Humoral Immune Response to Human Cytomegalovirus
Human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with several diseases in immunocompromised individuals. Diagnosis of CMV infection can be obtained by direct demonstration of the virus or virus components in pathological materials or indirectly through serology. Serological diagnosis gives only indirect evidence of the presence of the virus, and is problematic because of the immunological disorders occurring in most patients at risk of developing a CMV infection. Furthermore, antigenic reagents used in commercially available kits are not standardized and discordant results are often obtained. However serology is cheaper than the other diagnostic tests, requires a short execution time, is safe and can be completely automized.
Furthermore the rapid evolution triggered by the detailed study of the viral genome and its antigenic gene products has allowed a rapid progress in CMV serology. Therefore, it is worthwhile exploring the possible application fields in which the use of serology is justified now adays. This is what this review will attempt to do in general terms and in bone marrow transplant recipients in particular.
KeywordsUrea Pneumonia Polypeptide Astrocytoma Acyclovir
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.. Ho M Cytomegalovirus. Biology and Infection. II Edition. Plenum Medical Press, New York and London, 1991.Google Scholar
- 2.. Britt, W.J. Infections associated with human cytomegalovirus. Chapter 2 of “Herpesvirus Infections” R. Glaser and J.F. Jones Editors, Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York. 1994.Google Scholar
- 3.. Landini M P. New approaches and perspectives in cytomegalovirus diagnosis. Prog Med Virol 1993; 4, 157 – 177.Google Scholar
- 5.. The TH, van der Berg AP, van Son WJ, et al. Recent advances in the early and reliable immunodiagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection in immunocompromised hosts, in Landini MP, ed: Progress in Cytomegalovirus Research, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991: 209.Google Scholar
- 10.. Koerner K, Kilian D, Zimmermann B, Nebel Schickel H, Horn J. Comparison of four different ELISAs and indirect immunofluorescence for screening of blood donors for antibodies to Cytomegalovirus. Biotest Bull 4: 119 – 123, 1990.Google Scholar
- 13.. Doerr HW and Albert S. New developments in CMV antibody screening. Biotest Bull 4: 125 – 130, 1990.Google Scholar
- 22.. Vornhagen R, Plachter B, Hinderer W, Bein G, The TH, Matter L, Sonneborn HH, Jahn G. Serodiagnosis of acute and past HCMV-infection using recombinant autologous fusion proteins. Cytomegalovirus workshop, Stockholm 1995Google Scholar
- 23.. Snydman DR. Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulins in the prevention and treatment of Cytomegalovirus disease. Rev Inf Dis 12 (sup7): 839–848.Google Scholar
- 24.. Mach M. and Britt W Immunoprophylaxix of human cytomegalovirus infections in Progress in Progress in Cytomegalovirus Research, MP Landini Ed, 1991, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- 31.. Wagner B, Kropff B, Kalbacher H, Britt WJ, Sundqvist VA, Ostberg L, Mach M. A continuous sequence of more than 70 aminoacids is essential for antibody binding to the dominant antigenic site of glycoprotein gp58 of human cytomegalovirus. J Virol 66: 5290 – 5297, 1992a.Google Scholar
- 32.. Ohlin M, Sundqvist, VA, Gilljam G, Ruden U, Gombert FO, Wharen B, Borrebaeck CA. Characterization of human monoclonal antibodies directed against the pp65 matrix antigen of human cytomegalovirus. Clin Expt Immunol 84: 508 – 514, 1991.Google Scholar
- 38.. Ripalti A, Ruan Q, Boccuni MC, Campanini F, Bergamini G and Landini MP Construction of a polyepitope fusion antigens of human cytomegalovirus ppUL32: reactivity with human antibodies J Clin Microbiol 1994; 32: 358 – 363.Google Scholar
- 39.. Ripalti A, Boccuni MC, Campanini F, Bergamini G, Lazzarotto T, Battista MC, Dalla Casa B, Landini MP. Construction of a polyepitope fusion antigen of human cytomegalovirus ppUL32 and detection of specific antibodies by ELISA. Microbiologica 18: 1 – 12, 1994Google Scholar
- 40.. Ripalti A, Dal Monte P, Boccuni, MC, Campanini, F, Lazzarotto T, Campisi B, Ruan Q, Landini MP. Prokaryotic expression of a large fragment of the most antigenic cytomegalovirus DNA-binding protein (ppUL44) and its reactivity with human antibodies. J Virol Methods 1994; 46: 39 – 50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 42.. Vornhagen, R, Hinderer, W, Sonneborg, HH, Bein, G, Matter, L, The, TH, Jahn, G, Plachter, B. The DNA-binding protein pUL57 of Human Cytomegalovirus is a major terget antigen for the immunoglobulin M antibody response during acute infection. J Clin Microbiol 33: 1927 – 1930, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 43.. Maine, GT, Lazzarotto, T, Chovan, LE, Flanders, R, and Landini, MP. The DNA-binding protein pUL57 of human Cytomegalovirus: Comparison of specific Immunoglobulin M (IgM) reactivity with IgM reactivity to other major terget antigens. Clin Diag Lab Immunol 3: 358 – 360, 1996.Google Scholar
- 44.. Landini MP, Lazzarotto T, Maine GT, Ripalti A, Flanders R. recombinant mono and poly antigens to detect Cytomegalovirus-specific IgM in human sera by enzyme immunoassay. J Clin Microbiol 1995; submitted.Google Scholar
- 45.. Weber W, Nestler U, Ernst W, Rabenau H, Braner J, Birkenbach A, Scheuermann EH, Schoeppe W, Doerr HW. Low correlation of human cytomegalovirus DNA amplification byn polymerase chain reaction with cytomegalovirus disease in organ transplant recipients. J Med Virol. 1994; 43: 187 – 193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 46.. Ghisetti V, Barbui A, Lazzarotto T, Donegani E, Ripalti A, Dal Monte P Bobbio, di Summa M, Marchiaro G, Landini MP. Comparison between virology and serology for the follow upof cytomegalovirus infection in heart transplant recipients. Transplantation, submitted.Google Scholar