Session Summary for Section V
Environmental modelling provides a logical and internally consistent framework for evaluating and comparing alternative management strategies. The papers presented in this session reflect distinctly different approaches to the development and use of models. The first paper, by Edgar Furuholt of Statoil, describes a method for risk analysis of marine discharges using the concept of dose. The subsequent three papers, respectively by Albert Bos of Servo Delden, Gro Øfjord et al. of Aquateam, and Henk Schobben et al of TNO, all deal with the CHARM (Chemical Hazard Assessment and Risk Management) model. CHARM was developed to provide a simple screening tool for the use and discharge of chemicals offshore, and relies solely on the comparison of potential environmental and no-effect concentrations, rather than actual exposure or dose. The final paper, by Reed et al. of IKU Petroleum Research represents an effort to provide realistic exposures and resulting internal body burdens for both passive and actively swimming marine organisms. Each of these modelling approaches has a clear place in the environmental manager’s toolbox, providing risk assessment capabilities over a range of complexity and specificity.