Nutritional Requirements in Aging

  • David Kritchevsky
Conference paper
Part of the GWUMC Department of Biochemistry Annual Spring Symposia book series (GWUN)


The number of Americans living to 65 years (an arbitrary, and possibly obsolete, cutoff) is increasing. Katz et al. (1983) estimated that men and women aged 65–69 years in Massachusetts had 13.1 and 19.5 years of life remaining, respectively. At age 85, remaining years of life were 6.5 for men and 7.7 for women. As the life span has continued to increase, the recognition has come that attention needs to be paid to the nutritional requirements of the elderly. These requirements are influenced by the physiological realities of aging as well as by sociological and psychological factors which do not play an important role in younger persons. All these problems must be addressed in order to provide the elderly with a diet replete in macro- and micronutrients.


Irritable Bowel Syndrome Dietary Fiber Wheat Bran Diverticular Disease Nutritional Requirement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Albanese, A. A., 1980, Nutrition for the Elderly, Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, J. W., 1986, Dietary fiber in nutrition management of diabetes, in: Dietary fiber: Basic and Clinical Aspects ( G. V. Vahouny and D. Kritchevsky, eds.), Plenum, New York, pp. 343–360.Google Scholar
  3. Andersson, H., Nävert, B. Bingham, S. A., Englyst, H. N., and Cummings, J. H., 1983, The effects of breads containing similar amounts of phytate but different amounts of wheat bran on calcium, zinc and iron balance in man, Br. J. Nutr. 50: 503–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bidlack, W. R., Smith, C. H., Clemens, R. A., and Omaye, S. T., 1986, Nutrition and the elderly, Food Technol. 40: 81–88.Google Scholar
  5. Brandes, J. W., and Lorenz-Meyer, H., 1981, Zuckerfreie Diät: eine neue Perspektive zur Behandlung des Morbus Crohn: Eine randomisierte, kontrollierte Studie, Z. Gastroenterol. 19: 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Brodribb, A. J. M., 1980, Dietary fiber in diverticular disease of the colon, in: Medical Aspects of Dietary Fiber ( G. A. Spiller and R. M. Kay, eds.), Plenum, New York, pp. 43–66.Google Scholar
  7. Castelli, W. P., Doyle, J. T., Gordon, T., Harnes, C. G., Hjortland, M. C., Hulley, S. B., Kagan, A., and Zukel, W. J., 1977, HDL cholesterol and other lipids in coronary heart disease. The Cooperative Lipoprotein Phenotyping Study, Circulation 55: 767–772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark, A. N. G., and Scott, J. F., 1976, Wheat bran in dyschezia in the aged, Age Aging 5: 149–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Committee on Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, 1982, Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  10. Cummings, J., 1985, Cancer of the large bowel in: Dietary Fibre, Fibre-Depleted Foods and Disease (H. Trowell, D. Burkitt, and K. Heaton, eds.), Academic, London, pp. 161–189.Google Scholar
  11. Cummings, J. H., 1986, The effect of dietary fiber on fecal weight and composition, in: CRC Handbook of Dietary Fiber in Human Nutrition ( G. A. Spiller, ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 211–280.Google Scholar
  12. Cummings, J. H., Southgate, D. A. T., Branch, W. J., Wiggins, H. S., Houston, H., Jenkins, D. J. A., Jivraj, T., and Hill, M. J., 1979a, The digestion of pectin in the human gut and its effect on calcium absorption and large bowel function, Br. J. Nutr. 41: 477–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cummings, J. H., Hill, M. J., Jivraj, T., Houston, H., Branch, W. J., and Jenkins, D. J. A., 1979b, The effect of meat protein and dietary fiber on colonic function and metabolism. I. Changes in bowel habit, bile acid excretion, and calcium absorption, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32: 2086–2093.