. Hum. 31:323–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Fraser, F. C., Maldoff, S., and Lippman-Hand, A. 1983. Evidence against a female specific-class of neural tube defect. J. Med. Genet. 20:78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Glanz, A., and Fraser, F. C. 1984. Risk estimates for myotonic dystrophy. J. Med. Genet. 21:186–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Fraser, F. C. 1985. Genetic counselling, in: Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 17th ed., J. B. Wyngaarden and L. H. Smith, eds. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 147–149.Google Scholar
  240. Forse, R. A., Ackman, C. F. D., and Fraser, F. C. 1985. Possible teratogenic effects of artificial insemination by donor. Clin. Genet. 28:23–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Fraser, F. C., and Rex, A. 1985. Excess of parental non-righthandedness in children with right-sided cleft lip: a preliminary report. J. Craniofac. Genet. Dev. Biol. 1:85–88.Google Scholar
  242. Martin, J. R., Huang, S.-N., Larson, A., Payne, R. H., Bridger, S., Fraser, F. C., Nearv, A. J., McLaughlin, E. A., Hobeika, C., and Lawton, L. J. 1985. Congenital contractual deformities of the fingers and arthropathy. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 44:826–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. O’Leary, E., Slaney, J., Bryant, D. G., and Fraser, F. C. 1986. A simple technique lot recording and counting sweat pores on the dermal ridges. Clin. Genet. 29:122-128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Fraser, F. C., Frecker, M., and Allderdice, P. 1986. Seasonal variation of neural tube defects in Newfoundland and elsewhere. Teratology 33:299–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Biddle, F. C., and Fraser, F. C. 1986. Major gene determination of liability to spontaneous cleft lip in the mouse. J. Craniofac. Gen. Dev. Biol. Suppl. 2: 67–88.Google Scholar
  246. Pena, S. D. J., Karpati, G., Carpenter, S., and Fraser, F. C. 1987. The clinical consequences of X-chromosome inactivation: Duchenne muscular dystrophy in one of monozygotic twins. J. Neurol. Sci. 79:337–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Fraser, F. C., Anderson, R. A., Mulvihill, J. I., and Preus, M. 1987. An aminopterin-like syndrome without aminopterin (ASSAS). Clin. Genet. 32:28–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Frecker, M., and Fraser, F. C. 1987. Epidemiological studies of neural tube defects in Newfoundland. Teratology 36:355–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Fraser, F. C. 1987. Genetic counselling: the changing scene, in: Frontiers in Genetic Medicine, M. M. Kaback and L. J. Shapiro, eds. Ross Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio, pp. 190–193.Google Scholar
  250. Frecker, M. F., Fraser, F. C., and Heneghan, W. D. 1988. Are “upper” and “lower” neural tube defects aetiologically different? J. Med. Genet. 25:503–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Fraser, F. C. 1988. This week’s Citation Classic. Current Contents 31:18.Google Scholar
  252. Fraser, F. C. 1988. Genetic counseling: using the information wisely. Hosp. Pract. 23:245–266.Google Scholar
  253. Fraser, F. C. 1988. Thalidomide retrospective: what did we learn? Teratology 38:201–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Fraser, F. C. 1988. Genetic counseling, in: Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 18th ed., J. B. Wyngaarden and L. H. Smith, eds. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 171–174.Google Scholar
  255. Fraser, F. C. 1989. Research revisited. Cleft Palate J. 26:255–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Fraser, F. C. 1989. Rapping the cleft-lip genes: the first fix? Am. J. Hum. Genet. 45: 345–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Fraser, F. C., Ronen, G. M., and O’Leary, E. 1989. Pectoralis major defect and Poland sequence in second cousins: extension of the Poland sequence spectrum. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 33: 468–470.Google Scholar

Books

  1. Nora, J. J., and Fraser, F. C. 1974. Medical Genetics: Principles and Practice. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  2. Fraser, F. C., and Nora, J. J. 1975. Genetics of Man. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  3. Wilson, J. G., and Fraser, F. C., eds. 1977. Handbook of Teratology, Volume 1. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Wilson, J. G., and Fraser, F. C., eds. 1977. Handbook of Teratology, Volume 2. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Wilson, J. G., and Fraser, F. C., eds. 1977. Handbook of Teratology, Volume 3. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Wilson, J. G., and Fraser, F. C., eds. 1978. Handbook of Teratology, Volume 4. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Nora, J. J., and Fraser, F. C. 1983. Medical Genetics: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  8. Fraser, F. C., and Nora, J. J. 1986. Genetics of Man, 2nd ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clarke Fraser
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Human GeneticsMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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