Laboratory Diagnosis in Hypertension

  • H. Wernze


Laboratory studies are indispensable for the differentiation of the various forms of hypertension. With the introduction of new methods, most notably radioimmunoassay, the diagnostic possibilities for the identification of endocrine forms of hypertension have been significantly expanded. The application of these procedures has been broadened greatly by kits offered by pharmaceutical companies and is therefore no longer restricted to specialized laboratories. Extensive and nonspecific analytical methods need not be employed in every form of hypertension, however. In the majority of hypertensive patients, particularly the elderly, it is not necessary to carry out an extensive program of analytical laboratory tests based on differential diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. The dilemma of laboratory diagnosis lies in the lack of reliable, simple methods for identification of the frequently occurring primary (essential) hypertension. As a result, the necessary differentiating laboratory tests are neglected or applied insufficiently in the rare secondary forms of hypertension which sometimes are amenable to causal therapy.


Plasma Renin Activity Plasma Renin Primary Aldosteronism Laboratory Diagnosis Plasma Renin Concentration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abraham GE, Swerdloff R, Tulchinsky D, Odell WD (1971) Radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 32: 619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akerstedt T, Levi L (1978) Circadian rhythms in the secretion of Cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline. Eur J Clin Invest 8: 57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Albert JP, Fricke G, Hartmann F (1977) Aldosteronwerte: Beeinflussung durch Gerinnungshemmer, Lagerung, Temperatur und Aufbewahrungsdauer. Diagnostik 10: 719Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Amundsen E, Pütter J, Friberger P, Knös M, Lars-braten M, Claeson G (in press) Methods of the determination of glandular kallikreins by means of a chromogenic tripeptide substrateGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aunis D, Boucher M (1977) Comparative study of plasma dopamine-/?-hydroxylase activities in noradrenaline-secreting and adrenaline-secreting phaeochromocytoma. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 4: 359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bangham DR, Robertson I, Robertson JIS, Robinson CJ, Tree M (1975) An international collaborative study of renin assay: Establishment of the international reference preparation of human renin. Clin Sci Mol Med (Suppl. 2 ) 48: 135Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Biglieri EG (1977) Adrenal enzymatic defects resulting in hypertension. In: Genest J, Koiw E, Kuchel O (eds) Hypertension. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 789Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Black DAK, Thomson AE (1975) Day to day changes in sodium and water output with and without posterior pituitary extract. Clin Sci 10: 511Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bohuon C (1974) Biologically active amines. In: Curtius HC, Roth M (eds) Clinical Chemistry, Principles and Methods, vol II de Gruyter, Berlin, New York, p855Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boucher R, Rojo-Ortega JM, Genest J (1977) Description of renin-angiotensin system and methods of measurement. In: Genest J, Koiw E, Kuchel 0 (eds) Hypertension. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 140Google Scholar
  11. 10a.
    Bravo EL, Tarazi RC, Gifford RW, Stewart BH (1979) Circulating and urinary catecholamines in pheochromocytoma. New Engl J Med 301: 682PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 10b.
    Bravo EL, Tarazi RC, Fouad FM, Vidt DG, Gifford RW Jr (1981) Clonidine-suppression test: A useful aid in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. New Engl J Med 305: 623 11.Google Scholar
  13. 11.
    Bühler FR, Laragh JH, Baer L, Vaughan ED, Brunner HR (1972) Propranolol inhibition of renin secretion, a specific approach to diagnosis and treatment of renin-dependent hypertensive diseases. N Engl J Med 287: 1209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 12.
    Conn JW, Hinerman DL (1977) Spironolactone-in- duced inhibition of aldosterone: Morphological and functional studies. Metabolism 26: 1293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 12a.
    Connolly TM, Vecsei P, Haack D, Kohl KH, Abdelhamid S, Ammenti A (1978) Aldosterone diagnosis in hypertension: Comparative evaluation of radioimmunoassays for urinary aldosterone and 18-OH-cor- ticosterone. Klin Wsch 56 (Suppl. I): 173 13.Google Scholar
  16. 13.
    Crane MG, Harris JJ, Johan VJ (1972) Hyporeninemic hypertension. Am J Med 52: 457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 14.
    Crout JR (1966) Catecholamine metabolism in pheo- chromocytoma and essential hypertension. In: Manger WM (ed) Hormones and Hypertension. Thomas, Springfield, 111, chapter I, pp 3–40Google Scholar
  18. 15.
