In this article I will describe the generation of second harmonics, and sum and difference frequencies, optical rectification, CARS (coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering), CSRS (coherent Stokes Raman scattering), Raman gain spectroscopy (or the related stimulated Raman scattering), and Raman loss spectroscopy (or inverse Raman scattering). Although these names may sound familiar, the effects themselves are shrouded in complex mathematics. This paper will attempt to provide an intuitive understanding of these processes so that later articles in the book will be more easily understood. More complete mathematically oriented discussions are available elsewhere (1).
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