Horizontal Control Surveys

  • Teodor J. Blachut
  • Adam Chrzanowski
  • Jouko H. Saastamoinen


The purpose of control surveys is to provide a uniform framework of reference for the coordination of all surveying activities within a given area. Control surveys consist of horizontal and vertical controls, which require fundamentally different methods of establishment, although some control points may be common to both control nets.


Control Point Observation Equation Lateral Refraction Horizontal Angle Ground Reflection 
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Additional Readings

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Teodor J. Blachut
    • 1
  • Adam Chrzanowski
    • 2
  • Jouko H. Saastamoinen
    • 1
  1. 1.National Research Council of CanadaOttawaCanada
  2. 2.University of New BrunswickFrederictonCanada

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