Behavioral Patterns as They Relate to Hypertension

  • D. Shapiro
  • I. B. Goldstein


For a long time, accumulated evidence has suggested that emotion, life situations and stress, and other behavioral and environmental variables may play a significant role in the development, maintenance, treatment, and prevention of hypertension. The evidence is both of a direct and indirect nature: anecdotal reports of physicians, assessments of psychological characteristics of hypertensive patients, epidemiologic and sociological studies, and a large psychophysiologic literature demonstrating various influences of behavior on blood pressure changes and other responses of the cardiovascular system. For general reviews, see Cohen and Obrist,15 Eyer,27 Gutmann and Benson,42 Harris and Forsyth,48 Heine,49 and A. Shapiro et al.88,89 One striking example derives from the data showing that blood pressure does not rise with age in some black societies, whereas in others one finds more typical increases.4


Blood Pressure Essential Hypertension Blood Pressure Change Relaxation Response Behavioral Method 
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© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1982

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  • D. Shapiro
  • I. B. Goldstein

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