    Deck KA, Champion PK Jr, Conn JW (1973) Urinary free aldosterone in healthy people and in patients with primary aldosteronism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 36: 756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 16.
    Deck KA, Luedtke A, Eberlein L (1976) Untersu-chungen zum Zusammenhang diurnaler Schwankungen der Vanillinmandelsäure (VMS)-und Aldosteronausscheidung. Klin Wochenschr 54: 131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 17.
    Ducharme JR, Forest MG, Peretti E de, Sempé M, Collu R, Bertrand J (1976) Plasma adrenal and gonadal sex steroids in human pubertal development. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 42: 468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 18.
    Eddy RL, Jones AL, Gilliland PF, Ibarra JD, Thompson JQ, McMurry JF (1973) Cushing’s syndrome: A prospective study of diagnostic methods. Am J Med 55: 621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 19.
    Eggena P, Barrett JD, Hikada H, Chu CL, Thananopavarn C, Golub MS, Sambhi MP (1977) A direct radioimmunoassay for human renin substrate and identification of multiple substrate types in plasma. Circ Res (Suppl. 2 ) 41: 34Google Scholar
  23. 20.
    Eley JD, Kelly JH (1977) Importance of incubation conditions in measuring renin activity. Clin Chem 23: 1944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 21.
    Engelman K, Portnoy B, Lowenberg W (1968) A sen-sitive and specific double-isotope derivative method for the determination of catecholamines in biological specimens. Am J Med Sci 255: 259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 22.
    Euler US von (1956) Noradrenaline. Thomas, Springfield, IllGoogle Scholar
  26. 23.
    Fyhrquist F, Puntula L (1978) Effect of temperature on plasma renin samples. Clin Chem 24: 1202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 24.
    Geffen LB, Rush RA, Luis WJ, Doyle AE (1973) Plasma catecholamine and dopamine-iS-hydroxyläse amounts in phaeochromocytoma. Clin Sci 44: 421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 25.
    Genest J, Boucher R, Rojo-Ortega JM, Roy P, Le- febvre R, Cartier P, Nowaczynski W, Kuchel 0 (1977) Renovascular hypertension. In: Genest J, Koiw E, Kuchel 0 (eds) Hypertension. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 815–840Google Scholar
  29. 26.
    Gitlow SE, Bertani LM, Rausen A. Gribetz D, Dziedzic SW (1970) Diagnosis of neuroblastoma by qualitative and quantitative determination of catecholamine metabolites. Cancer 25: 1377Google Scholar
  30. 27.
    Gitlow SE, Mendlowitz M, Wilk EK, Wilk S, Wolf RL, Bertani LM (1968) Excretion of catecholamine catabolites by normal children. J Lab Clin Med 72: 612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 28.
    Gitlow SE, Mendlowitz M, Bertani LM (1970) The biochemical techniques for detecting and establishing the presence of a pheochromocytoma. Am J Cardiol 26: 270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 29.
    Greef K, Strobach H (1970) Diagnose des Phäochro-mozytoms und Neuroblastoms durch Bestimmung von Noradrenalin, Adrenalin und deren Metaboliten im Harn. Herz/Kreisl 2: 431Google Scholar
  33. 30.
    Greenblatt DJ, Ransil BJ, Harmatz JS, Smith TW, Duhme DW, Koch-Weser J (1976) Variability of 24- hour urinary creatinine excretion by normal subjects. J Clin Pharmacol 16: 321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 31.
    Hartmann F (1977) Log-normal verteilte Plasmacor-tisolwerte in Vierpunkttagesprofilen. Med Klin 72: 353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 32.
    Hartmann F, Jentzen F (1974) Quantitative dünnschichtchromatographische Bestimmung von freiem Cortisol, Cortison und Cortexolon im 4- und 24-Stunden-Sammelurin. Med Klin 69: 102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 33.
    Hilfenhaus M (1977) Urinary aldosterone excretion rate and plasma aldosterone concentration in the rat: Effect of ACTH, DOC, furosemide and of changes in sodium balance. Acta Endocrinol (Kbh) 85: 134Google Scholar
  37. 34.
    Hornung J, Gless KH, Abdelhamid S, Vielhauer W, Vecsei P (1978) Radioimmunoassay of free urinary 18-hydroxy-deoxy-corticosterone (18-ÜH-D0C) in patients with essential hypertension. Clin Chem Acta 87: 181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 35.
    Jarrott B, Louis WJ (1977) Abnormalities in enzymes involved in catecholamine synthesis and catabolism in phaeochromocytoma. Clin Sci Mol Med 53: 529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 36.
    Johnson GA, Peuler JD, Baker CA (1977) Plasma catecholamines in normotensive subjects. Curr Ther Res 21: 898Google Scholar
  40. 37.
    Jowett TP, Slater JDH (1977) Development of radioimmunoassay for the measurement of aldosterone in unprocessed plasma and simple plasma extracts. Clin Chim Acta 80: 435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 38.
    Khairallah PA, Hall MM (1977) Angiotensinases. In: Genest J, Koiw E, Kuchel O (eds) Hypertension. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 179Google Scholar
  42. 39.
    Kley HH (1976) Such- und Schnellteste bei Nebennierenrindeninsuffizienz. Internist 17: 483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 40.
    Krakoff LR (1973) Plasma renin substrate: measurement by radioimmunoassay of angiotensin I concentration in syndromes associated with steroid excess. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 37: 110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 41.
    Kuchel 0 (1977) Autonomic nervous system in hypertension: clinical aspects. In: Genest J, Koiw E, Kuchel 0 (eds) Hypertension. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 93Google Scholar
  45. 42.
    Lange WE de, Lappöhn RE, Sluite WJ, Doorenbos H (1977) Primäre Amenorrhoe und Hyperkaliämie infolge 17alpha-Hydroxylase-Mangels. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 102: 1024PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 43.
    Laragh JH, Baer L, Brunner HR, Bühler FR, Sealey JE, Vaughan ED (1973) The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in pathogenesis and management of hypertensive vascular diseases. In: Laragh JH (ed) Hypertension Manual. Yorke Medical Books, New York, p 313Google Scholar
  47. 44.
    Lechi A, Covi G, Lechi C, Corgnati A, Arosio E, Zatti M, Scuro LA (1978) Urinary kallikrein excretion and plasma renin activity in patients with essential hypertension and primary aldosteronism. Clin Sci Mol Med 55: 51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 45.
    Lentz KE, Dorer FE, Kahn JR, Levine M, Skeggs LT (1978) Multiple forms of renin substrate in human plasma. Clin Chim Acta 83: 249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 46.
    Liebau H, Hilfenhaus M (1977) Katecholamin-Bestimmung in Plasma und Urin. Methodik und klinische Bedeutung. Lab Med 3 /4: 43Google Scholar
  50. 47.
    Manger WM, Gifford RW Jr (1977) Pheochromocytoma. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. 48.
    Mattingly D (1962) A simple fluorimetric method for the estimation of free 11-hydroxycorticoids in human plasma. J Clin Pathol 15: 374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 49.
    Melby JC (1977) 18-OH-DOC in clinical and exper-imental hypertension. In: Genest J, Koiw E, Kuchel O (eds) Hypertension. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 340Google Scholar
  53. 50.
    Mitas JA, Levy SB, Holle R, Frigon RP, Stone RA (1978) Urinary kallikrein activity in the hypertension of renal parenchymal disease. New Engl J Med 299: 162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 51.
    Modlinger R, Gutkin M (1978) Plasma prolactin in essential and renovascular hypertension. J Lab Clin Med 91: 693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 52.
    Nocke-Finck L (1975) Spektrophotometrische Be-stimmung von Pregnandiol und Pregnantriol im Urin. In: Breuer H, Hamel D, Krüskemper HL (eds) Methoden der Hormonbestimmung. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 255Google Scholar
  56. 53.
    Nocke-Finck L, Breuer H (1975) Spektrophotometrische Bestimmung der 17-Oxosteroide im Urin. In: Breuer H, Hamel D, Krüskemper HL (eds) Methoden der Hormonbestimmung. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 261Google Scholar
  57. 53a.
    Novotny P, Novotny E, Waldhäusl W (1979) Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Problematik der Aldosteronbestimmung. Jahrestgg. Österr. u. Dt. Ges. f. Klin Chem Salzburg 29. /31. 3. 1979Google Scholar
  58. 54.
    Nowaczynski W, Genest J, Kuchel O (1977) Aldosterone, deoxycorticosterone, and corticosterone metabolism in essential hypertension. In: Genest J, Koiw E, Kuchel 0 (eds) Hypertension. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 312Google Scholar
  59. 55.
    Nowaczynski W, Sasaki C, Genest J (1974) Radioimmunoassay for aldosterone and normal values under various physiological conditions. J Steroid Biochem 5: 123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 56.
    Nowaczynski W, Silah J, Genest J (1967) Procedure for determination of aldosterone in human peripheral plasma by double isotope derivate assay and its application for measurement of secretory rate and urinary excretion. Can J Biochem 45: 1919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 57.
    Oparil S (1977) Angiotensin I converting enzyme and inhibitors. In: Genest J, Koiw E, Kuchel O (eds) Hypertension. McGraw-Hill, New York p 156Google Scholar
  62. 58.
    Passon PG, Peuler JD (1973) A simplified radiometric assay for plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine. Anal Biochem 51: 618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 59.
    Pellnitz W, Schöneshöfer M, Oelkers W (1978) Differentiation between subtypes of primary hyperaldosteronism by multiple steroid measurements after dexamethasone administration. Klin Wochenschr 56: 855PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 60.
    Pisano JJ (1960) A simple analysis for normetanephrine and metanephrine in urine. Clin Chim Acta 5: 406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 61.
    Pisano JJ, Crout JR, Abraham D (1962) Determination of 3-Methoxy-4-hydromandelic acid in urine. Clin Chim Acta 7: 285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 62.
    Prada M da, Zürcher G (1976) Simultaneous radioenzymatic determination of plasma and tissue adrena-line, noradrenaline and dopamine within the femtomole range. Life Sci 19: 1161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 63.
    Pratt, JH, Holbrook MM, Dale SL, Melby JC (1978) The measurement of urinary tetrahydroaldosterone by radioimmunoassay. J Steroid Biochem 8: 677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 64.
    Rosei EA, Brown JJ, Cumming MM, Fraser R, Semple PF, Lever AF, Morton JJ, Robertson AS, Robertson JIS, Tree M (1978) Is the “sodium index” a useful way of expressing clinical renin, angiotensin and aldosterone values. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf.) 8: 141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 65.
    Sasaki C, Nowaczynski W, Küchel 0, Chavez C, Ledoux F, Gauthier S, Genest J (1972) Plasma progesterone in normal subjects and patients with benign essential hypertension on normal, low, and high sodium intake. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 34: 650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 66.
    Schievelbein H (1976) Phäochromozytom, Neuroblastom, Karzinoid und ihre Diagnostik. Bayer Ärztebl 1: 76Google Scholar
  71. 67.
    Schöneshöfer M (1977) Simultaneous determination of eight adrenal steroids in human serum by radioimmunoassay. J Steroid Biochem 8: 995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 68.
    Schöneshöfer M, Wagner GG (1977) Sex differences in corticosteroids in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 45: 814PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 69.
    Schweisfurth H, Wernze H (1979) Changes of serum angiotensin I converting enzyme in patients with viral hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. Acta Hepatogastroenterol (Stuttg) 36: 207Google Scholar
  74. 70.
    Sealey J, Gerten-Banes J, Laragh JH (1972) The renin system: variations in man measured by radioimmunoassay or bioassay. Kidney Int 1: 240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 71.
    Sealey J, Laragh JH (1973) Searching out low renin patients: limitations of some commonly used methods. Am J Med 55: 303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 72.
    Sealey JE, Laragh JH (1975) “Prorenin” in human plasma? Methodological and physiological implications. Circ Res (Suppl 1):10Google Scholar
  77. 73.
    Semple PF, Boyd AS, Dawes PM, Morton JJ (1976) Angiotensin II and its heptapeptide (2–8), hexapeptide (3–8), and pentapeptide (4–8) metabolites in arterial and venous blood of man. Circ Res 39: 671PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 74.
    Sippel WG, Bidlingsmaier F, Becker H, Brünig T, Dörr H, Hahn H, Golder W, Hollmann G, Knorr D (1978) Simultaneous determination of plasma aldosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, pro-gesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxy Cortisol, Cortisol and cortisone. J Steroid Biochem 9: 63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 75.
    Sjoerdsma A, Engelman K, Waldman TA, Cooperman LH, Hammond WC (1966) Pheochromocytoma: Current concepts of diagnosis and treatment. Ann Intern Med 65: 1306Google Scholar
  80. 76.
    Spech HJ (1978) Total immunoreactive angiotensin II, its heptaoctapeptide fraction, and its hexapeptide in patients with liver disease. Klin Wochenschr 56: 399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 77.
    Spech HJ, Wernze H, Weiss H (1976) Radioimmunoassay of angiotensin II and its metabolites. Comparison of two different extraction procedures. Acta Endocrinol (Kbh) (Suppl. 202 ) 82: 67Google Scholar
  82. 77a.
    Strong, CG, Northcutt RC, Sheps SG (1977) Clinical examination and investigation of the hypertensive patient. In: Genest J, Koiw E, Kuchel O (eds) Hypertension. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 658Google Scholar
  83. 78.
    Stumpe KO, Kolloch R, Higuchi M (1977) Hyperprolactinemia and antihypertensive effect of bromocryptine in essential hypertension. Identification of abnormal central dopamine control. Lancet 11: 211Google Scholar
  84. 79.
    Tan SY, Sweet P, Mulrow PY (1978) Impaired renal production of prostaglandin E2: A newly identified lesion in human essential hypertension. Prostaglandins 15: 139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 80.
    Thulin T, Karlberg BE, Schersten B (1978) Plasma renin activity, aldosterone and sodium excretion in women with high and low causal blood pressure levels. Acta Med Scand 203: 405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 81.
    Vecsei P (1974) Glucocorticoids: Cortisol, corticosterone and compound S. In: Jaffe BM, Behrman HR (eds) Methods of Hormone Radioimmunnoassay. Academic Press, London New York, p. 393Google Scholar
  87. 82.
    Vecsei P, Gless HK (1975) Aldosteron-Radioim-munoassay. Enke, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  88. 83.
    Vetter W, Vetter H, Siegenthaler W (1973) Radioimmunoassay for aldosterone without chromatography. Acta Endocrinol (Kbh) 74: 558.Google Scholar
  89. 84.
    Walker G, Moore MA, Horvath JS, Whelton PK (1976) Arterial and venous angiotensin II in normal subjects. Circ Res 38: 477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 85.
    Weidmann P, Chatel R de, Schiffmann A, Bachmann E, Beretta-Piccoli C, Reubli FC, Ziegler WH, Vetter W (1977) Interactions between age and plasma renin, aldosterone and Cortisol, urinary catecholamines, and the body sodium/volume state in normal man. Klin Wochenschr 55: 725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 86.
    Werner U (1975) Verbesserte Trihydroxyindolmethode zur Bestimmung der Harnkatecholamine. Z klin Chem Biochem 13: 341Google Scholar
  92. 86a.
    Werning C (1972) Das Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosteron-System. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 146Google Scholar
  93. 87.
    Wernze H (1976) Bestimmungstechnische Gesichts-punkte bei hohem und niedrigem Plasmarenin (Kinetik, Inkubationszeit, Plasmaverdünnungen) In: Wernze H, Rosenthal J (eds) Renin-Angiotensin-Sys- tem: Methodische und klinische Probleme. Med Welt (NF) 27:212 (Abstr)Google Scholar
  94. 88.
    Wernze H (1976) Methodische Probleme radioimmunologischer Reninanalysen. Med Welt (NF) 27: 213 (Abstr)Google Scholar
  95. 89.
    Wernze H (1978) Changes of plasma renin substrate in physiological and pathophysiological states. In: Krause DK, Hummerich W, Poulsen K (eds) Radioimmunoassay-Renin-Angiotensin. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 91Google Scholar
  96. 90.
    Wessels F, Wagner H, Eienbröker B, Kleimann R, Degenhardt G (1976) Hypophysenvorderlappen-Nebennierenrindenachse bei essentieller Hypertonie mit unterschiedlicher Plasma-Renin-Aktivität. Verh Dtsch Ges Inn Med 82: 1288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 91.
    West CD, Dolman LI (1977) Plasma ACTH radioimmunoassay in the diagnosis of pituitary-adrenal dysfunction. Ann NY Acad Sci 297: 205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 92.
    Winter JSD, Faiman C (1973) Pituitary-gonadal relations in female children and adolescents. Pediatr Res 7: 948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 93.
    Wisser H, Knoll E (1973) Die Analytik der Katecholamine und einiger Abbauprodukte im Urin und Plasma. Z Klin Chem Biochem 11: 3Google Scholar
  100. 94.
    Zeisel H, Kuschke HJ (1959) Die Catechinamine Adrenalin und Noradrenalin im Harn des Kindes. Klin Wochenschr 37: 1168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 95.
    Ziegler R (1980) EinflujS des Calcium-Haushalts und seltener Ionen bei Hypertonie. In: Rosenthal J (ed) Arterielle Hypertonie. Springer, Heidelberg, Berlin, p 136Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Wernze

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations