The Ureter pp 71-104 | Cite as

Principles of Ureteral Physiology

  • Saul Boyarsky
  • Peregrina Labay


Ureteral physiology is unique and distinguished from the physiology of the artery, vein, ileum, vas deferens, or fallopian tube. We will outline those principles of physiology of the ureter which are relevant to clinical practice.


Renal Pelvis Urine Flow Ureteropelvic Junction Peristaltic Wave Dilate Ureter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Andalaro, V.A., Jr.: Mechanism of hypertension produced by ureteral obstruction. Urology 5 (3): 367, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Backlund, L., Reuterskiold, A.G.: The abnormal ureter in children. I. Perfusion studies on the wide non-refluxing ureter. Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol. 3: 219, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barry, W.F., Jr.: Urodynamics-Hydrodynamics of the Ureter and Renal Pelvis. New York, Academic Press, 1971, pp. 133–142.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barry, W.F., Jr., Absher, R., Boyarsky, S.: Uro-dynamics-hydrodynamics of the ureter and renal pelvis. New York, Academic Press, 1971, pp. 399–409.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Block, N.L. Stover, E., Politano, V.A.: A prosthetic ureter in the dog. AUA 72nd Annual Meeting, Chicago, Ill., April 1977.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boyarsky, S.: Surgical physiology of the renal pelvis and ureter. In Monographs in the Surgical Sciences, Vol. 1. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1964, pp. 173–213.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boyarsky, S., Duque, O.: Ureteral regeneration in dogs. An experimental study bearing on the Davis intubated ureterotomy. J. Urol. 73: 53, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boyarsky, S., Labay, P.: Ureteral Dynamics, Pathophysiology, Drugs and Surgical Implications. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1972.Google Scholar
  9. 8a.
    Boyarsky, S., Labay, P.: Aperistaltic ureter in upper urinary tract infection—cause or effect? Urology 12 (2): 134, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 9.
    Boyarsky, S., Martinez, J.: Ureteral peristaltic pressures in dogs with changing urine flows. J. Urol. 87: 25, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 10.
    Boyarsky, S., Weinberg, S.: Urodynamics—Upper and Lower Urinary Tract, edited by W. Lutzeyer and H. Melchoir. New York, Springer-Verlag, 1973, pp. 1–13.Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    Brunstock, G.: Structure of smooth muscle and its innervation. In Smooth Muscle, edited by E. Bulbring, A.F. Brading, A.W. Jones, and T. Tomitta. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1970, pp. 1–69.Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    Caine, M., Hermann, G.: The return of peristalsis in the anastomosed ureter: A cine-radio- graphic study. Br. J. Urol. 42: 164, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 13.
    Constantinou, C.E.: Renal pelvic pacemaker control of ureteral peristaltic rate. Am. J. Physiol. 226: 1413, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 14.
    Constantinou, E.E., Hrynczuk, J.R.: Urodynamics of the upper urinary tract. Invest. Urol. 14 (3): 233, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 15.
    Donohue, J.: Personal communication.Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    Djurhuus, J.C.: Dynamics of upper urinary tract. III. The activity of renal pelvis during pressure variations. Invest. Urol. 14:475, 1977.Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Djurhuus, J.C., Nerstrom, B., Gyrd-Hansen, N., Hansen, R.I.: Experimental hydronephrosis. An electrophysiologic investigation before and after release of obstruction. Acta Chir. Scand. 472: 17, 1976.Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    Djurhuus, J.C., Nerstrom, B., Gyrd-Hansen, N., Hansen, R.I., Rask-Andersen, H.: Dynamics of upper urinary tract. I. An electromyographic in vivo study of renal pelvis in pigs. Method and normal pattern. Invest. Urol. 14: 465, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    Djurhuus, J.C., Nerstrom, B., Gyrd-Hansen, N., Hansen, R.I., Rask-Andersen, H.: Dynamics of upper urinary tract. II. An analysis of the modality of pelvis activity during antidiuresis and diuresis. Invest. Urol. 14: 469, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    Djurhuus, J.C., Nerstrom, B., Rask-Anderson, H.: Dynamics of upper urinary tract in man: Preoperative electrophysiological findings in patients with manifest or suspected hydronephrosis. Acta Chir. Scand. 472: 49, 1976.Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    Djurhuus, J.C., Stage, P.: Percutaneous intrapelvic pressure registration in adult hydronephrosis during diuresis. Acta Chir. Scand. 472: 43, 1976.Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    Forbes, M., Underwood, J., Emergy, J.L.: The intrinsic nerve plexus of the human ureter. A histochemical study of dilated and normal ureters with particular reference to children with meningomyelocele. Br. J. Urol. 42: 158, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    Gill, W.B., Curtis, G.A.: The influence of bladder fullness on upper urinary tract dimensions and renal excretory function. J. Urol. 117: 573, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Gillenwater, J.Y., Rose, J.G.: Evaluation of normal and pathological ureteral function by measuring ureteral wall tension. Trans. Am. Assoc. Genitourin. Surg. 65: 12, 1973.Google Scholar
  26. 25.
    Gosling, J. A., Dixon, J.S.: Structural evidence in support of a urinary pacemaker. Br. J. Urol. 44: 550, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    Hanna, M.K., Jeffs, R.D., Sturgess, J.M., Barkin, M.: Ureteral structure and ultrastructure. III. The congenitally dilated ureter (megaureter). J. Urol. 117: 24, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    Hanna, M.K., Jeffs, R.D., Sturgess, J.M., Berkin, M.: Ureteral structure and ultrastructure. IV. The dilated ureter, clinicopathological correlation. J. Urol. 117: 28, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Hinman, F.: Peristalsis. The diseased ureter. A brief summary of current knowledge. In Urodynamics, edited by S. Boyarsky, et al. New York, Academic Press, 1971, Chapter 28.Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    Hrynczuk, J.R., Hald, T., Sorensen, B.L.: Electrophysiology of the ureter. An experimental animal model. J. Urol. Nephrol. 6: 105, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    Hrynczuk, J.R., Schwartz, T.W.: Rhythmic contractions in the renal pelvis correlated to ureteral peristalsis. Invest. Urol. 13 (1): 25, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    Kiil, F.: The function of the ureter and renal pelvis. Oslo, University Press, 1957.Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    Kiil, F.: Physiology of the renal pelvis and ureter. In Urology, Vol. 1., 3rd. ed., edited by M.F. Campbell and J.H. Harrison. Philadelphia, Saunders, 1970.Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    Kim, H.L., Labay, P.C., Boyarsky, S. Glenn, J.F.: An experimental model of ureteral colic. J. Urol. 104: 390, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 34.
    Kirkland, I.S., Ross, J.A., Edmond, P., Long, W.J.: Ureteral function in vesico-ureteral reflux. Br. J. Urol. 43: 289, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 35.
    Kubaz, G.J., Catchpole, B.N.: The role of adrenergic blockade in the treatment of ureteral colic. J. Urol. 107: 949, 1972.Google Scholar
  37. 36.
    Kuntz, A.: The Autonomic Nervous System. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1947.Google Scholar
  38. 37.
    Labay, P., Boyarsky, S.: Ureteral peristaltic response to renal compression and other maneuvers: Renal-ureteral coupling as a physiological concept. J. Urol. 111: 334, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 38.
    Labay, P., Boyarsky, S.: Urodynamics and ureteral surgery: Surgical implication of ureteral peristaltic regulation. In Surgery Annal, edited by Phillip Cooper and Lloyd Nyhus. New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1971, pp. 149–162.Google Scholar
  40. 39.
    Labay, P., Boyarsky, S.: The diseased ureter. A brief summary of current knowledge. In Urodynamics, edited by S. Boyarsky, et al. New York, Academic Press, 1971, Chapter 27.Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    Labay, P., Boyarsky, S.: The aperistaltic ureter in upper urinary tract infection—cause or effect? Urology 2: 134, 1978.Google Scholar
  42. 41.
    Labay, P., Boyarsky, S., Duarte-Escalante, O., Grimes, J.: The scientific concept of ureteral innervation: Will it become a urologic concept? J. Urol. 103: 37, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 42.
    Libertino, J.A., Weiss, R.M.: Ultrastructure of human ureters. J. Urol. 108: 71, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 43.
    Longrigg, N.: In vitro studies on the human renal calices. J. Urol. 114: 325, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 44.
    Longrigg, N.: Minor calyces as primary pacemaker sites for ureteral activity in man. Lancet 1: 253, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 45.
    Lowman, R.M., Belleza, N.A., Guetch, J.B., Finkelstein. H.I, Berneike, R.R., Rosenfeld, A.T.: Glucagon. J. Urol. 118: 128, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 46.
    Morales, P.A., Crowder, C.H., Fishman, A.P, Maxwell, M. H.: The response of the ureter and pelvis to changing urine flows. J. Urol. 67: 484, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 47.
    Orr, W.A., Kimbrough, H., Gillenwater, J.Y.: Alternations in renal blood flow with voiding in the presence of vesicoureteral reflux. J. Urol. 106: 214, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 48.
    Pierce, J.J., Braun, E.: Ureteral response to elevated intravesical pressures in humans. Surg. Forum 11: 482, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 49.
    Raz, S., Ziegler, M., Caine, M.: Hormonal influence on the adrenergic receptors of the ureter. Br. J. Urol. 44: 405, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 50.
    Roberts, J.A.: Hydronephrosis of pregnancy. Urology 8 (1): 1, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    Ross, J.A., Edmond, P., Kirkland, I.S.: Behavior of the Human Ureter in Health and Disease. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1972.Google Scholar
  53. 52.
    Schulman, C.: Personal communication.Google Scholar
  54. 53.
    Schulman, C.C.: Ultrastructural evidence for adrenergic and cholinergic innervation of the human ureter. J. Urol. 113: 765, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 54.
    Schulman, C.C.: Electron microscopy of the human ureteric innervation. Br. J. Urol. 46: 609, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 55.
    Selkurt, E.E., Brandfonbrener, M., Geller, H.J.: Effects of ureteral pressure increase on renal hemodynamics and the handling of electrolytes and water. Am. J. Physiol. 170: 61, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    Tanagho, E.A., Meyers, F.H.: Ureteral peristaltic activity. In Urodynamics-Hydrodynamics of the Ureter and Renal Pelvis, edited by S. Boyarsky, et al. New York, Academic Press, 1971, p. 119.Google Scholar
  58. 57.
    Telinde, R.W.: Urologic aspect of gynecology. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 1: 26, 1950.Google Scholar
  59. 58.
    Thornbury, J.R., Lapides, J.: Effect of gravity on ureteral peristalsis in normal human adults in the inverted position. J. Urol. 111: 465, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 59.
    Tscholl, R., Keller, U., Spreng, P.: Investigation of urine transport in the ureter of the pig by x-ray videodensitometry. I. The effect of increasing diuresis on velocity and rhythm of contractions. Relationship between pressure wave and urine bolus. Invest. Urol. 13 (6): 404, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 60.
    Tscholl, R., Keller, U., Spreng, P.: Investigation of urine transport in the ureter of the pig by x-ray videodensitometry. II. The effect of an increasing obstruction on velocity, rhythm, and efficiency on the contraction waves. Invest. Urol. 13 (6): 410, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Tscholl, R., Osypka, P., Goetlin, J., Zingg, E.: Measurement of the velocity and rate of ureteral contractions with a video-integrator in a model, in animals, and in humans, preoperatively and with intact body surface. Invest. Urol. 12 (3): 224, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Vaughan, E.D., Jr., Sorenson, E.J., Gillenwater, J.Y.: Effects of acute and chronic ureteral obstruction on renal hemodynamics and function. Surg. Forum 19: 536, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Walzak, M.P., Paquin, A.J., Jr.: Renal pelvic pressure levels in management of nephrostomy. J. Urol. 85: 697, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    Weinberg, S.: Ureteral function. I. Simultaneous monitoring of ureteral peristalsis. Invest. Urol. 12 (2): 103, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Weinberg, S.: Ureteral function. II. The ureteral catheter and urometrogram. Invest. Urol. 12 (4): 255, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Weinberg, S.: Ureteral function. III. The catheter and the geometry of the ureter. Invest. Urol. 13 (5): 339, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Weinberg, S., Labay, P.: Ureteral function. IV. The urometrogram at increased urine output. Invest. Urol. 14 (4): 307, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Weiss, R.M., Holcomb, W., Bassett, A.L.: Excitability of in vitro normal and dilated human ureteral segments. Invest. Urol. 10 (3): 131, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Weiss, R.M., Holcomb, W., Weiss, S.A., Bassett, A.L.: Response of intact canine ureter to electrical stimulation. Invest. Urol. 11: 452, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Whitaker, R.H.: Investigating wide ureters with ureteral pressure flow studies. J. Urol. 116: 81, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Winton, F.R.: Hydrostatic pressures affecting the flow of urine and blood in the kidney. The Harvey Lectures, Series XLVII. New York, Academic Press, 1951–1952, pp. 21–52.Google Scholar
  73. 72.
    Yalla, S.V., Burros, H.M., Zimskind, P.D.: Mechanism of trigonal influence on ureter during bladder filling and voiding: An experimental study in dogs. Urology 2 (2): 153, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Yalla, S.V., Burros, H.M., Zimskind, P.D.: Peristaltic behavior of disused ureteral stump. Urology 1 (5): 417, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Zimskind, P., Davis, D.M., Decaestecker, J.E.: Effect of bladder filling on ureteral dynamics. J. Urol. 102: 693, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saul Boyarsky
  • Peregrina Labay

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations