Power Plant Atmospheric Emissions Control

  • Lloyd L. Lavely
  • Alan W. Ferguson

Abstract

Fossil-fueled electric-generating plants emit combustion gases to the atmosphere that may contain pollutants in the gas phase or as suspended solid or liquid particulates. Environmental laws and regulations define and restrict the amounts of the gas, solid, or liquid pollutants that can be emitted to the atmosphere.

Keywords

Urea Cage Cadmium Uranium Selenium 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ABB Power Plant Controls. Combustion Engineering, Inc., 2 Waterside Crossing, Windsor, CT 06095.Google Scholar
  2. Air Monitor Corporation. 5 Coldhill Road, Suite 11, Mendham, NJ 07945.Google Scholar
  3. American Electric Power Service Corporation. One Riverside Plaza, Columbus, OH 43215.Google Scholar
  4. Babcock & Wilcox. Power Generation Group, 20 S. Van Buren Avenue, P. O. Box 351, Barberton, OH 44203–0351.Google Scholar
  5. Ball, M. E., Saskatchewan Power Corporation and T. A. Enwald, Tampella Power Inc. 1993. Installation and initial operation of LIFAC at Shand Power Station. Paper presented at the 1993 SO2 Control Symposium. August 24–27, 1993, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  6. Blair, D. W. and J. O. L. Wendt. 1981. Formation of NOx and other products from chemically bound nitrogen in coal combustion. DOE/ET/11314-T1. June 1981.Google Scholar
  7. Brna, T. G. et al. 1988. Cleaning of municipal waste incinerator flue gas in Europe. USEPA Report No. EPA/600-D-88/15. January 1988.Google Scholar
  8. Brna, Theodore G. and James D. Kilgore. 1987. The impact of particulate emissions control on the control of other MWC air emissions. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. Volume 40, No. 9, April 1987.Google Scholar
  9. Burnett, T. A., V. M. Norwood, E. J. Puschaver, Tennessee Valley Authority; F. E. Hsu and B. M. Bhagat Bhagat, Airpol, Inc.; and S. K. Merchant and G. W. Pukanic., USDOE. 1993. 10 MW demonstration of the AirPol gas suspension absorption flue gas desulfurization process. Paper presented at the 1993 SO2 Control Symposium. August 24–27, 1993, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  10. Christiansen, Ove B. and Bert Brown. 1992. Control of heavy metals and dioxins from hazardous waste incinerators by spray dryer absorption systems and activated carbon injection. Paper presented at 85th Annual Air & Waste Management Meeting. June 21–26, 1992, Kansas City, MO.Google Scholar
  11. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Published by the Office of the Federal Register National Archives and Rewards Administration. Washington, D.C. 20408. Mail order sales by Superintendent of Documents. Attn. New Orders, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250–7954. Title 40-Protection of the Environment, Chapter I-Environmental Protection Agency (15 volumes) Subchapter C-Air Programs, Parts 53–60 (one volume), parts 61–80 (one volume), parts 81–85 (one volume), and parts 86–99 (one volume).Google Scholar
  12. Collette, R. J. 1985. 1985 update on NOx emission control technology at combustion engineering. Paper presented at the Joint Symposium on Stationary Combustion NOx, Control. May 1985.Google Scholar
  13. Dighe, Dr. A. S., A. K. Kaul, and Svein Ole Strommen. 1992. The Flakt-Hydro process SO2 removal by seawater. Paper presented at the International Conference and Exhibition on Environmental Protection and Control Technology. October 28–31, 1992. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.Google Scholar
  14. Dravo Lime Company. 1990. FGD capabilities and experience. Paper prepared for Black & Veatch, December 6, 1990.Google Scholar
  15. EMRC. Energy and Environmental Measurement Corporation (EEMC). 3925 Placita de la Escarpa, Tucson, AZ 85715.Google Scholar
  16. Electric Power Research Institute. 1984. Operation and De-sign of FGD Dampers. EPRI CS-3709. Electric Power Research Institute. Prepared by Black & Veatch Engineers-Architects, Palo Alto, CA.Google Scholar
