The Second Shift

  • Meredith Mitchell
  • Marjorie A. Bowman
  • Erica Frank


Female and male physicians share many joys and stresses, but women physicians may be more involved with the tasks of domestic life.


Child Care Female Physician Domestic Activity Career Satisfaction Male Physician 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. American Medical Association. Women in medicine in America: in the mainstream. AMA, Chicago, 1991.Google Scholar
  2. American Medical Association. Women in medicine: 1998 data source. AMA, Chicago, 1998.Google Scholar
  3. Aneshensel CS, Pearlin LI. Structural contexts of sex differences in stress. In: Barnett RC, Beiner L, Baruch GK, eds. Gender and stress. The Free Press, Macmillan, New York, 1987. p 75–95.Google Scholar
  4. Angell M. Juggling a personal and professional life. J Am Med Wom Assoc 1982; 37(3):64–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnett RC, Biener L, Baruch GK, eds. Gender and stress. The Free Press, Macmillan, New York, 1987.Google Scholar
  6. Bird CE. Gender, household labor, and psychological distress: the impact of the amount and division of housework. J Health Soc Behav 1999; 40:32–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonar J, Watson J, et al. Sex differences in career and family plans of medical students. J Am Med Wom Assoc 1982;37(11):300–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown JB. Female family doctors: their work and well-being. Fam Med 1992; 24:591–595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bryant HE, Jennett PA, Kishinevsky M. Gender, family status, and career patterns of graduates of the University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine. Acad Med 1991; 66:483–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cartwright L. Career satisfaction and role harmony in a sample of young women physicians. J Vocation Behav 1978; 12:184–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cohen M, Woodward CA, Ferrier BM. Factors influencing career development: do men and women differ? J Am Med Wom Assoc 1988; 43(5):142–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Eisenberg L. Dystaff of Asculapius—the married woman as physician. J Am Med Wom Assoc 1981; 36(2):84–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Frank E, Harvey L. Family responsibilities and domestic activities of U.S. women physicians. Arch Fam Med 2000; 9:134–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gross EB. Gender differences in physician stress. J Am Med Wom Assoc 1992; 47:107–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Heins M. Medicine and motherhood. JAMA 1982; 249(2):209–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Heins M, Smock S, Martindale L, et al. Comparison of productivity of women and men physicians. JAMA 1977; 237(23):2514–2517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hojat M, Gonnella JS, Xu G. Gender comparisons of young physicians’ perceptions of their medical education, professional life, and practice: a follow-up study of Jefferson Medical College graduates. Acad Med 1995; 70:305–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kaplan H. Women physicians—the more effective recruitment and utilization of their talents and their resistance to it. Wom Physician 1970; 25(9):561–570.Google Scholar
  19. Lorber J. How physicians’ spouses influence each other’s careers. J Am Med Women Assoc 1982; 37(1):21–26.Google Scholar
  20. Nadelson CC, Eisenberg L. Successful professional women: on being married to one. Am J Psychiatry 1977; 134:10.Google Scholar
  21. Nock SL, Kingston PL. Time with children: the impact of couples’ work-time commitments. Soc Forces 1988; 67:59–85.Google Scholar
  22. Pfeiffer RF. Early adult development in the medical student. Mayo Clin Proc 1983; 58:127–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Rapoport R, Rapoport R. Further considerations of a dual career family. Hum Relat 1971; 24(6):519–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schwartzberg NS, Dytell RS. Dual-earner families: the importance of work stress and family stress for psychological well-being. J Occup Health Psych 1996; 1(2):211–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shelton BA. Women, men, and time: gender differences in paid work, housework, and leisure. Greenwood Press, New York, 1992.Google Scholar
  26. Sullivan O. Time waits for no (wo)man: an investigation of the gendered experience of domestic time. Sociology 1997; 31:221–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tesch BJ, Osborne J, Simpson DE, Murray SF, Spiro J. Women physicians in dual-physician relationships compared with those in other dual-career relationships. Acad Med 1992; 67:542–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Uhlenberg P, Cooney TM. Male and female physicians: family and career comparisons. Soc Sei Med 1990; 30:373–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Warde C, Allen W, Gelberg L. Physician role conflict and resulting career changes. J Gen Intern Med 1996; 11:729–735.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Woodward CA, Williams AP, Ferrier B, Cohe M. Time spent on professional activities and unwaged domestic work: is it different for male and female primary care physicians who have children at home? Can Fam Physician 1996; 42:1938–1935.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meredith Mitchell
    • 1
  • Marjorie A. Bowman
  • Erica Frank
  1. 1.Medical University of South CarolinaCharleston

Personalised recommendations