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Eastwood, M. A., Smith, A. N., Brydon, W. G., and Pritchard, J., 1978, Comparison of bran, ispaghula and lactulose on colon function in diverticular disease, Gut 19: 1144–1147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. FAO/WHO, 1973, Energy and Protein Requirements, WHO Technical Reports, Series No. 522, World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  16. Fischer, M., Adkins, W., Hall, L., Seaman, P., Hsi, S., and Marlett, J., 1985, The effects of dietary fibre in a liquid diet on bowel function of mentally retarded individuals, J. Ment. Defic. Res. 29: 373–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Food and Nutrition Board, 1980, Recommended Dietary Allowances, 9th ed., National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  18. Glen, F., 1981, Surgical management of acute cholecystis in patients 65 years of age and older, Ann. Surg. 193: 56–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gersovitz, M., Motil, K., Munro, H. N., Scrimshaw, N. S., and Young, V. R., 1982, Human protein requirements: Assessment of the adequacy of the current recommended dietary allowance for dietary protein in elderly men and women, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 35: 6–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Gertler, M. M., Garn, S. M., and White, P. D., 1950, Diet serum cholesterol and coronary artery disease, Circulation 2: 696–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Gordon, T., Kagan, A., Garcia-Palmieri, M., Kannel, W. B., Zukel, W. J., Tillotson, J., Sorlie, P., and Hjortland, M., 1981, Diet and its relation to coronary heart disease and death in three populations, Circulation 63: 500–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Graham, D. Y., Moser, S. E., and Estes, M. K., 1982, The effect of bran on bowel function in constipation, Am. J. Gastroenterol. 77: 599–603.Google Scholar
  23. Graham, D. Y., Moser, S. E., and Estes, M. K., 1982, The effect of bran on bowel function in constipation, Am. J. Gastroenterol. 77: 599–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Greger, J. L., 1984, Zinc and copper requirements of the elderly, in: Annual Conference on Trace Substances in Environmental Health, Vol. 13 ( D. Hemphill, ed.), University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, pp. 463–475.Google Scholar
  25. Grossman, M. I., 1981, Peptic Ulcer: Guide for the Practicing Physician, Yearbook, Chicago, pp. 10–11.Google Scholar
  26. Hansen, W. E., Maurer, H., Vollmer, J., and Bräuning, C., 1983, Guar gum and bile: effects on postprandial gallbladder contraction and on serum bile acids in man, Hepatogastroenterology 30: 131 - 133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Harju, E. J., and Larmi, T. K., 1985, Effect of guar gum added to the diet of patient with duodenal ulcer, J. Parenter. Enter. Nutr. 9: 496–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hillman, L. C., Peters, S. G., Fisher, C. A., and Pomare, E. W., 1986, Effects of the fibre components pectin, cellulose, and lignin on bile salt metabolism and biliary lipid composition in man, Gut 27: 29–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hope, A. K., and Down, E. C., 1986, Dietary fibre and fluid in the control of constipation in a nursing home population, Med. J. Aust. 144: 306–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Horwitz, D. L., 1982, Diabetes and aging, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 36: 803–808.Google Scholar
  31. Katz, S., Branch, L. G., Branson, M. H., Papsidero, J. H., Beck, J. C., and Greer, D. S., 1983, Active life expectancy, N. Engl. J. Med. 309: 1218–1224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kelsay, J. L., Clark, W. M., Herbst, B. J., and Prather, E. S., 1981, Nutrient utilization by human subjects consuming fruits and vegetables as sources of fiber, J. Agric. Food Chem. 29: 461–465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kohrs, M. B., and Czajka-Narins, D. M., 1986, Assessing the Nutritional Status of the Elderly, in: Nutrition, Aging and Health ( E. A. Young, ed.), Liss, New York, pp. 61–89.Google Scholar
  34. Levenstein, S., Prantera, C., Luzi, C., and D’Ubaldi, A., 1985, Low residue or normal diet in Crohn’s disease: A prospective controlled study in Italian patients, Gut 26: 989–993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lowenstein, F. W., 1986, Nutritional requirements of the elderly, in: Nutrition, Aging and Health ( E. A. Young, ed.), Liss, New York, pp. 61–89.Google Scholar
  36. Lowenstein, F. W., and Stanton, M. F., 1988, Comparison of some results from two National Nutrition Surveys in the United States of America, Front. Gastrointest. Res. 14: 24–40.Google Scholar
  37. Manning, A. P., Heaton, K. W., Harvey, R. F., and Uglow, P., 1977, Wheat fibre and irritable bowel syndrome: A controlled trial, Lancet 2: 417–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McNamara, D. J., Kolb, R., Parker, T. S., Batwin, H., Samuel, P., Brown, C. D., and Ahrens, E. H., Jr., 1987, Heterogeneity of cholesterol homeostasis in man. Response to changes in dietary fat quality and cholesterol quantity, J. Clin. Invest. 79: 1729–1739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mitchell, W. D., and Eastwood, M. A., 1976, Dietary fiber and colon function, in: Fiber in Human Nutrition ( G. A. Spiller and R. J. Amen, eds.), Plenum, New York, pp. 185–206.Google Scholar
