Agip and the Environment

Disposal of Produced Water from Gas Fields Exploitation in the Adriatic Sea
  • M. Buffagni
  • D. Giacca
  • C. Biancifiori
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 52)

Abstract

The exploitation of oil and gas fields is generally accompanied by the production of variable amounts of water associated with the reservoir hydrocarbons. This naturally occurring water could sometimes be mixed with waters injected purposely into the formation in order to keep the reservoir pressure constant. Furthermore, in the specific case of gas fields (generally characterized by lower amounts of water than oil fields though more difficult to be treated), there could be also condensed water resulting from pressure and temperature variations. The total amount of water generated during the life of a field may be very high, reaching volumes up to 10 times more than the volume of the hydrocarbons produced. This is particularly true in the case of oil fields and usually the situation worsens with the age of the field: older fields produce more water than newer fields.

Keywords

Nickel Toxicity High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mercury Chromium 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. E& P Forum. (1993). North sea produced water fate and effects in the marine environment. E & P Report., No. X.XX/XXX, 68pp.Google Scholar
  2. Johnsen, S., Smith, A.T., Brandehaug, J. (1994). Identification of acute toxicity sources in produced water. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Health, Safety & Environment in oil & gas exploration & production. SPE 27138, 383–390.Google Scholar
  3. Marsid, M., Siwito, S. (1994). Produced water treatment. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Health, Safety & Environment in oil & gas exploration & amp; production. SPE 27177, 699–705.Google Scholar
  4. OECD. (1981). OECD guidelines for testing of chemicals. Partition coefficient n-octanol/water. OECD Method No. 107.Google Scholar
  5. OECD. (1984). OECD guidelines for testing of chemicals. Daphnia Magna, acute immobilization test and reproduction test. OECD Method 202.Google Scholar
  6. OECD. (1990). OECD guidelines for testing of chemical’s biodegradability in seawater. Closed Bottle Test. OECD Method No. 301 D.Google Scholar
  7. Schiff, K.C., Reish, D.J., Anderson, J.W., Bay, S.M. (1992). A comparative evaluation of produced water toxicity. Enviro., Sci. Research., 46, 199–207.Google Scholar
  8. Sorstrom, S.E., Aunaas, T., Bjerken, S., Brakstad, O.G., Johansen, O., Kaarstad, I., Mork, G., Stromgren, T., Thendrup, A. (1992). Produced water. Chemical and toxicity study. Report of IKU., No. 222059.00/01/02, 75pp.Google Scholar
  9. Stephenson, M.T. (1992). Components of produced water: a compilation of results from several industrystudies. Petroleum Technology 44, 548–603.Google Scholar
  10. Tibbets, P.J.C., Buchanan, I.T., Gawel, L.J., Large, R. (1992). A comprehensive determination of produced water composition. Enviro., Sci. Research., 46, 97–112.Google Scholar
  11. Vanhaecke, P., Persoone, G. (1984). The ARC-test: a standardized short-term routine toxicity test with Artemia nauplii. Methodology and evaluation. In Persoone, G., Jaspers, E., Claus, C., eds., Ecotoxicological testing for the marine environment., 2, 143–157.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Buffagni
    • 1
  • D. Giacca
    • 1
  • C. Biancifiori
    • 2
  1. 1.AGIP S.p.A. Drilling fluids and Field Operations LaboratoriesMilanoItaly
  2. 2.AGIP S.p.A. Geodynamics and EnvironmentMilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations