Hypertension in Childhood with Special Reference to Cardiovascular and Renal Causes

  • H. C. Kallfelz
  • G. Offner


Until 10 years ago persistent hypertension in infants and children was considered an extreme rarity. However, in recent years much evidence has accumulated that primary hypertension in the young age groups is much more prevalent than was previously conceived.42,60,66,67,72,83,113,129,130 Earlier, when an elevated blood pressure was discovered in a child, there was often a tendency by physicians to discount the significance of the finding, relating it to the anxiety of the child. Moreover, there were few facilities available for differential diagnosis and proper treatment applicable to children. If hypertension was secondary to coarctation of the aorta, it could be relieved by resection, and surgery was also successful in the rare cases of renal tumors or neoplasms with endocrine activity. With improved diagnostic methods, nowadays applicable even to infants, such as arteriography, isotope renogram, renal scan, renal biopsy, and renin assay, and with the introduction of new, safe drugs to control hypertension not amenable to surgery, the hitherto nihilistic attitude to diagnosis and treatment has considerably changed.


Renal Artery High Blood Pressure Essential Hypertension Plasma Renin Activity Diastolic Pressure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adelman RD (1978) Neonatal hypertension. Pediatr Clin North Am 25: 99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alpert BS, Bain HH, Balfe JW, Kidd BSL, Olley PM (1979) Role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in hypertensive children with coarctation of the aorta. Am J Cardiol 43: 828PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Amsterdam EA, Albers WH, Christlieb AR, Morgan CL, Nadas AS, Hickler RB (1969) Plasma renin activity in children with coarctation of the aorta. Am J Cardiol 23: 396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aoki S, Imamura S, Aoki M, McCabe WR (1969) Abacterial and bacterial pyelonephritis. Immunofluorescent localization of bacterial antigen. N Eng J Med 281: 1375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bachy C, Alexandre GPJ, van Ypersele de Strihouc (1976) Hypertension after renal transplantation. Br Med J 27: 1287Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Balfe JW, Ranee CP (1978) Recognition and management of hypertensive crises in childhood. Pediatr Clin North Amer 25: 159 7.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Becker AE, Becker MJ, Edwards JE (1970) Anomalies associated with coarctation of aorta. Circulation 41: 1067PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beretta-Piccoli C, Weidmann P, de Chatel R, Reubi F (1976) Hypertension associated with early stage kidney disease. Am J Med 61: 739Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bernstein J (1972) Abnormalities of renal development: Hypoplasia and dysplasia; cystic disorders and polycystic disease. In: Barnett JL (ed) Pediatrics 15. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, p 1474Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Biron P, Mongeau JG, Bertrand D (1976) Familial aggregation of blood pressure in 558 adopted children. Can Med Assoc J 115: 773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Black S, Douglas (1972) Renal Disease, 3rd ed. Blackwell, Oxford, London, Edinburgh, Melbourne, p726Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brech WJ, Heimsoth VH (1975) Niere und Hochdruck. In: Franz HE, Schärer K (eds) Praktische Nephrologie im Erwachsenen- und Kindesalter. Enke, Stuttgart, p 157Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Briedigkeit W, Bartel J (1976) Die primäre Blutdruckerhöhung bei Kindern unter dem Aspekt der präventiven Kardiologie. Z Ärztl Fortbild (Jena) 70: 964Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brom AG (1965) Narrowing of the aortic isthmus and enlargement of the mind. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 50: 166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Buck CW (1973) The persistence of elevated blood pressure first observed at age five. J Chronic Dis 26: 101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bühlmeyer K (1974) Differentialdiagnose des Hypertoniebefundes im Kindesalter. Münch Med Wochenschr 116: 711Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Campbell M (1970) Natural history of coarctation of the aorta. Br Heart J 32: 63Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cobb ML (1976) Severe hypertension in a child with Wilms’ tumor: A case report. Anesth Analg (Cleve) 55: 519Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Colemann TG, Bover J, Langford HG, Guyton AC (1970) Regulation of pressure in the anephric state. Circulation 42: 509Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Committee on Nutrition (1974) American Academy of Pediatrics: Salt intake and eating patterns of infants and children in relation to blood pressure. Pediatrics 53: 115Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Connor TM (1979) Evaluation of persistent coarctation of aorta after surgery with blood pressure measurements and exercise testing. Am J Cardiol 43: 74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Crafoord C, Nylin G (1945) Congenital coarctation of the aorta and its surgical treatment. J Thorac Surg 14: 347Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Craigie D (1841) Instance of obliteration of the aorta beyond the arch illustrated by similar cases and observations. Edinburgh Med Surg J 56: 427Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Doyle TJ, McGregor WR, Fox PS, Maddison FE, Rodgers RE, Kauffmann HM (1975) Homotransplant renal artery stenosis. Surgery 77: 53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Elseed AM, Shinebourne EA, Joseph MC (1973) As-sessment of techniques for measurement of blood pressure in infants and children. Arch Dis Child 48: 932PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Elseed AM, Shinebourne EA, Paneth M (1974) Manifestation of juxtaductal coarctation after surgical ligation of persistent ductus arteriosus in infancy. Br Heart J 36: 687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Eshaghpour E, Olley PM (1972) Recoarctation of the aorta following coarctectomy in the first year of life: A follow-up study. J Pediatr 80: 809PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 27a.
    Fredebohm W (1980) Der Blutdruck im Kleinkindesalter. Dissertation Med Hochschule HannoverGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Freed MD, Rocchini A, Rosenthal A, Nadas AS, Castañeda AR (1979) Exercise-induced hypertension after surgical repair of coarctation of the aorta. Am J Cardiol 43: 253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 29.
    Gill DG, Mendes de Costa B, Cameron JS, Joseph MC, Ogg CS, Chatler C (1976) Analysis of 100 children with severe and persistent hypertension. Arch Dis Child 51: 951Google Scholar
  31. 30.
    Godard C (1977) Predictive value of renal-vein renin measurements in children with various forms of renal hypertension. Helv Paediatr Acta 32: 49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    Goetzman BW, Stadalnik RC, Bogren HG (1975) Thrombotic complications of umbilical artery cath-eters. A clinical and radiographic study. Pediatrics 56: 374–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 32.
    Goldring D (1978) Treatment of the infant and child with coarctation of the aorta. Pediatr Clin North Am 25: 111Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    Goddall McM, Sealy WC (1969) Increased sympathetic nerve activity following resection of coarctation of the thoracic aorta. Circulation 39: 345Google Scholar
  35. 34.
    Graham TP, Atwood GF, Boerth RC, Boucek RJ, Smith CW (1977) Right and left heart size and function in infants with symptomatic coarctation. Circulation 56: 641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 35.
    Gupta TC, Wiggers CJ (1951) Basic hemodynamic changes produced by aortic coarctation of different degrees. Circulation 3: 17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 36.
    Haggerty RJ, Maroney MW, Nadas AS (1956) Essential hypertension in infants and childhood. Am J Dis Child 92: 535Google Scholar
  38. 37.
    Hartmann AF, Goldring D, Staple DW (1967) Coarctation of the aorta in infancy. Hemodynamic studies. J Pediatr. 70: 95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 38.
    Hartmann AF Jr, Goldring D, Strauss AW, Hernandez A, McKnight R, Weldon CS (1977) Coarctation of the aorta. In: Moss AJ, Adams FH, Emmanoulides GC (eds) Heart Disease in Infants, Children and Adolescents, 2nd ed. Williams Wilkins, Baltimore, p 199Google Scholar
  40. 39.
    Heberer G, Schildberg FW, Becker HM, Stelter WJ, Zumtobel V (1975) Die atypische suprarenale Aortenstenose als Ursache eines juvenilen Hypertonus. Dtsch med Wochenschr 100: 649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 40.
    Hennekens Ch, Jesse MJ, Klein BE, Gourley JE, Blumenthal S (1976) Aggregation of blood pressure in infants and their siblings. Am J Epidemiol 103: 457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 41.
    Hernandez A, Goldring D, Hartmann AF (1971) Measurement of blood pressure in infants and children by the Doppler ultrasonic technique. Pediatrics 48: 788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 42.
    Heyden S, Bartel AG, Hames CG, McDonough JR (1969) Elevated blood pressure levels in adolescents, Evans County, Georgia. JAMA 209: 1683PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 43.
    Heyden S, Wolff G (1975) Hypertonie bei Jugendlichen. Med Monatsschr 29: 9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 44.
    Hochhaus H (1893) Über das Offenbleiben des Ductus Botalli. Dtsch Arch Klin Med 51: 1Google Scholar
  46. 45.
    Hutchins GM (1971) Coarctation of the aorta explained as a branch point of the ductus arteriosus. Am J Pathol 63: 203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 46.
    James FW (1974) Effects of physical stress on ado-lescents with normal or abnormal cardiovascular function. Postgrad Med 56: 53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 47.
    Kafka HL, Oh W (1971) Direct and indirect blood pressure. Am J Dis Child 122: 426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 48.
    Kilcoyne MM (1977) Adolescent hypertension. In: New MI, Levine LS (eds) Juvenile Hypertension. Raven, New York, p 25Google Scholar
  50. 49.
    Kilcoyne MM (1978) Natural history of hypertension in adolescense. Pediatr Clin North Am 25: 47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 50.
    Kilcoyne MM, Richter RW, Alsup PA (1974) Adolescent hypertension: I. Detection and prevalence. Circulation 50: 758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    Kimura T,Ota M (1965) Epidemiologic study of hypertension. Comparative results of hypertensive surveys in two areas in northern Japan. Am J Clin Nutr 17: 38Google Scholar
  53. 52.
    Kischsieper KM, Rutenfranz J (1966) Bestimmung des arteriellen Blutdruckes. In: Opitz H, Schmidt F (eds) Pädiatrische Diagnostik. Berlin, Heidelberg, 69. New York (Handbuch der Kinderheilkunde, Bd II/ 1 ) pp 213–225Google Scholar
  54. 53.
    Kirkendall WM, Burton AC, Epstein FH, Freis ED (1967) Recommendations for human blood pressure determination by sphygomomanometer. Circulation 71. 36: 980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 54.
    Kirkendall WM, Culbertson JW, Eckstein JW (1959) Renal hemodynamics in patients with coarctation of the aorta. J Lab Clin Med 53: 6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 55.
    Korobkin MD, Perloff L, Palubinskas AJ (1976) 73. Renal arteriography in the evaluation of unexplained hypertension in children and adolescents. J Pediatr 88: 388 74.Google Scholar
  57. 56.
    Kremer K, Loose DA, Moschinski D, Kleinschmidt F, Kovacicek St, Benesch L (1975) Coarctatio aortae abdominalis. Vasa 4: 125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    Kundu SC, De AK, Pal DK (1973) Aetiological char-acteristics of hypertension in the young. J Assoc Physicians India 21: 222Google Scholar
  59. 58.
    Kunin CM (1968) Emergence of bacteriuria, proteinuria and asymptomatic urinary tract infections among a population of school girls followed for seven years. Pediatrics 41: 968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 59.
    Lang WO, Keller F, Kolodziejczak F, Hilber H (1973) Die indirekte Bestimmung der systolischen und diastolischen Blutdruckwerte bei Früh-, Neugeborenen und Säuglingen nach dem elektro-oszillographischen und Ultraschall-Doppler-Prinzip. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 121: 131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 60.
    Lauer RM, Conner WE, Leaverton PE, Reiter MA, Clarke WR (1975) Coronary heart disease risk factors in school children: The Muscatine study. J Pediatr 86: 697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Leumann EP, Bauer RP, Slation PE, Biglieri EG, Holliday MA (1973) Renovascular hypertension in children. Pediatrics 46: 362Google Scholar
  63. 62.
    Leumann EP, Nussberger J, Vetter W (1976) Low renin essential hypertension in a child. Helv Paediatr Acta 30: 357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Liberthson RR, Pennington DG, Jacobs MJ, Dag- 83. gett WM (1979) Coarctation of the aorta: Review of 234 patients and clarification of management problems. Am J Cardiol 43: 835Google Scholar
  65. 64.
    Liebermann E (1974) Essential hypertension in children and youth: A pediatric perspective. Pediatrics 85: 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Liebermann E, Salinas-Madrigal L, Gwinn J, Brennan P, Fine P, Landing B (1971) Infantile polycystic disease of kidneys and liver: Clinical, pathological and radiological correlations and comparison with congenital hepatic fibrosis. Medicine Baltimore 50: 277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Loggie J (1969) Hypertension in children and adolescents: I. Causes and diagnostic studies. J Pediatr 74: 331–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Loggie J (1974) Essential hypertension in adolescents. Postgrad Med 56: 133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Loggie J (1977) Prevalence of hypertension and distribution of causes. In: New MI, Levine LS (eds) Juvenile Hypertension. Raven, New York, p 1Google Scholar
  70. 69.
    Loggie J, Rauh LW (1975) Persistent systemic hypertension in the adolescent. Med Clin North Am 59: 1371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Londe S (1966) Blood pressure in children as determined under office conditions. Clin Pediatr 5: 71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Londe S, Bourgoignie JJ, Robsen AM, Goldring D (1971) Hypertension in apparently normal children. J Pediatr 78: 569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Londe S, Goldring D (1972) Hypertension in children. Am Heart J 84: 1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Londe S, Goldring D (1976) High blood pressure in children: Problems and guidelines for evaluation and treatment. Am J Cardiol 37: 650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Londe S, Goldring D, Gollub SW, Hernadez A (1977) Blood pressure and hypertension in children: Studies, problems and perspectives. In: New MI, Levine LS (eds) Juvenile Hypertension. Raven, New York, p 13Google Scholar
  76. 75.
    Londe S, Johanson A, Kronemer NS, Goldring D (1975) Blood pressure and puberty. J Pediatr 87: 896PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Long M, Dunlop JR, Holland WW (1971) Blood pressure recording in children. Arch Dis Child 46: 636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Malekzadeh HM, Brennan LP, Payne VC, Fine RN (1975) Hypertension after renal transplantation in children. J Pediatr. 86: 370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Markiewicz A, Wojczuk D, Kokot F, Cicha A (1975) Plasma renin activity in coarctation of aorta before and after surgery. Br Heart J 37: 721PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Maron BJ, Humphries JO, Rowe RD, Mellits ED (1973) Prognosis of surgically corrected coarctation of the aorta. Circulation 47: 119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Masland RPJ, Heald FP, Jr, Goodale WT (1956) Hypertensive vascular disease in adolescence. N Engl J Med 255: 894PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Master AM, Dublin LJ, Marks HH (1950) The normal blood pressure range and its clinical implications. JAMA 144: 1464Google Scholar
  83. 82.
    McCammon RW (1970) Human Growth and Development. Thomas, Springfield, IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    McLain (1976) Hypertension in childhood: A review. Am Heart J 92: 634Google Scholar
  85. 84.
    Meneely GR, Battarbee FHD (1976) High sodium- low potassium environment and hypertension. Am J Cardiol 38: 768PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 84a.
    Mirkin BL, Sinaiko A (1977) Clinical pharmacology and therapeutic utilization of antihypertensive agents in children. In: New MI, Levine LS (eds) Juvenile Hypertension. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  87. 85.
    Mitchell SC, Blount SG Jr, Blumenthal S, Hoffman SJI, Jesse MJ, Lauer RM, Weidman WH (1975) The pediatrician and hypertension. Pediatrics 56: 3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 86.
    More IAR, Jackson AM, McSween RNM (1974) Renin-secreting tumor associated with hypertension. Cancer 34: 2093PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 87.
    Moss A J (1978) Indirect methods of blood pressure measurements. Pediatr Clin North Am 25: 3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 88.
    Moss AJ, Adams FH (1962) Problems of Blood Pressure in Childhood. Thomas, Springfield, IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  91. 89.
    Moss A J, Adams FH (1965) Auscultatory and intra-arterial pressure: A comparison in children with special reference to cuff width. J Pediatr 66: 1094PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 90.
    Nanton MA, Olley PM (1976) Residual hypertension after coarctectomy in children. Am J Cardiol 37: 769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 91.
    Nelson NM (1968) Determination of systolic and diastolic pressures of newborns. Pediatrics 42: 934PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 91a.
    Nikaidoh H, Idriss FS, Riker WL (1973) Aortic rupture in children as a complication of coarctation of the aorta. Arch Surg 107: 838Google Scholar
  95. 92.
    Offner G, Brodehl J, Brandis M, Krohn HP, Pichlmayr R, Tidow G (on press) Nierentransplantationen bei Kindern in Hannover 1970–1977. Med WochenschrGoogle Scholar
  96. 93.
    Oil BD, Chen BTN, Toh CCS, et al. (1970) Causes of hypertension in the young. Br Med J 2: 744Google Scholar
  97. 94.
    O’Rourke MF, Cartmill TB (1971) Influence of aortic coarctation on pulsatile hemodynamics in the proximal aorta. Circulation 44: 281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 95.
    Pickering G (1968) High Blood Pressure. Grune Stratton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  99. 96.
    Ranee CP, Arbus GS, Balfe JW, Kooh S (1974) Per-sistent systemic hypertension in infants and children. Pediatr Clin North Am 21: 801Google Scholar
  100. 97.
    Reichmann LB, Cooper BM, Blumenthal S (1975) Hypertension testing among high school students: I. Surveillance, procedures and results. J Chronic Dis 28: 161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 97a.
    Report of the task force of blood pressure control in children (1977) Pediatrics (Suppl.) 59: 796Google Scholar
  102. 98.
    Robson AM (1978) Special diagnostic studies for the detection of renal and renovascular forms of hypertension. Pediatr Clin North Am 25: 83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 99.
    Rocchini AP, Rosenthal A, Barger AC, Castaneda AR, Nadas AS (1976) Pathogenesis of paradoxical hypertension after coarctation resection. Circulation 54: 382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 100.
    Royer P, Habib R, Mathieu H, Broyer M (1975) Nephrologie pédiatrique, 2nd ed. Flammarion, ParisGoogle Scholar
  105. 101.
    Rudolph AM (1974) Congenital Diseases of the Heart. Year Book Medical Publishers, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  106. 102.
    Rudolph AM, Heymann MA, Spitznas U (1972) Hemodynamic considerations in the development of the aorta. Am J Cardiol 30: 514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 103.
    Sadove MS, Schmidt G, Wu H, Katz D (1973) Indirect blood pressure measurement in infants. Anesth Analg (Cleve) 52: 682Google Scholar
  108. 104.
    Schuerch W, Messerli FH, Genest J, Lefebvre R, Roy P, Carter P, Rojo-Ortega JM (1975) Arterial hypertension and neuroñbromatosis: Renal artery stenosis and coarctation of abdominal aorta. Can Med Assoc J 113: 879Google Scholar
  109. 105.
    Scott HW, Bahnson HT (1951) Evidence for a renal factor in the hypertension of experimental coarctation of the aorta. Surgery 30: 206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 106.
    Shinebourne EA, Tam ASY, Elseed AM, Paneth M, Lenox SG, Cleland WP, Lincoln C, Joseph MC, Anderson RH (1976) Coarctation of the aorta in infancy and childhood. Br Heart J 38: 375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 107.
    Simon AB, Zloto AE (1974) Coarctation of the aorta. Longitudinal assessment of operated patients. Circulation 50: 456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 108.
    Sinaiko AR, Mirkin BL (1978) Clinical pharmacology of antihypertensive drugs in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 25: 137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 109.
    Sinha SN, Kardatzke ML, Cole RB, Muster AJ, Wessel HU, Paul MH (1969) Coarctation of the aorta in infancy. Circulation 40: 385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 110.
    Stegall HF, Kardon MB, Kremmerer WT (1968) Indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure by Doppler ultrasonic sphygmomanometry. J Appl Physiol 25: 793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 111.
    Still JL, Cottom D (1967) Severe hypertension in childhood. Arch Dis Child 42: 34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 112.
    Strong WB, Botti RE, Silbert DR, Liebman J (1970) Peripheral and renal vein plasma renin activity in coarctation of the aorta. Pediatrics 45: 254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 113.
    Tackeuchi J (1966) Etiology of juvenile hypertension. Japanese Circulation Journal 30: 178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 114.
    Talner NS, Berman MA (1975) Postnatal development of obstruction in coarctation of the aorta: Role of the ductus arteriosus. Pediatrics 56: 562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 115.
    Tawes RC, Aberdeen E, Waterston DJ, Bonham-Carter RE (1969) Coarctation of the aorta in infants and children. A review of 333 operative cases, including 179 infants. Circulation (Suppl. I) 3–40Google Scholar
  120. 116.
    Vollmar J (1970) Coarctatio aortae abdominalis mit Beteiligung der Visceralarterien. Actuelle Chir 6: 359Google Scholar
  121. 117.
    Voors AW (1975) Cuff bladder size in a blood pressure survey of children. Am J Epidemiol 101: 489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 118.
    Voors AW, Foster TA, Frerichs RR, Webber LS, Berenson GS (1976) Studies of blood pressures in children ages 5–14 years in a total biracial community-the Bogalusa heart study. Circulation 54: 319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 119.
    Voors AW, Webber LS, Berenson GS (1977) A consideration of essential hypertension in children. Pract Cardiol 3: 29Google Scholar
  124. 120.
    Webber LS, Voors AW, Foster TH, Berenson GS (1977) A study of instruments in preparation for a blood pressure survey in children. Circulation 56: 651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 121.
    Weinsier RL (1976) Salt and the development of essential hypertension. Prev Med 5: 7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 122.
    Weiss NS, Hamill PVV, Drizd T (1973) Blood pressure levels in children 6–11 years: Relationship to age, sex, race and socioeconomic status. Vital Health Stat 11: 135Google Scholar
  127. 123.
    Weldon CS, Hartmann AF, Steinhoff NG, Morrissey JD (1973) A simple, safe, and rapid technique for the management of recurrent coarctation of the aorta. Ann Thorac Surg 15: 510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 124.
    Werning C, Schönbeck M, Weidmann P, Baumann K, Gysling E, Wirz P, Siegenthaler W (1970) Die Bedeutung des Renin-Angiotensin-Systems bei der Hypertonie der Aortenisthmusstenose. Helv Med Acta (Suppl.) 49: 188Google Scholar
  129. 125.
    West TH, Turcotte JG, Vander A (1969) Plasma renin activity, sodium balance and hypertension in a group of renal transplant recipients. J Lab Clin Med 73: 564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 126.
    Williams DJ (1974) Urology in childhood. Handbuch der Urologie. XV SuppL, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, p 208Google Scholar
  131. 127.
    Wimmer M (1975) Aortenisthmusstenose-Betreuung in der Praxis (Coarctation of the aorta.) Paediatr Paedol 10: 204Google Scholar
  132. 128.
    Winkler K (1976) Paraneoplastische Symptome bei Neuroblastom. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 124: 527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 129.
    Zinner SH, Levy PS, Kass EH (1971) Familial aggregation of blood pressure in childhood. N Engl J Med 284: 401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 130.
    Zinner SH, Martin LF, Sacks F, Rosner B, Kass EH (1975) A longitudinal study of blood pressure in childhood. Am J Epidemiol 100: 437Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. C. Kallfelz
  • G. Offner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations