Oxygen Exchange in the Metazoa

  • Johannes Piiper
  • Peter Scheid
Part of the Topics in Environmental Physiology and Medicine book series (TEPHY)


In unicellular organisms and in the smallest metazoa, diffusion constitutes the sole mechanism by which oxygen (O2) is transported from the environment into the cells. In all higher metazoa, however, O2 supply by diffusion would be insufficient, and specialized gas exchange organs and transport systems have been developed to secure the O2 demand of the animal, particularly in situations of elevated demand.


Oxygen Exchange Fish Gill Tissue Barrier Capacitance Coefficient Amphibian Skin 
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© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johannes Piiper
  • Peter Scheid

There are no affiliations available

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