Human Conversion of Terrestrial Habitats

  • Peter August
  • Louis Iverson
  • Jarunee Nugranad


In this chapter, we describe how human activities change the abundance and quality of terrestrial habitats and discuss the ecological implications of these changes for biota. We begin by identifying fundamental principles associated with human conversion of terrestrial habitats and how fauna and flora respond to habitat conversion. We present a number of examples of how landscape ecologists and conservation biologists use these basic principles of land-cover change to develop management strategies to minimize ecological impacts from habitat loss. Next, we discuss principles for applying landscape ecology. We identify major voids in ecological theory and existing data that need to be filled for land managers to be better prepared to apply the principles of landscape ecology to biological conservation. Finally, we suggest research approaches that may be used to fill knowledge gaps. Although social and economic considerations are fundamental to landcover change dynamics (Riebsame et al. 1994), detailed discussion of these factors is beyond the scope of this book; therefore, we focus our remarks on the ecological aspects of human conversion of terrestrial habitats.


Geographic Information System Landscape Ecology Landscape Pattern Terrestrial Habitat Matrix Habitat 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abrams, M.D. 1994. Fire and the development of oak forests. BioScience 42:346–353.Google Scholar
  2. Abrams, M.D. 1998. The red maple paradox. BioScience 48:355–364.Google Scholar
  3. Ahern, J. 1995. Greenways as a planning strategy. Landsc. Urban Plan. 33:131–155.Google Scholar
  4. Ambrose, J.P., and Bratton, S.P. 1990. Trends in landscape heterogeneity along the borders of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Conserv. Biol. 4:135–143.Google Scholar
  5. Andrén, H. 1994. Effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in landscapes with different proportions of suitable habitat: a review. Oikos 71:355–366.Google Scholar
  6. Anonymous. 1998. What is the NBII? In Access: Newsletter of the National Biological Information Infrastructure, ed. R. Sepic, p. 2. Reston, Virginia: National Biological Information Infrastructure National Program Office.Google Scholar
  7. August, P.V., Baker, C., LaBash, C., and Smith, C. 1996. Geographic information systems for the storage and analysis of biodiversity data. In Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods for Mammals, eds. D. Wilson, F.R. Cole, J.D. Nichols, R. Rudran, and M.S. Foster, pp. 235–246. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  8. August, P.V., Michaud, J., LaBash, C., and Smith, C. 1994. GPS for environmental applications: accuracy and precision of positional data. Photogramm. Eng. Rem. Sens. 60:41–45.Google Scholar
  9. Baydack, R.K., Campa, H., III, and Haufler, J.B. 1999. Practical Approaches to the Conservation of Biological Diversity. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bayne, E.M., and Hobson, K.A. 1997. Comparing the effects of landscape fragmentation by forestry and agriculture on predation of artificial nests. Conserv. Biol. 11:1418–1429.Google Scholar
  11. Bierregaard, R.O., Lovejoy, T.E., Kapos, V., Dos Santos, A.A., and Hutchings, R.W. 1992. The biological dynamics of tropical rainforest fragments. BioScience 42:859–866.Google Scholar
  12. Blair, R.B. 1996. Land use and avian species diversity along an urban gradient. Ecol. Appl. 6:506–519.Google Scholar
  13. Bolger, D.T., Alberts, A.C., Sauvajot, R.M., Potenza, P., McCalvin, C., Tran, D., Mazzoni, S., and Soulé, M.E., 1997a. Response of rodents to habitat fragmentation in coastal southern California. Ecol. Appl. 7:552–563.Google Scholar
  14. Bolger, D.T., Scott, T.A., and Rotenberry, J.T. 1997b. Breeding bird abundance in an urbanizing landscape in coastal southern California. Conserv. Biol. 11:406–421.Google Scholar
  15. Browder, J.O., Bohland, J.R., and Scarpaci, J.L. 1995. Patterns of development on the metropolitan fringe: urban fringe expansion in Bangkok, Jakarta, and Santiago. J. Am. Plan. Assoc. 61:310–327.Google Scholar
  16. Bueno, J.A., Tsihrintzis, V.A., and Alvarez, L. 1995. South Florida greenways: a conceptual framework for the ecological reconnectivity of the region. Landsc. Urban Plan. 33:247–266.Google Scholar
  17. Churcher, P.B., and Lawton, J.H. 1987. Predation by domestic cats in an English village. J. Zool. 212:439–455.Google Scholar
  18. Dale, V.H., O’Neill, R.V., Pedlowski, M.A., and Southworth, F. 1993. Causes and effects of land-use change in Central Rondônia, Brazil. Photogramm. Eng. Rem. Sens. 59:997–1005.Google Scholar
  19. Dale, V.H., O’Neill, R.V., Southworth, F., and Pedlowski, M.A. 1994a. Modeling effects of land management in the Brazilian settlement of Rondônia. Conserv. Biol. 8:196–206.Google Scholar
  20. Dale, V.H., Pearson, S.M., Offerman, H.L., and O’Neill, R.V. 1994b. Relating patterns of land-use change to faunal biodiversity in the central Amazon. Conserv. Biol. 8:1027–1036.Google Scholar
  21. Davis, F.W., Stine, P.A., Stoms, D.M., Borchert, M.I., and Hollander, A.D. 1995. GAP analysis of the actual vegetation of California 1: the southwestern region. Madrono 42:40–78.Google Scholar
  22. Dettmers, R., and Bart, J. 1999. A GIS modeling method applied to predicting forest songbird habitat. Ecol. Appl. 9:152–163.Google Scholar
  23. Dunn, C.P., Sharpe, D.M., Guntenspergen, G.R., Stearns, F., and Yang, Z. 1990. Methods for analyzing temporal changes in landscape pattern. In Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology: The Analysis and Interpretation of Landscape Heterogeneity, eds. M.G. Turner and R.H. Gardner, pp. 173–198. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  24. Esseen, P, and Renhorn, K. 1998. Edge effects on an epiphytic lichen in fragmented forests. Conserv. Biol. 12:1307–1317.Google Scholar
  25. Estades, C.F., and Temple, S.A. 1999. Deciduous forest bird communities in a fragmented landscape dominated by exotic pine plantations. Ecol. Appl. 9:573–585.Google Scholar
  26. Fahrig, L. 1997. Relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population extinction. J. Wildl. Manage. 61:603–610.Google Scholar
  27. Fastovsky, D., and Weishampel, D.B. 1996. The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Flather, C.H., Knowles, M.S., and Kendall, I.A. 1998. Threatened and endangered species geography. BioScience 48:365–376.Google Scholar
  29. Flather, C.H., and Sauer, J.R. 1996. Using landscape ecology to test hypotheses about large-scale abundance patterns in migratory birds. Ecology 77:28–35.Google Scholar
  30. Forman, R.T.T. 1995. Land Mosaics: The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Forman, R.T.T., and Alexander, L.E. 1998. Roads and their major ecological effects. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 29:207–231.Google Scholar
  32. Foster, D.R. 1992. Land-use history (1730–1990) and vegetation dynamics in central New England, USA. J. Ecol. 80:753–772.Google Scholar
  33. Foster, D.R. 1995. Land use history and four hundred years of vegetation change in New England. In Global Land Use Change: A Perspective From the Colombian Encounter, eds. B.L. Turner, A. Gomez Sal, F. Gonzalez Bernaldez, and F. di Castri, pp. 253–319. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientifica.Google Scholar
  34. Foster, D.R., Motzkin, G., and Slater, B. 1998. Land-use history as long-term broad-scale disturbance: regional forest dynamics in central New England. Ecosystems 1:96–119.Google Scholar
  35. Foster, D., Zebryk, T., Schoonmaker, P., and Lezberg, A. 1992. Post-settlement history of human land-use and vegetation dynamics of a hemlock woodlot in central New England. J. Ecol. 80:773–786.Google Scholar
  36. Franklin, J. 1995. Predictive vegetation mapping: geographic modeling of biospatial patterns in relation to environmental gradients. Prog. Phys. Geog. 19:494–519.Google Scholar
  37. Franklin, J. 1998. Predicting the distribution of shrub species in southern California from climate and terrain-derived variables. J. Veg. Sci. 9:733–748.Google Scholar
  38. Franklin, J.F., and Forman, R.T.T. 1987. Creating landscape pattern by forest cutting: ecological consequences and principles. Landsc. Ecol. 1:5–18.Google Scholar
  39. Freemark, K.E. 1995. Assessing effects of agriculture on terrestrial wildlife: developing a hierarchical approach for the US EPA. Landsc. Urban Plan. 31:99–115.Google Scholar
  40. Friesen, L.E., Eagles, P.F.J., and Mackay, R.J. 1995. Effects of residential development on forest-dwelling Neotropical migrant songbirds. Conserv. Biol. 6:1408–1414.Google Scholar
  41. Fuentes, E.R. 1990. Vegetation change in Mediterranean-type habitats of Chile: patterns and processes. In Changing Landscapes: An Ecological Perspective, eds. I.S. Zonneveld and R.T.T. Forman, pp. 165–190. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  42. Germaine, S.S., Rosenstock, S.S., Schweinsburg, R.E., and Richardson, W.S. 1998. Relationships among breeding birds, habitat, and residential development in greater Tucson, Arizona. Ecol. Appl. 8:680–691.Google Scholar
  43. Goldsmith, F.B. 1991. Monitoring for Conservation and Ecology. London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  44. Greene, R. 1997. The farmland conversion process in a polynucleated metropolis. Landsc. Urban Plan. 36:291–300.Google Scholar
  45. Grove, J.M., and Burch, W.R., Jr. 1997. A social ecology approach and applications of urban ecosystem and landscape analyses: a case study of Baltimore, Maryland. Urban Ecosyst. 1:259–275.Google Scholar
  46. Gustafson, E.J. 1998. Quantifying landscape spatial pattern: what is the state of the art? Ecosystems 1:143–156.Google Scholar
  47. Haddad, N.M. 1999. Corridor and distance effects on interpatch movements: a landscape experiment with butterflies. Ecol. Appl. 9:612–622.Google Scholar
  48. Hanowski, J.M., Niemi, G.J., and Christian, D.C. 1997. Influence of within-plantation heterogeneity and surrounding landscape composition on avian communities in hybrid poplar plantations. Conserv. Biol. 11:936–944.Google Scholar
  49. Harris, L. 1984. The Fragmented Forest: Island Biogeography and the Preservation of Biological Diversity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  50. Hartley, M.J., and Hunter, M.L., Jr. 1998. A meta-analysis of forest cover, edge effects, and artificial nest predation rates. Conserv. Biol. 12:465–469.Google Scholar
  51. Houghton, R.A. 1994. The worldwide extent of land-use change. BioScience 44:305–313.Google Scholar
  52. Ilbery, B.W., and Evans, N.J. 1989. Estimating land loss on the urban fringe: a comparison of the agricultural census and aerial photograph/map evidence. Geography 74:214–221.Google Scholar
  53. Iverson, L.R. 1988. Land-use changes in Illinois, USA: the influence of landscape attributes on current and historic land use. Landsc. Ecol. 1:45–61.Google Scholar
  54. Iverson, L.R. 1991. Forest resources of Illinois: what do we have and what are they doing for us? Illinois Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 34:361–374.Google Scholar
  55. Iverson, L.R., Dale, M.E., Scott, C.T., and Prasad, A. 1997. A GIS-derived integrated moisture index to predict forest composition and productivity in Ohio forests. Landsc. Ecol. 12:331–348.Google Scholar
  56. Iverson, L.R., Graham, R.L., and Cook, E.A. 1989. Applications of satellite remote sensing to forested ecosystems. Landsc. Ecol. 3:131–143.Google Scholar
  57. Iverson, L.R., and Prasad, A.M. 1998a. Predicting abundance of 80 tree species following climate change in the eastern United States. Ecol. Monogr. 68:465–485.Google Scholar
  58. Iverson, L.R., and Prasad, A.M. 1998b. Estimating regional plant biodiversity with GIS modeling. Divers. Distrib. 4:49–61.Google Scholar
  59. Jensen, J. 1996. Introduction to Digital Image Processing: A Remote Sensing Perspective. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  60. Johnson, L.B. 1990. Analyzing spatial and temporal phenomena using geographical information systems: a review of ecological applications. Landsc. Ecol. 4:31–43.Google Scholar
  61. Koslowski, J., and Vass-Bowen, N. 1997. Buffering external threats to heritage conservation areas: a planner’s perspective. Landsc. Urban Plan. 37:245–267.Google Scholar
  62. Kummer, D.M., and Turner, B.L., III. 1994. The human causes of deforestation in southeast Asia. BioScience 44:323–328.Google Scholar
  63. LaGro, J.A., Jr. 1994. Population growth beyond the urban fringe: implications for rural land use policy. Landsc. Urban Plan. 28:143–158.Google Scholar
  64. LaGro, J.A., Jr., and DeGloria, S.D. 1992. Land use dynamics in an urbanizing nonmetropolitan county in New York State (USA). Landsc. Ecol. 7:275–289.Google Scholar
  65. Lande, R. 1988. Genetics and demography in biological conservation. Science 241:911–927.Google Scholar
  66. Lande, R. 1995. Mutation and conservation. Conserv. Biol. 9:782–791.Google Scholar
  67. Landis, J. 1995. Imagining land-use futures: applying the California urban futures model. J. Am. Plan. Assoc. 61:438–457.Google Scholar
  68. Laporte, N.T., Goetz, S.J., Justice, C.O., and Heinicke, M. 1998. A new land-cover map of central Africa derived from multi-resolution, multi-temporal AVHRR data. Int. J. Rem. Sens. 19:3537–3550.Google Scholar
  69. Lawton, J.H. 1999. Are there general laws in ecology? Oikos 84:177–192.Google Scholar
  70. Li, R. 1998. Potential of high-resolution satellite imagery for national mapping products. Photogramm. Eng. Rem. Sens. 59:1165–1170.Google Scholar
  71. Linehan, J., Gross, M., and Finn, J. 1995. Greenway planning: developing a landscape ecological network approach. Landsc. Urban Plan. 33:179–193.Google Scholar
  72. Luken, J.O., and Thieret, J.W. 1996. Amur honeysuckle, its fall from grace. BioScience 46:18–24.Google Scholar
  73. MacArthur, R.H., and Wilson, E.O. 1967. The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  74. MacCleery, D.W. 1992. American Forests, A History of Resiliency and Recovery. FS-540. Washington, DC: USD A Forest Service.Google Scholar
  75. MacKinnon, K. 1996. The Ecology of Kalimantan. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions.Google Scholar
  76. Malingreau, J.P., and Tucker, J.C. 1988. Large-scale deforestation in the southeastern Amazon Basin of Brazil. Ambio 17:49–55.Google Scholar
  77. May, R.M. 1988. Control of feline delinquency. Nature 332:392–393.Google Scholar
  78. McGarigal, K., and McComb, W.C. 1995. Relationships between landscape structure and breeding birds in the Oregon Coast Range. Ecol. Monogr. 65:235–260.Google Scholar
  79. Merriam, G. 1991. Corridors and connectivity: animal populations in heterogeneous environments. In Nature Conservation 2: The Role of Corridors, eds. D.A. Saunders and R.J. Hobbs, pp. 133–142. Chipping Norton, Australia: Surrey Beatty and Sons.Google Scholar
  80. Meyer, W.B., and Turner, B.L. 1992. Human population growth and global land-use/cover change. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 23:39–61.Google Scholar
  81. Miller, J.N., Brooks, R.P., and Croonquist, M.J. 1997. Effects of landscape pattern on bi-otic communities. Landsc. Ecol. 12:137–153.Google Scholar
  82. Mladenoff, D.J., Sickley, T.A., and Wydeven, A.P. 1999. Predicting gray wolf landscape recolonization: logistic regression models vs. new field data. Ecol. Appl. 9:37–44.Google Scholar
  83. Myers, N. 1980. Conversion of Moist Tropical Forests. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  84. Naiman, R.J., Décamps, H., and Pollock, M. 1993. The role of riparian corridors in maintaining regional biodiversity. Ecol. Appl. 3:209–212.Google Scholar
  85. National Research Council. 1993. A Biological Survey for the Nation. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  86. Nichols, W., Killingbeck, K.T., and August, P.V. 1998. The influence of geomorphological heterogeneity on biodiversity: II. a landscape perspective. Conserv. Biol. 12:371–379.Google Scholar
  87. Nilon, C.H., Long, C.N., and Zipperer, W.C. 1995. Effects of wildland development on forest bird communities. Landsc. Urban Plan. 32:81–92.Google Scholar
  88. Noss, R.R, O’Connell, M.A., and Murphy, D. 1997. The Science of Conservation Planning: Habitat Conservation Under the Endangered Species Act. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  89. Nusser, S.M., and Goebel, J.J. 1997. The National Resources Inventory: a long-term multi-resource monitoring program. Environ. Monit. Assess. 4:181–204.Google Scholar
  90. Odum, E.P., and Turner, M. 1990. The Georgian landscape: a changing resource. In Changing Landscapes: An Ecological Perspective, eds. I.S. Zonneveld and R.T.T. Forman, pp. 137–164. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  91. Ojima, D.S., Galvin, K.A., and Turner, B.L., III. 1994. The global impact of land-use change. BioScience 44:300–304.Google Scholar
  92. O’Keefe, J.F., and Foster, D. 1998. An ecological history of Massachusetts forests. In Stepping Back to Look Forward: A History of Massachusetts Forests, ed. C.H. Foster, pp. 19–66. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  93. O’Neill, R.V., Hunsaker, C.T., Jones, K.B., Riitters, K.H., Wickham, J.D., Schwartz, P.M., Goodman, I.A., Jackson, B.L., and Baillargeon, W.S. 1997. Monitoring environmental quality at the landscape scale. BioScience 47:513–519.Google Scholar
  94. O’Neill, R.V., Krummel, J.R., Gardner, R.H., Sugihara, G., Jackson, B., DeAngelis, D.L., Milne, B.T., Turner, M.G., Zygmunt, B., Christensen, S.W., Dale, V.H., and Graham, R.L. 1988. Indices of landscape pattern. Landsc. Ecol. 1:153–162.Google Scholar
  95. Paton, P.W.C. 1994. The effect of edge on avian nest success: how strong is the evidence? Conserv. Biol. 8:17–26.Google Scholar
  96. Pearlstine, L.G., Brandt, L.A., Mazzotti, F.J., and Kitchens, W.M. 1997. Fragmentation of pine flatwood and marsh communities converted for ranching and citrus. Landsc. Urban Plan. 38:159–169.Google Scholar
  97. Peck, S. 1998. Planning for Biodiversity: Issues and Examples. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  98. Pedlowski, M.A., Dale, V.H., Matricardi, E.A.T., and Pereira da Silva Filho, E. 1997. Patterns and impacts of deforestation in Rondônia, Brazil. Landsc. Urban Plan. 38:149–157.Google Scholar
  99. Preiss, E., Martin, J.-L., and Debussche, M. 1997. Rural depopulation and recent landscape changes in a Mediterranean region: consequences to the breeding avifauna. Landsc. Ecol. 12:51–61.Google Scholar
  100. Riebsame, W.E., Parton, W.J., Galvin, K.A., Burke, I.C., Bohren, L., Young, R., and Knop, E. 1994. Integrated modeling of land use and cover change. BioScience 44:350–356.Google Scholar
  101. Rookwood, P. 1995. Landscape planning for biodiversity. Landsc. Urban Plan. 31:379–385.Google Scholar
  102. Rosenberg, D.K., Noon, B.R., and Meslow, E.C. 1997. Biological corridors: form, function, and efficacy. BioScience 47:677–687.Google Scholar
  103. Rottenborn, S.C. 1999. Predicting the impacts of urbanization on riparian bird communities. Biol. Conserv. 88:289–299.Google Scholar
  104. Sader, S.A., and Joyce, A.T. 1988. Deforestation rates and trends in Costa Rica, 1940 to 1983. Biotropica 20:11–19.Google Scholar
  105. Scheer, B.C., and Mintcho, P. 1998. Edge city morphology: a comparison of commercial centers. J. Am. Plan. Assoc. 64:298–310.Google Scholar
  106. Scott, C.T. 1998. Sampling methods for estimating change in forest resources. Ecol. Appl. 8:228–233.Google Scholar
  107. Scott, J.M., Davis, F.W, Csuti, B., Noss, R., Butterfield, B., Groves, C., Anderson, H., Caicco, S., D’Erchia, F.D., Edwards, T.C., Ulliman, J., and Wright, R.G. 1993. Gap analysis: a geographic approach to protection of biological diversity. Wildl. Monogr. 123:1–41.Google Scholar
  108. Simberloff, D., Farr, J.A., Cox, J., and Mehlman, D.W. 1992. Movement corridors: conservation bargains or poor investments? Conserv. Biol. 6:493–504.Google Scholar
  109. Sisk, T.D., Haddad, N.M., and Ehrlich, P. 1997. Bird assemblages in patchy woodlands: modeling the effects of edge and matrix habitats. Ecol. Appl. 7:1170–1180.Google Scholar
  110. Sisk, T.D., Launer, A.E., Switky, K.R., and Ehrlich, P.R. 1994. Identifying extinction threats. BioScience 44:592–604.Google Scholar
  111. Skole, D., and Tucker, C. 1993. Tropical deforestation and habitat fragmentation in the Amazon: satellite data from 1978–1988. Science 260:1905–1910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Soulé, M.E., Bolger, D.T., Alberts, A.C., Wright, J., Sorice, M., and Hill, S. 1988. Reconstructed dynamics of rapid extinctions of chaparral-requiring birds in urban habitat islands. Conserv. Biol. 2:75–92.Google Scholar
  113. Soulé, M.E., and Terborgh, J., eds. 1999. Continental Conservation: Scientific Foundations of Regional Reserve Networks. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  114. Stanford, J.A. 1996. A protocol for ecosystem management. Ecol. Appl. 6:741–744.Google Scholar
  115. Stohlgren, T.J., Binkley, D., Chong, G.W., Kalkham, M.A., Schell, L.D., Bull, K.A., Otsuki, Y., Newman, G., Bashkin, M., and Son, Y. 1999. Exotic plant species invade hot spots of native plant diversity. Ecol. Monogr. 69:25–46.Google Scholar
  116. Swanson, F.J., Franklin, J.F., and Sedell, J.R. 1990. Landscape patterns, disturbance, and management in the Pacific Northwest, USA. In Changing Landscapes: An Ecological Perspective, eds. I.S. Zonneveld and R.T.T. Forman, pp. 190–213. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  117. Torres, S.G. 2000. Counting cougars in California. Outdoor Calif 61:7–9.Google Scholar
  118. Torres, S.G., Mansfield, T.M., Foley, J.E., Lupo, T., and Brinkhaus, A. 1996. Mountain lion and human activity in California: testing speculations. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 24:451–160.Google Scholar
  119. Trzcinski, M.K., Fahrig, L., and Merriam, G. 1999. Independent effects of forest cover and fragmentation on the distribution of forest breeding birds. Ecol. Appl. 9:586–593.Google Scholar
  120. Turner, M.G., Carpenter, S.R., Gustafson, E.J., Naiman, R.J., and Pearson, S.M. 1998. Land use. In Status and Trends of the Nation’s Biological Resources, eds. M.J. Mac, P.A. Opler, C.E. Puckett Haecker, and P.D. Doran, pp. 37–61. Reston, Virginia: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.Google Scholar
  121. Turner, M.G., Dale, V.H., and Everham, E.H., III. 1997. Fires, hurricanes, and volcanoes: comparing large disturbances. BioScience 47:758–768.Google Scholar
  122. Turner, M.G., and Ruscher, C.L. 1988. Changes in landscape patterns in Georgia, USA. Landsc. Ecol. 1:241–251.Google Scholar
  123. Wahlberg, N., Moilanen, A., and Hanski, I. 1996. Predicting the occurrence of endangered species in fragmented landscapes. Science 273:1536–1538.Google Scholar
  124. Wegener, M. 1994. Operational urban models: state of the art. J. Am. Plan. Assoc. 60:17–29.Google Scholar
  125. White, D., Minotti, P.G., Barczak, M.J., Sifneos, J.C., Freemark, K.E., Santelmann, M.V., Steinitz, CF., Kiester, A.R., and Preston, E.M. 1997. Assessing risks to biodiversity from future landscape change. Conserv. Biol. 11:349–360.Google Scholar
  126. Wilcove, D.S., Rothstein, D., Dubow, J., Phillips, A., and Losos, E. 1998. Quantifying threats to imperiled species in the United States. BioScience 48:607–615.Google Scholar
  127. Wiser, S.K., Peet, R.K., and White, R.S. 1998. Prediction of rare-plant occurrence: a southern Appalachian example. Ecol. Appl. 8:909–920.Google Scholar
  128. Woodroffe, R., and Ginsberg, J.R. 1998. Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas. Science 280:2126–2128.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter August
  • Louis Iverson
  • Jarunee Nugranad

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations