Cerebral ischemia as seen by the vascular surgeon generally is the consequence of regional stenosis or occlusion of the main supply vessels of the brain. The pathophysiology of regional ischemia is a very complex one: areas of no-flow or low-flow are surrounded by regions of reactive hyperemia, causing different degrees of ischemic cell damage. Changes in tissue pH and shifts in extracellular ions, cell swelling, and aggregation of blood particles are related to microcirculatory abnormalities which may vary considerably from one experiment to the other. It is, of course, possible to empirically describe these changes, and important information has been obtained by various authors using the experimental model of middle cerebral artery occlusion.(7,11,32) However, for the understanding of basic pathophysiologic mechanisms related to ischemia, interruption of the blood supply to the total brain has certain advantages. With such an approach reproducible ischemic lesions can be produced which are uniform in all parts of the brain and which allow standardization of the experimental situation.
KeywordsMiddle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Reactive Hyperemia Monkey Brain Electrical Excitability Experimental Ischemia
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