Women and Nonverbal Leadership Cues: When Seeing Is Not Believing

  • Natalie Porter
  • Florence Geis
Part of the Springer Series in Social Psychology book series (SSSOC)


Research on gender and nonverbal behavior has often focused on sex differences in using nonverbal cues. A conclusion one might draw is that if women would simply adopt the culturally recognized male patterns, they would reap the same rewards. But would they? In this chapter we look at men and women presenting the same nonverbal authority signal, and examine its power to confer leadership status on the two sexes equally.


Female Head Perceptual Bias Male Head Stimulus Person Female Leader 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bales, R. F. Interaction process analysis: A method for the study of small groups. Cambridge, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1950.Google Scholar
  2. Bartol, K. M. Male and female leaders of small groups. East Lansing: Michigan State University, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 1973.Google Scholar
  3. Bartol, K. M., & Wortman, M. S. Male versus female leaders: Effects on perceived leader behavior and satisfaction in a hospital. Personnel Psychology, 1975, 28, 533–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bass, B. B. Leadership, psychology and organizational policy. New York: Harper, 1960.Google Scholar
  5. Bass, B. B., & Klubeck, S. Effects of seating arrangements on leaderless group discussions. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1952, 47, 724–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bern, S. L. The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1974, 42, 155–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bern, S. L. Theory and measurement of androgyny: A reply to the Pedhazur-Tetenbaum and Locksley-Colten critiques. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1979, 37, 1047–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bern, S. L., & Bern, D. J. Training a women to know her place: The power of a non-conscious ideology. In M. H. Garskof (Ed.), Roles women play. Belmont, Calif.: Brooks/Cole, 1971.Google Scholar
  9. Borgida, E., Locksley, A., & Brekke, N. Social stereotypes and social judgment. In N. Cantor & J. Kihlstrom (Eds.), Cognition, social interaction, and personality. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1980.Google Scholar
  10. Broverman, I. K., Broverman, D. M., Clarkson, F., Rosenkrantz, P., & Vogel, S. R. Sex role stereotypes and clinical judgments of mental health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1970, 34, 1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown, V. Illegitimate context influence on evaluation of male and female leadership performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Delaware, 1980.Google Scholar
  12. Campbell, D. T. Stereotypes and the perception of group differences. American Psychologist, 1967, 22, 817–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cohen, J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. New York: Academic Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  14. Costrich, N., Feinstein, J., Kidder L., & Pascale, L. When stereotypes hurt: Three studies of penalties for sex role reversals. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1975, 11, 520–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davenport, W., Brooker, G., & Munro, N. Factors in social perception: Seating position. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1971, 33, 747–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Day, D. R., & Stogdill, R. M. Leader behavior of male and female supervisors. Personnel Psychology, 1972, 25, 353–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Deaux, K. Self evaluations of male and female managers. Sex Roles, 1979, 5, 571–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Deaux, K., & Taynor, J. Evaluation of male and female ability: Bias works two ways. Psychological Reports, 1973, 32, 261–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dempewolff, J. A. Feminism and its correlates. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 1972. Dissertation Abstracts International, 1973, 33 (8-B), 3913–3914.Google Scholar
  20. Fabrikant, B., Landau, D., & Rollenhagen, J. Perceived female sex-role attributes and the psychotherapist’s sex-role expectations for female patients. New Jersey Psychologist, 1973, 23, 13–16.Google Scholar
  21. Faranda, J. Negative evaluation of female leaders. Paper presented at Eastern Psychological Association, Hartford, Conn., 1980.Google Scholar
  22. Feather, N. T., & Simon, J. G. Reactions to male and female success and failure in sex-linked occupations: Impression of personality, causal attributions, and perceived likelihood of difference consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1975, 31, 20–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Felipe, N. Interpersonal distance and small group interaction. Cornell Journal of Social Relations, 1966, 1, 59–64.Google Scholar
  24. Fernberger, S. W. Persistence of stereotypes concerning sex differences. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1948, 43, 97–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fidell, L. S. Empirical verification of sex discrimination in hiring practices in psychology. In R. K. Unger & F. L. Denmark (Eds.), Woman: Dependent or independent variable? New York: Psychological Dimensions, 1975.Google Scholar
  26. Finn, J. D. Multivariance: Univariate and multivariate analysis of variance, covariance, regression, and repeated measures. Version 6. Chicago: National Educational Resources, Inc., 1977.Google Scholar
  27. Frieze, I. H. Being feminine or masculine—nonverbally. In I. H. Frieze, J. E. Parsons, P. B. Johnson, N. Ruble, & G. L. Zellman (Eds.), Women and sex roles: A social psychological perspective. New York: Norton, 1978.Google Scholar
  28. Frieze, I. H., & Ramsey, S. J. Nonverbal maintenance of traditional sex-roles. Journal of Social Issues, 1976, 32, 133–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Geis, F. L., Brown, V., Jennings, J., & Corrado-Taylor, D. Sex-role stereotypes in TV commercials: An experimental separation of sex and role. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association, New York, 1979.Google Scholar
  30. Goffman, E., Interaction ritual: Essays on face-to-face behavior. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1967.Google Scholar
  31. Goldberg, P. Are women prejudiced against women? Transaction, 1968, 5 (5), 28–30.Google Scholar
  32. Hagen, R. L., & Kahn, A. Discrimination against competent women. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 1975, 5, 362–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hare, A. P., & Bales, R. F. Seating position and small group interaction. Sociometry, 1963, 26, 480–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Harris, L. H., & Lucas, M. E. Sex role stereotyping. Social Work, 1976, 21, 390–395.Google Scholar
  35. Heise, G., & Miller, G. Problem solving by small groups using various communication nets. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1951, 46, 327–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Henley, N. M. Body politics: Power, sex, and nonverbal communication. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1977.Google Scholar
  37. Homans, G. C. The human group. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1950.Google Scholar
  38. Howells, L. T., & Becker, S. W. Seating arrangement and leadership emergence. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1962, 64, 148–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kelley, H. H. Attribution in social interaction. In E. E. Jones, D. E. Kanouse, H. H. Kelley, R. E. Nisbett, S. Valins, & B. Weiner (Eds.), Attribution: Perceiving the causes of behavior. Morristown, N.J.: General Learning Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  40. Kitay, P. M. A comparison of the sexes in their attitudes and beliefs about women. Sociometry, 1940, 34, 399–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kravetz, D. F. Sex-role concepts of women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1976, 44, 437–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Leavitt, H. H. Some effects of certain communication patterns in group performance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1951, 46, 38–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McKee, J. P., & Sherriffs, A. C. The differential evaluation of males and females. Journal of Personality, 1957, 25, 356–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Megargee, E. I. Influence of sex-roles on the manifestation of leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1969, 53, 377–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mehrabian, A. Nonverbal communication. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton, 1972.Google Scholar
  46. Nisbett, R. E., & Bellows, N. Verbal reports about causal influences on social judgements: Private access versus public theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1977, 35, 613–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nisbett, R. E., & Wilson, T. D. Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review, 1977, 84, 231–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pellegrini, R. J. Some effects of seating position on social perception. Psychological Reports, 1971, 28, 887–893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Porter, N. The effects of androgyny on social interaction. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Delaware, 1980.Google Scholar
  50. Rosen, B., & Jerdee, T. H. The influence of sex-role stereotypes on evaluations of male and female supervisory behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1973, 57, 44–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rosen, B., & Jerdee, T. H. Influence of sex-role stereotypes on personnel decisions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1974, 39, 9–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rosenkrantz, P., Vogel, S., Bee, H., Broverman, I., & Broverman, D. Sex-role stereotypes and self concept in college students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1968, 32, 287–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schein, V. E. The relationship between sex-role stereotypes and requisite management characteristics. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1973, 57, 95–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Siegfried, B. A., & Hendrick, C. When do opposites attract? When they are opposite in sex and sex-role attitudes. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 1973, 25, 15–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Siegler, D. M., & Siegler, R S. Stereotypes of males’ and females’ speech. Psychological Reports, 1976, 39, 167–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sommer, R. Studies in personal space. Sociometry, 1959, 22, 247–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Stearns, A. Sex bias in psychotherapy: An analogue study. Paper presented at Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago, 1978.Google Scholar
  58. Stogdill, R. M. Leadership, membership and organization. Psychological Bulletin, 1950, 47, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Strodtbeck, F. L., & Hook, L. H. The social dimensions of a twelve-man jury table. Sociometry, 1961, 24, 297–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Natalie Porter
  • Florence Geis

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations