The Role of Oxygenic Phototrophic Microorganisms in Production and Conversion of Dimethylsulfoniopropioniate and Dimethylsulfide in Microbial Mats
The dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) content of several strains of benthic marine cyanobacteria and diatoms was determined. We were unable to detect this compound in any of the cyanobacterial strains even though some of these had been isolated from cyanobacteria-dominated (sub)tidal sediments in which we had measured considerable amounts of DMSP. The diatom Cylindrotheca closterium contained an average concentration of about 4 mmoles DMSP (g Chla)-1 and a strain of Navicula sp. contained approximately 30 jumoles DMSP (g Chla)-1. DMSP production by diatoms seems to be highly species-specific but it provides a potential source for the DMSP encountered in the sediment. The role of cyanobacteria in the transformation of DMSP and DMS was limited. The strains that were tested were not able to oxidize DMS during anoxygenic photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria are probably not able to cleave DMSP enzymatically to DMS and acrylate, however the rise in pH they cause as a result of the photosynthetic C02 fixation may lead to the enhanced chemical hydrolysis of DMSP. A strain of the cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. reduced DMSO to DMS during fermentation under anoxic dark conditions. This is another potential source of DMS in coastal marine sediments.
KeywordsBiomass Sulfide Chlorophyll DMSO Phytoplankton
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Cohen, Y., B.B. Jorgensen, N.P. Revsbech and R. Poplawski. 1986. Adaptation to hydrogen sulfide of oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis among cyanobacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 51: 398–407.Google Scholar
- 3.Granroth, B. and T. Hattula. 1976. Formation of dimethyl sulfide by brackish water algae and its possible implication for the flavor of baltic herring. Finn. Chem. Lett.: 148–150.Google Scholar
- 10.Kelly, D.R and N.A. Smith. 1990. Organic sulfur compounds in the enironment: Biogeochemistry, microbiology, and ecological aspects. Adv. Microbial Ecol. 11: 345–385.Google Scholar
- 15.McKinney, G. 1941. Absorption of light by chlorophyll solutions. J. Biol. Chem. 140: 315–322.Google Scholar
- 16.Moezelaar, R. 1995. Fermentation in the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa and Microcoleus chthonoplastes. PhD thesis, University of Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- 18.Rippka, R., J. Deruelles, J.B. Waterbury, M. Herdman and R.Y Stanier. 1979. Generic assignment, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria. J. Gen. Microbiol. 111: 1–61.Google Scholar
- 19.Stal, L.J. 1991. The metabolic versatility of the mat-building cyanobacteria Microcoleus chthonoplastes and Oscillatoria limosa and its ecological significance. Alg. Stud. 64: 453–467.Google Scholar
- 20.Stal, L.J. 1991. The sulfur metabolism of mat-building cyanobacteria in anoxic marine sediments. Kieler Meeresforsch., Sonderh. 8: 152–157.Google Scholar
- 22.Stal, L.J. and W.E. Krumbein. 1986. Metabolism of cyanobacteria in anaerobic marine sediments. Deuxième Colloque International de Bactériologie Marine. Actes de Colloques 3: 301–309. Gerbam, Ifremer, Brest, France.Google Scholar
- 33.White, R.H. 1982. Analysis of dimethyl sulfonium compounds in marine algae. J. Marine Res. 40: 529–536.Google Scholar