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Marine Shipping

  • David A. Ross

Abstract

Shipping, among all the uses of the sea, is probably the most indispensible to society. For example, most of the world’s foreign trade travels on ships, a method of transportation that is about 40 times cheaper than air transport. Shipping of oil to the United States, Japan, and countries in Europe from the Middle East, Venezuela, and other areas is of critical importance for the very survival of these energy-dependent economies (Fig. 4-1, Table 4-1). Shipping is the largest item in terms of total ocean dollar expenditures, with close to $100 billion being spent each year by the countries of the world to build, maintain, and repair ships.

Keywords

Suez Canal Large Tanker Submarine Pipeline Marine Shipping World Shipping 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© David A. Ross 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • David A. Ross
    • 1
  1. 1.Woods Hole Oceanographic InstitutionWoods HoleUSA

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