  40. Munro, H. N., 1981, Nutrition and Aging, Br. Med. Bull. 37: 83–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Munro, H. N. (ed.), 1988, Human Nutrition, Vol. 6: Nutrition, Aging and the Elderly, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  42. Painter, N. S., Almeida, A. Z., and Colebourne, K. W., 1972, Unprocessed bran in treatment of diverticular disease of the colon, Br. Med. J. 2: 137–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Parks, T. G., 1975, Natural history of diverticular disease of the colon, Clin. Gastroenterol. 4: 53–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Pilch, S. M. (ed.), 1987, Physiological Effects and Health Consequences of Dietary Fiber, FASEB, Bethesda, Maryland.Google Scholar
  45. Pomare, E. W., Heaton, K. W., Low-Beer, T. S., and Espiner, H. J., 1976, The effect of wheat bran upon bile salt metabolism and upon the lipid composition of bile in gallstone patients, Am. J. Dig. Dis. 21: 521–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rogers, A. I., 1975, Colonic Diverticular Disease, Hoechst-Roussel Pharmaceuticals, Somerville, New York, pp. 1–20.Google Scholar
  47. Rydning, A., Berstad, A., Aadland, E., and Odegaard, B., 1982, Prophylactic effect of dietary fibre in duodenal ulcer disease, Lancet 2: 736–739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rydning, A., Weberg, R., Lange, O., and Berstad, A., 1986, Healing of benign gastric ulcer with low- dose antacids and fiber diet, Gastroenterology 91: 56–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Sandstead, H. H., Munoz, J. M., Jacob, R. A., Klevay, L. M., Reck, S. J., Logan, G. M., Jr., Dintzis, F. R., Inglett, G. E., and Shuey, W. C., 1978, Influence of dietary fiber on trace element balance, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31: S180–S184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Slavin, J. L., and Marlett, J. A., 1980, Influence of refined cellulose on human bowel function and calcium and magnesium balance, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 33: 1932–1939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Smith, R. G., Rowe, M. J., Smith, A. N., Eastwood, M. A., Drummond, E., and Brydon, W. G., 1980, A study of bulking agents in elderly patients, Age Aging 9: 267–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Soltoft, J., Gudmand-Hoyer, E., Krag, B., Kristensen, E., and Wulff, H. R., 1976, A double-blind trial of the effect of wheat bran on symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, Lancet 1: 270–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stern, M. P., 1979, The recent decline in ischemic heart disease mortality, Ann. Intern. Med. 91:630– 640.Google Scholar
  54. Strong, T. P., and Guzman, M. A., 1980, Decrease in coronary atherosclerosis in New Orleans, Lab. Invest. 18: 509–526.Google Scholar
  55. Watkin, D. M., 1983, Handbook of Nutrition, Health and Aging, Noyes, Park Ridge, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  56. Watts, J. M., Jablonski, P., and Toouli, J., 1978, The effect of added bran to the diet in the saturation of bile in people without gallstones, Am. J. Surg. 135: 321–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wechsler, J. G., Swobodnik, W., Wenzel, H., Heuchemer, T., Nebelung, W., Hütt, V., and Ditschuneit, H., 1984, Ballaststoffe vom Typ Weizenkleie senken Lithogenität der Galle, Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 109: 1284–1288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Young, E. A. (ed.), 1986, Nutrition, Aging and Health, Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  59. Young, E. A., and Urban, E., 1986, Aging, the aged and the gastrointestinal tract, in: Nutrition, Aging and Health ( E. A. Young, ed.), Liss, New York, pp. 91–131.Google Scholar
  60. Young, V. R., Gersovitz, M., and Munro, H. N., 1982, Human aging: Protein and amino acid metabolism and implications for protein and amino acid requirements, in: Nutritional Approaches to Aging Research ( G. B. Moment, ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 47–81.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Kritchevsky
    • 1
  1. 1.Wistar Institute of Anatomy and BiologyPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations