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Raw materials

  • R. Early

Abstract

Raw materials are clearly the feedstock of the food industry, and so it is with all manufacturing industry. The term ‘raw materials’ implies materials in the raw state: materials yet to be processed. However, in the context of this chapter the term is used to signify all materials, whether edible or inedible, unprocessed, part processed or fully processed which are either used in, or intimately involved in the manufacture of food products. The range of raw materials used by the food industry is enormous. Some are truly raw materials in their primary state such as grain, sugar beet and ex-farm milk destined for processing into secondary products, often classed as ingredients. The nature and complexity of these edible materials will depend on the purpose for which they are intended. Relatively simple ingredients, such as flour, sugar, vegetable and animal fats and milk powders form the basis of most domestically prepared and industrially processed foods. Other more complex materials, such as emulsifiers and stabilisers, are designed, developed and processed to achieve specific functions within formulated food systems: fulfilling a specific physical, chemical or microbiological function, as defined by the Institute of Food Science and Technology, IFST (1995). Consequently, they are often termed functional food ingredients. In addition to primary materials and ingredients, the food industry uses other edible materials which, although included in food formulations, contribute little or nothing to the nutritional value of the food, with the exception of, for example, vitamins used as antioxidants. These materials are known as additives and are used for purely technological purposes. Examples are emulsifiers such as mono- and di-glycerides of fatty acids (E471), chemical preservatives such as sodium benzoate (E211) liberating benzoic acid (E210) and colourings such as tartrazine (E102), carmosine (E122) and annatto (E160b). Differentiation between ingredients and additives is in agreement with legislation and some authors, e.g. Taylor (1980), but may contrast with other authors, e.g. Millstone (1986).

Keywords

Food Manufacturer Packaging Material International Standard Organisation Quality Management System Supplier Assurance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Early

There are no affiliations available

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