All of the previous chapters have considered the development and use of state models for dynamic systems described in terms of differential equations. A number of case study examples have been presented which illustrate the general procedures. In this chapter several models are developed which illustrate the fact that, in certain cases, allowances for changes in the state of a system need be made only at discrete instants in time and that the state itself, as well as the input and output variables, may make discrete changes in their values at these times.
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