CD34 Quantitative Flow Cytometry Study of the Blastic Population in Acute Leukemias
Quantitative flow cytometry analysis of membrane antigens is becoming a routinely approach in the analysis of the blastic population in acute leukemias. By flow cytometry (FACScan B.D.), we analysed CD34 quantitative expression on the blastic population of 48 patients affected by acute leukemias (39 AML, 9 ALL). The blastic population was defined by means of strategical double fluorescence combinations of monoclonal antibodies. Patients were subdivided into four groups: de novo AML (24 pts), secondary AML (15 pts), relapses of AML (8 pts) and ALL (9 pts). A significant higher intensity of expression was demonstrated in secondary AML (p=0.019) and at relapses (p=0.026). At relapse, a higher percentage of CD34 positivity and a higher intensity of CD34 expression were observed. When considering AML FAB distribution a significant higher CD34 intensity of expression was demonstrated in M0, M1 and M4 (p=0.003). When subdividing patients according to negative, weak and bright CD34 intensity of expression, the 93.3% of secondary AML had a bright, expression while only a 50% of de novo AML was recorded in the bright CD34 group. Only one secondary AML had negative CD34 expression while the 33.3% of de novo AML was CD34 negative (p=0.02). Secondary AML demonstrated a lower CD33 and a higher HLA-DR intensity of expression. According this quantitative CD34 analysis and considering the models of immunological development of hemopoiesis, we may prospect that in secondary AML the neoplastic event prevalently involve a stem cell at an earlier stage of development. We think that from the combination of more antigens on a larger series of patients and considering a combined immunological and cytogenetic study we may confirm the important role of flow cytometry in the study of the heterogeneity of immunological findings in acute leukemias with biological and prognostic implications.
KeywordsAcute Myeloid Leukemia Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Acute Leukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patient CD34 Percentage
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