Essential Hypertension

  • M. P. Sambhi


Essential hypertension was so named by Frank in 19111 and termed hypertensive cardiovascular disease by Janeway in 1913.2 There is evidence that the disease existed in ancient times. “Hard and bounding pulse” is described variously as an important manifestation of disease in the ancient systems of medicine in China and India; bloodletting was recommended as therapy to lower the tension.3 It is, of course, not surprising that for centuries, in the era preceding the development of modern concepts on blood circulation and blood pressure, the descriptions of hypertension as a disease are traceable only as references to its dire complications or terminal events. Through the centuries hypertension presumably was recognized as “apoplexy.” Early Greco-Roman concepts on “apoplexy and paralysis” were summarized in the 5th century A.D. by Caelius Aurelianus.4 Sclerosis of the kidneys in the absence of pain, oliguria, hematuria, and dropsy was described by Aetios in the 6th century A.D.


Essential Hypertension Plasma Renin Activity Systolic Hypertension Mild Hypertension Renin Suppression 
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  • M. P. Sambhi

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