  17. Electric Power Research Institute. 1989. FGD Damper Guidelines: Volumes 1 and 2. EPRI GS-6569. Electric Power Research Institute. Prepared by Black & Veatch Engineers-Architects, Palo Alto, CA.Google Scholar
  18. Electric Power Research Institute. 1990. FGD Chemistry and Analytical Methods Handbook, Volume 1: Process Chemistry. EPRI CS-3612. Electric Power Research Institute. Prepared by Radian Corporation, August 1990, Austin, TX.Google Scholar
  19. Elliott, Thomas C., Ed. 1988. Standard Handbook of Powerplant Engineering. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  20. Environmental Elements Corporation. P. O. Box 1318, Baltimore, MD 21203.Google Scholar
  21. Felsang, Karsten and Bert Brown. 1992. High SO2 and mercury removal by dry FGD systems. Paper presented at the 1992 American Power Conference, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  22. Felsvang, Karsten, Niro-USA; Rick Glerser, Joy Environmental Technologies, Inc.; Gary Juip, Northern States Power Co.; and Kirsten Kragh Nielsen, Niro-Denmark. 1993. Air toxics control by spray dryer absorption. Paper presented at the 1993 SO2 Control Symposium, August 24–27, 1993, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  23. FGD and DeNOx. Newsletter. 1993. The Mcllvaine Company. No. 184. August 1993, Northbrook, IL.Google Scholar
  24. Forsythe, R. C. 1990. The advanced thiosorbic flue gas desulfurization process. Paper presented at the AREGC Conference. June 26, 1990, Baton Rouge, LA.Google Scholar
  25. Foster Wheeler Corporation. PenyVille Corporate Park, Clinton, NJ 08809–4000.Google Scholar
  26. General Electric Environmental Systems, Inc. (GEESI). 200 North Seventh Street, Lebanon, PA 17042.Google Scholar
  27. Getz, Norman et al. 1992. Demonstrated and innovative control technologies for lead, cadmium and mercury for municipal waste combustors. Paper presented at the 85th Annual Air & Waste Management Association Meeting. June 21–26, 1992, Kansas City, MO.Google Scholar
  28. Gleiser, Richard, Joy Environmental Technologies, Inc., and Karsten Felsvang, Niro A/S. 1994. Mercury emission reduction using activated carbon with spray dryer flue gas desulfurization. Paper presented at American Power Conference. April 25–27, 1994, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  29. Graf, R. E., B. Huckriede, H. Kessler, and S. Zimmer, Graf-EPE Gmbh. 1993. Commercial operating experience with advanced design, circulating fluid bed scrubbing. Paper presented at the 1993 SO2 Control Symposium. August 24–27, 1993, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  30. International Conference of Clean Air Companies (ICAC), formerly Industrial Gas Cleaning Institute (IGCI). 700 N. Fairfax Street, Suite 304, Alexandria, VA 22314. Publication Numbers EP-1 and EP-7.Google Scholar
  31. Jordan, Robert J. 1987. The feasibility of wet scrubbing for treating waste-to-energy flue gas. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association. Volume 34, No. 4. April 1987.Google Scholar
  32. Kawamura, Tomozuchi and D. J. Frey. 1980. Current Developments in LOW NOx Firing Systems, Paper read at Joint Symposium on Stationary Combustion NOx Control, October 6–9, 1980. Denver, CO.Google Scholar
  33. KBV/Analect. 9420 Jeronimo Avenue, Irvine, CA 92718.Google Scholar
  34. Laudall, Dennis, Stanley Miller, and Ramsey Chang. En hanced fine particulate control for reduced air toxics emissions. Undated technical paper.Google Scholar
  35. Lavely, Lloyd and Kim Mastalio. 1994. Circulating dry scrubber (CDS): cost effective FGD for clean coal plants. Paper presented at American Power Conference. April 25–27, 1994, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  36. Martinelli, R., T. Goots, and K. Redinger, Babcock & Wilcox. 1993. Least cost environmental protection: comparison of emerging SO2 control technologies. Paper presented at Power-Gen Americas. November 17–19, 1993, Dallas, TX.Google Scholar
  37. Martinelli, Robert, Thomas R. Goots, and Paul S. Nolan, Babcock & Wilcox. 1993. Economic comparisons of energy SO2 control technologies. Paper presented at the 1993 SO2 Control Symposium. August 24–27, 1993, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  38. Mastalio, K. I., L. L. Lavely, and T. M. Ohlmacher. 1993. A fully flexible air quality control system for stringent SO2 and particulate emission limitation. Paper presented at Power-Gen Americas. November 17–19, 1993, Dallas, TX.Google Scholar
  39. Miller, M. J., Ed. 1985. SO 2 and NO Retrofit Control Technolo gies Handbook. Prepared by Electric Power Research Institute. EPRI CS-4277-SR. October 1985, Palo Alto, CA.Google Scholar
  40. Munters: The Incentive Group. 1205 Sixth Street Southeast, Fort Myers, FL 33907.Google Scholar
  41. Muzio, L. J., et al. 1991. N2O Formation is Selective Non-Catalytic NOx Reduction Processes. Paper presented at EPA/EPRI 1991 Joint Symposium on Stationary Combustion NOx Control. March 25–28, 1991, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  42. Neme, C. 1991. Electric Utilities and Long Range Transport of Mercury and Other Toxic Air Pollutants. Center for Clean Air Policy. November 1991, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  43. Nischt, W., D. W. Johnson, and M. G. Milobowski. 1991. Economic comparison of materials of construction of wet FGD absorbers and internals. Paper presented at the 1991 SO2 Control Symposium. December 3–6, 1991, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  44. Nyman, Goran B. G., Arvid Tokerud, and Nils Moevik. 1991. Scrubbing by seawater, a simple method of removing of SO2 from flue gases. Paper presented at the National Petroleum Refiners Association 1991 Annual Meeting. March 17–19,1991, San Antonio, TX.Google Scholar
  45. Riley Stoker Corporation. 5 Neponset Street, P. O. Box 15040, Worcester, MA 01615–0040.Google Scholar
  46. Rosenberg, Harvey S., Gerald O. Davis, Barry Hindin, Paul Radclirru, and Barry Syrett. 1991. Guidelines for FGD materials selection and corrosion protection. Paper presented at the 1991 SO2 Control Symposium. December 3–6, 1991, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  47. Saleem, A. Sr. Vice President, General Electric Environmental Services, Inc.; Kent E. Janssen, Vice President and COO, Dakota Gasification Company; Paul A. Ireland, Chief Engineer-Air Pollution Control, Raytheon Engineers and Constructors. 1993. Ammonia scrubbing of SO2 comes of age with in situ forced oxidation. Paper given at the 1993 SO2 Control Symposium. August 24–26, 1993, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  48. Sierra Instruments. 5 Harris Court, Building L, Monterey, CA 93940.Google Scholar
  49. Singer, Joseph G., Ed. 1981. Combustion Fossil Power Systems. Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT.Google Scholar
  50. Stultz, S. C. and J. B. Kitto, Eds. 1992. Steam: Its Generation and Use. Babcock and Wilcox Company, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  51. Sturn, Bernard J. 1981. Fate of Trace Elements in Coal Used in Power Plants. Black & Veatch Special Report. August, 1981.Google Scholar
  52. Svedala Industries, Inc. 240 Arch Street, P. O. Box 15312, York, PA 17405–7312.Google Scholar
  53. Tampella Power Corporation. 2600 Reach Road, P. O. Box 3308, Williamsport, PA 17701–0308.Google Scholar
  54. Tumati, P. R. and M. S. Devito. Retention of condensed/solid phase trace elements in an electrostatic precipitator. Consolidated Coal Company. Undated technical paper.Google Scholar
  55. White, David M. et al. 1992. Parametric evaluation of powdered activated carbon injection for control of mercury emissions from a municipal waste combustor. Paper presented at 85th Annual Air & Waste Management Association Meeting. June 21–26, 1992, Kansas City, MO.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lloyd L. Lavely
  • Alan W. Ferguson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations