Advertisement

Remineralization and Nutrient Cycling in Coastal Marine Ecosystems

  • Scott W. Nixon
Chapter
Part of the Contemporary Issues in Science and Society book series (CISS)

Abstract

Our views of remineralization and nutrient cycling in coastal marine ecosystems have changed considerably over the last 30 years. The major trend has been an increasing appreciation for the complexity of processes involved, including some marked changes in our assessment of the importance of bacteria with respect to smaller animals and in our perception of the association between bacteria and particulate matter in the sea. Among the more recent developments in this area is a growing awareness of the importance of the coupling between benthic and pelagic communities in coastal waters. There appears to be a strong linear correlation between the organic matter produced in the overlying water and the amount of organic matter consumed on the bottom in almost all of the coastal environments for which annual data are available. The large amount of organic matter consumed by the benthos (perhaps 25–50 percent of that produced) is associated with a large flux of inorganic nutrients from the sediments to the overlying water. The stoichiometry of net benthic nutrient regeneration differs from that of pelagic regeneration, however, and simple Redfield type models probably cannot be applied. The amount of fixed inorganic nitrogen returned to the water across the sediment-water interface appears to be about half of that expected on the basis of the flux of phosphorus. This behavior, along with the fact that an appreciable amount of organic matter in coastal waters gets remineralized on the bottom, contributes to the low N/P ratio that is characteristic of these areas and may be responsible for the observation that nitrogen is commonly the nutrient most limiting for primary production. Recent direct measurements of the flux of dissolved N2 across the sediment-water interface indicate that denitrification is probably responsible for the loss of fixed nitrogen during decomposition in the sediments. If this is a widespread phenomenon, estuaries, bays, and other coastal waters may be major sinks in the marine nitrogen cycle and important terms in the global nitrogen budget. However, the fact that eutrophication appears to be an increasing problem in many estuaries is dramatic warning that anthropogenic nutrient inputs can overwhelm the recycling and remineralization processes in coastal waters.

Keywords

Coastal Water Salt Marsh Nutrient Cycling Overlie Water Nutrient Budget 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ailer, R.C. 1977. The influence of macrobenthos on chemical diagenesis of marine sediments. Ph.D. Thesis, Yale University, New Haven, CT, p. 600.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alvarez-Borrego, S., D. Guthrie, C.H. Culberson, and P.K. Park. 1975. Test of Redfield’s model for oxygen-nutrient relationships using regression analysis. Limnol. Oceanogr. 20: 795–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson, J.M., and A. Macfadyen (eds.). 1976. The Role of Terrestrial and Aquatic Organisms in Decomposition Processes. Blackwell Scientific, London.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Antia, N.H. et al. 1963. Further measurements of primary production using a large-volume plastic sphere. Limnol. Oceanogr. 8: 166–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Atkins, W.R.G. 1925. The phosphate content of fresh and salt waters in its relationship to the growth of the algal plankton. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 13: 119–150.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Azam, F., and R.E. Hodson. 1977. Size distribution and activity of marine microheterotrophs. Limnol. Oceanogr. 22 (3): 492–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Banse, K. 1974. On the vertical distribution of zooplankton in the sea. Prog. Oceanogr. 2: 56–125.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barsdate, R.J., T. Fenchel, and R.T. Prentki. 1974. Phosphorus cycle of model ecosystems: significance for decomposer food chains and effects of bacterial grazers. Oikos 25: 239–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beers, J.R. 1964. Ammonia and inorganic phosphorus excretion by the planktonic chaetognath, Sagitta hispida Conant. J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor.Mer. 29: 123–129.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beers, J.R. 1966. Studies on the chemical composition of the major zooplankton groups in the Sargasso Sea off Bermuda. Limnol. Oceanogr. 11: 520–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Billen, G. 1978. A budget of nitrogen recycling in North Sea sediments off the Belgian Coast. Est. Coastal Mar. Sci. 7: 127–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bowman, M.J. 1977. Nutrient distributions and transport in Long Island Sound. Est. Coastal Mar. Sci. 5: 531–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brand, T. von, N.W. Rakestraw, and C.E. Renn. 1937. The experimental decomposition and regeneration of nitrogenous organic matter in sea water. Biol. Bull., Mar. Biol. Lab., Woods Hole 72: 165–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Butler, E.I., E.D.S. Corner, and S.M. Marshall. 1969. On the nutrition and metabolism of zooplankton. VI. Feeding efficiency of Calanus in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus. J. Mar. Biol. Assn. U.K. 49: 977–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Butler, E.I., E.D.S. Corner, and S.M. Marshall. 1970. On the nutrition and metabolism of zooplankton. VII. Seasonal survey of nitrogen and phosphorus excretion by Calanus in the Clyde Sea area. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 50: 525–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cooper, L.H.N. 1933. Chemical constituents of biological importance in the English Channel, Nov. 1930-Jan. 1932. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. 18: 617–628.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Curl, H., Jr. 1962. Analyses of carbon in marine plankton organisms. J. Mar. Res. 20: 181–188.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Davies, J.M. 1975. Energy flow through the benthos in a Scottish sea loch. Mar. Biol. 31: 353–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Durbin, A.G. 1976. The role of fish migration in two coastal ecosystems: 1. The Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, in Narragansett Bay, R.I., 2. The anadromous alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus, in Rhode Island ponds. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, p. 216.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Elderfield, H., N. Leudtke, R.J. McCaffrey, and M. Bender. In press. Benthic flux studies in Narragansett Bay. Am. J. of Sci.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Es, F.B. van. 1977. A preliminary carbon budget for a part of the EMS estuary: The Dollard. Helgo. wiss. Meeresunters. 30: 282–294.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fleming, R.H. 1940. The composition of plankton and units for reporting populations and production. Proc. Sixth Pacific Sci. Congr. 3: 535–540.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fenchel, T. 1969. The ecology of marine microbenthos. Part IV. Ophelia 6: 1–182.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fenchel T., and P. Harrison. 1976. The significance of bacterial grazing and mineral cycling for the decomposition of particulate detritus, 285–299. In J.M. Anderson and A. Macfadyen (eds.), The Role of Terrestrial and Aquatic Organisms in Decomposition Processes, Blackwell Sci., London.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fenchel T. 1977. The significance of bactivorous protozoa in the microbial community of detritial particles, 529–544. In J. Cairns, Jr. (ed.), Aquatic Microbial Communities, Garland Publishing, New York.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fisher, T.R., P.R. Carlson, and R.T. Barber. Sediment nutrient fluxes in three North Carolina estuaries. Submitted to Limnol Oceanogr.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Furnas, M.J., G.L. Hitchcock, and T.J. Smayda. 1976. Nutrient-phytoplankton relationships in Narragansett Bay during the 1974 summer bloom, 118–134. In M.L. Wiley (ed.), Estuarine Processes, Vol. 1, Uses, Stresses and Adaptation to the Estuary, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Goldman, J.C., K.R. Tenore, and H.I. Stanley. 1973. Inorganic nitrogen removal from wastewater: effect on phytoplankton growth in coastal marine waters. Sci. 180: 955–956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Goldman, J.C., J.J. McCarthy, and D.G. Peavey. 1979. Growth rate influence on the chemical composition of phytoplankton in oceanic waters. Nature 279: 210–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Haines, E.B. 1975. Nutrient inputs to the coastal zone: the Georgia and South Carolina shelf, 303–322. In L.E. Cronin (ed.), Estuarine research, Vol. 1, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Haines, E.B. 1976. Stable carbon isotope ratios in the biota, soils and tidal water of a Georgia salt marsh. Est. Coastal Mar. Sci. 4: 609–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Haines, E.B. 1977. The origins of detritus in Georgia salt marsh estuaries. Oikos 29: 254–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hargrave, B.T. 1973. Coupling carbon flow through some pelagic and benthic communities. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 30 (9): 1317–1326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Harris, E., and G.A. Riley. 1956. Oceanography of Long Island Sound, 1952–1954. VIII. Chemical Composition of the Plankton. Bull. Bingham oceanogr. Coll. 15: 315–323.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Harris, E. 1959. The nitrogen cycle in Long Island Sound. Bull. Bingham oceanogr. Coll. 17: 31–65.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Harrison, J.T. In prep. Biological mediation of benthic nutrient flux in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Hawaii.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Harrison, W.G., and J.E. Hobbie. 1974. Nitrogen budget of a North Carolina estuary. Water Res. Res. Inst., Univ. of North Carolina, Report No. 86, p. 172.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Harrison, W.G. 1978. Experimental measurements of nitrogen remineralization in coastal waters. Limnol. Oceanogr. 23 (4): 694–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hartwig, E.O. 1975. The impact of nitrogen and phosphorus release from a siliceous sediment on the overlying water, 103–117. In: M. Wiley (ed.), Estuarine Processes, Vol. 1. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hartwig, E.O. 1978. Factors affecting respiration and photosynthesis by the benthic community of a subtidal siliceous sediment. Mar. Biol. 46: 282–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Heinle, D.R., and D.A. Flemer. 1976. Flows of materials between poorly flooded tidal marshes and an estuary. Mar. Biol. 35: 359–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Holm-Hansen, O., and T.H. Mague. 1973. Chemical composition of particulate matter, 123–124. In Research on the maritime food chain. Progress Report 1972–73. Univ. of California, unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hopkinson, C.S., J.W. Day, Jr., and B.T. Gael. 1978. Respiration studies in a Louisiana salt marsh. An. Centro. Cienc. Del Mary. Limnol. Univ. Nal. Auton. Mexico 5 (1): 225–238.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hutchinson, G.E. 1950. Survey of contemporary knowledge of biogeochemistry. III. The biogeochemistry of vertebrate excretion. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 96: 544.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hurtt, A. 1978. The distribution of hydrocarbons in Narragansett Bay sediment cores. M.S. thesis, Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jeffries, H.P. 1962. Environmental characteristics of Raritan Bay, a polluted estuary. Limnol. Oceanogr. 7: 21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Johannes, R.E. 1964. Phosphorus excretion as related to body size in marine animals: microzooplankton and nutrient regeneration. Science 146: 923–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Johannes, R.E. 1965. Uptake and release of dissolved organic phosphorus by representatives of a coastal marine ecosystem.. Limnol. Oceanogr. 9: 224–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Johannes, R.E. 1969. Nutrient regeneration in lakes and oceans, 203–212. In M.R. Droop and E.J.F. Wood (eds.), Advances in the Microbiology of the Sea, Vol. 1. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kemp, W.M., and W. Boynton. 1979. Nutrient budgets in a coastal plain estuary: Sources, sinks and internal dynamics. Amer. Soc. Limnol. Oceanogr., 42 Annual Meeting, Abstracts.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ketchum, B.H., R.F. Vaccaro and Nathaniel Corwin. 1958. The annual cycle of phosphorus and nitrogen in New England coastal waters. J. Mar. Research 17: 282–301.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kremer, J.N., and S.W. Nixon. 1978. A Coastal Marine Ecosystem, Simulation and Analysis, Ecological Studies 24. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kremer, P. 1975. The Ecology of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in Narragansett Bay. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, p. 311.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kuenzler, E.J. 1961. Phosphorus budget of a mussel population. Limnol. Oceanogr. 6: 400–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mann, K.H. 1972. Macrophyte production and detritus food chains in coastal waters. Mem. Ist. Ital. Idrobiol. 29: 353–383.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Martin, J.H. 1968. Phytoplankton-zooplankton relationships in Narragansett Bay. III. Seasonal changes in zooplankton excretion rates in relation to phytoplankton abundance. Limnol. Oceanogr. 13: 63–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    McCaffrey, R.J., A.C. Myers, E.Davey, G. Morrison, M. Bender, N. Luedtke, D. Cullen, P. Froelich, and G. Klinkhammer. 1978. Benthic fluxes of nutrients and manganese in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, Limnol. Oceanogr., in prep.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Nixon, S.W., and C.A. Oviatt. 1973. Ecology of a New England salt marsh. Ecological Monogr. 43 (4): 463–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Nixon, S.W., C.A. Oviatt, and S.S. Hale. 1976. Nitrogen regeneration and the metabolism of coastal marine bottom communities, 269–283. In: J.M. Anderson and A. Macfadyen (eds.), The Role of Terrestrial and Aquatic Organisms in Decomposition Processes. Blackwell Scientific Pub., London.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Nixon, S.W., C.A. Oviatt, J. Garber, and V. Lee. 1976. Diel metabolism and nutrient dynamics in a salt marsh embayment. Ecology 57 (4): 740–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Nixon, Scott W. and Virginia Lee. 1980. The flux of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus between coastal lagoons and offshore waters, 12 p. In: Unesco, 1980 (in press). Coastal Lagoons: Present and Future Research, Part II - Proceedings. (Unesco technical papers in Marine Science)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Nixon, S.W., J.R. Kelly, B.N. Furnas, and C.A. Oviatt. 1980. Phosphorus regeneration and the metabolism of coastal marine bottom communities, 219–242. In K.R. Tenore and B.C. Coull (eds.), Marine Benthic Dynamics. Univ. of South Carolina Press, Columbia.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Nixon, S.W. 1980. Between coastal marshes and coastal waters - a review of twenty years of speculation and research on the role of salt marshes in estuarine productivity and water chemistry, 437–525. In P. Hamilton and K. MacDonald (eds.), Estuarine and Wetland Processes, Plenum Publishing, N.Y.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Odum, E.P. and de la Cruz, A.A. 1967. Particulate organic detritus in a Georgia salt marsh-estuarine ecosystem, 383–388. In G. Lauff (ed.), Estuaries. Amer. Assos. Adv. Sci. Publ. 83.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Odum, E.P. 1968. A research challenge: Evaluating the productivity of coastal and estuarine water, 63–64. In Proc. 2nd Sea Grant Conf., Grad. School of Oceanography, Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Oviatt, C.A., and S.W. Nixon. 1975. Sediment resuspension and deposition in Narragansett Bay. Est. Coastal Mar. Sci. 3: 201–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Pamatmat, M.M., and K. Banse. 1969. Oxygen consumption by the seabed. 2. In situ measurement to a depth of 180 m. Limnol. Oceanogr. 14: 250–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pamatmat, M.M. 1968. Ecology and metabolism of a benthic community on an intertidal sandflat. Int. Revue. ges. Hydrobiol. 53 (2): 211–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Parsons, T.R., K. Stephens, and J.D.H. Strickland. 1961. On the chemical composition of eleven species of marine phytoplankters. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 18: 1001–1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Petersen, C.J.G. 1915. A preliminary result of the investigation on the valuation of the sea. Rep. Danish Biol. Sta. 23: 29–33.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Peterson, David H. 1979. Sources and sinks of biologically reactive oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and silica in northern San Francisco Bay, pp. 175–193. In: T. John Conomos (ed.) San Francisco Bay: The Urbanized Estuary. San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Pilson, M.E.Q., R. Beach, G. Douglas, and C. Cummings. 1978. Sediment chemistry in the MERL microcosms, 541–626. In Marine Ecosystem Research Laboratory Annual Report, Grad. School of Oceanography, Univ. of Rhode Island.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pomeroy, L.R. 1970. The strategy of mineral cycling, 171–190. In R.F. Johnston (ed.), Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, Vol. 1.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Pomeroy, L.R. 1974. Cycles of essential elements. In Benchmark Papers in Ecology, Vol. 1. Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Propp, M.V., V.G. Tarasoff, I.I. Gherbadgi, and N.V. Lootzik. 1980. Benthic pelagic oxygen and nutrient exchange in a coastal region of the sea of Japan, 265–284. In K.R. Tenore and B.C. Coull (eds.), Marine Benthic Dynamics, Univ. South Carolina Press, Columbia.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Redfield, A.C. 1934. On the proportions of organic derivatives in sea water-their relation to the composition of the plankton, 176–192. In James Johnstone Memorial Volume. Liverpool. Univ. Press, Liverpool.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Renn, C.E. 1937. Bacteria and the phosphorus cycle in the sea. Biol. Bull. 72: 190–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Riley, G.A. 1941. Plankton studies III. Long Island Sound. Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll. 7 (3): 1–93.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Riley, G.A. 1970. Particulate organic matter in the sea. Adv. Mar. Biol. 8: 1–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rowe, G.T., C.H. Clifford, K.L. Smith, Jr., P.L. Hamilton. 1975. Benthic nutrient regeneration and its coupling to primary productivity in coastal waters. Nature 255: 215–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rowe, G.T., K.L. Smith, Jr., and C.H. Clifford. 1976. Benthic-pelagic coupling in the New York Bight. In M.G. Gross (ed.), ASLO Special Symposium, Vol. 2, 1975.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rowe, G.T., C.H. Clifford, and K.L. Smith, Jr. 1977. Nutrient regeneration in sediments off Cap Blanc, Spanish Sahara. Deep-Sea Res. 24: 57–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ryther, J.H. 1954. The ecology of phytoplankton blooms in Moriches Bay and Great South Bay, Long Island, New York. Biol. Bull. 106: 198–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ryther, J.H., and W.M. Dunstan. 1971. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and eutrophication in the coastal marine environment. Science 171: 1008–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Santschi, P.H., Y.H. Li, and W.S. Broecker. 1978. Ratioactive trace metal cycling, 640–715. In Marine Ecosystems Research Laboratory Annual Report, Grad. School of Oceanography, Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Schindler, D.W. Eutrophication in lakes and its relevance to the estuarine environment. Proc. Int. Symp. on Nutrient Enrichment in Estuaries, Williamsburg, VA, 1979.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Seitzinger, S., S. Burke, J. Garber, S. Nixon, M.E.Q. Pilson. 1978. Nitrogen fixation and denitrification measurements in Narragansett Bay sediments. 41st Annual Meeting Amer. Society of Limnol. and Oceanogr. Abstracts.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Seitzinger, S., S.W. Nixon. 1979. Denitrification and nitrous oxide production in Narragansett Bay sediments. 42nd Annual Meeting Amer. Societv of Limnol. and Oceanogr. Abstracts.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Seitzinger, S., S. Nixon, M. Pilson and S. Burke. 1980. Denitrification and N2O production in near-shore marine sediments. Geochem. Cosmochem. Acta. 44: 1853–1860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Seki, H., and O.D. Kennedy. 1969. Marine bacteria and other heterotrophs as food for zooplankton in the Strait of Georgia during the winter. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 26: 3165–3173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sheith, M.S. 1974. Nutrients in Narragansett Bay sediments. M.S. Thesis. Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Smayda, T.J. 1957. Phytoplankton studies in lower Narragansett Bay. Limnol. Oceanogr. 2: 342–359.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Smith, K.L., Jr. 1973. Respiration of a sublittoral community. Ecology 54: 1065–1075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Smith, S.L. 1978. The role of zooplankton in the nitrogen dynamics of a shallow estuary. Est. Coastal Mar. Sci. 7: 555–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Smith, S.V. 1978. Kaneohe Bay sewage relaxation experiment: Pre-Diversion Report, Hawaii. Inst. Mar. Biol. Mimeo.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Smith, S.V. 1981. Responses of Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii to relaxation of sewage stress, Proc. Int. Symp. on Nutrient Enrichment in Estuaries, Williamsburg, VA, 1979.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Stephens, K., R.W. Sheldon, and T.R. Parsons. 1967. Seasonal variations in the availability of food for benthos in a coastal environment. Ecology 48: 852–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Strickland, J.D.H., O. Holm-Hansen, R.W. Eppley, and R.J. Linn. 1969. The use of a deep tank in plankton ecology. 1. Studies of the growth and composition of phytoplankton at low nutrient levels. Limnol. Oceanogr. 14: 23–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Taft, J.L., and W.R. Taylor. 1976. Phosphorus dynamics in in some coastal plain estuaries, 79–89. In M. Wiley (ed.), Estuarine Processes, Vol. 1. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Thayer, G.W. 1974. Identity and regulation of nutrients limiting phytoplankton production in the shallow estuaries near Beaufort, N.C. Oecologia (Berl.) 14: 75–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Ustach, J.F. 1969. The decomposition of Spartina alterniflora. M.S. Thesis. North Carolina State Univ. at Raleigh, N.C., p. 26.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Valiela, Ivan and John M. Teal. 1979. The nitrogen budget of a salt marsh ecosystem. Nature 280: 652–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Vargo, G.A. 1976. The influence of grazing and nutrient excretion by zooplankton on the growth and production of the marine diatom, Skeletonema costatum (Greville) Cleve, in Narragansett Bay. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Waksman, S.A., C.L. Carey, and H.W. Reuszer. 1933. Marine bacteria and their role in the cycle of life in the sea. I. Decomposition of marine plant and animal residues by bacteria. Biol. Bull. Mar. Biol. Lab., Woods Hole 65: 57–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Watt, W.D., and F.R. Hayes. 1963. Tracer study of the phosphorus cycle in sea water. Limnol. Oceanogr. 8: 276–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Wiebe, W.J., and L.R. Pomeroy. 1972. Microorganisms and their association with aggregates and detritus in the sea: A microscopic study. Mem. Ist. Ital. Idrobiol. 29: 325–352.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Williams, P.J. 1970. Heterotrophic utilization of dissolved organic compounds in the sea. 1. Size distribution of population and relationship between respiration and incorporation of growth substrates. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 50: 859–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Winter, D.F., K. Banse, and G.C. Anderson. 1975. The dynamics of phytoplankton blooms in Puget Sound, a Fjord in the Northwestern United States. Mar. Biol. 29: 139–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Woodwell, G.M., D.E. Whitney, C.A.S. Hall, and R.A. Houghton. 1977. The Flax Pond ecosystem study: Exchanges of carbon in water between a salt marsh and Long Island Sound. Limnol. Oceanogr. 22: 833–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Yanaha, M., and M. Yoshiaki. 1978. Production and decomposition of particulate organic matter in Funka Bay, Japan. Est. Coastal Mar. Sci. 6: 523–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Yoshida, Y. and M. Kimata. 1969. Studies on the marine microorganisms utilizing inorganic nitrogen compounds-IV. On the liberation rates of inorganic nitrogen compounds from bottom muds to sea water. Bull. of Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 35 (3): 303–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Humana Press Inc. 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott W. Nixon
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of OceanographyUniversity of Rhode IslandKingstonUSA

Personalised recommendations