Advertisement

Preparing the Tracer: Iodination Techniques

  • Anne P. Teitelbaum

Abstract

Radiolabeled hormones have a wide variety of uses, for example in radioimmunoassay procedures, in pharmacokinetic analyses, as tracers for receptors, and for autoradiography studies. In general, it is not difficult to prepare radioiodinated hormones in the laboratory. However, iodination of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT) has been particularly troublesome because radiolabeling procedures often damage these hormones. With the development of several new techniques during the past decade, it is possible to choose the method best suited to the needs of the investigator.

Keywords

Parathyroid Hormone Human Calcitonin Fluffy Layer Iodine Monochloride Label Hormone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Rasmussen H: Effect of oxidation and reduction upon the biological activity of PTH. Science 128:1347, 1958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tashjian AH Jr, Ontjes DA, Munson PL: Alkylation and oxidation of methionine in bovine PTH: effects on hormonal activity and antigenicity. Biochemistry 3:1175, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hughes WL: The chemistry of iodination. Ann NY Acad Sci 70:3, 1957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sammon PJ, Brand JS, Neuman WF, Raisz LG: Metabolism of labeled parathyroid hormone. I. Preparation of biologically active 125I-labeled parathyroid hormone. Endocrinology 92:1596, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Christie DL, Barling PM: Isolation of iodinated bPTH using ion exchange: demonstration of its immunological characteristics and biological activity. Endocrinology 103:204, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rosenblatt M, Goltzman D, Keutmann HT, Tregear GW, Potts JT Jr: Chemical and biological properties of synthetic, sulfur-free analogues of PTH. J Biol Chem 251:159, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hunter WM, Greenwood FC: Preparation of iodine-131 labeled human growth hormone of high specific activity. Nature 194:495, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arnaud CD, Tsao HS, Littledike T: Radioimmunoassay of human parathyroid hormone in serum. J Clin Invest 50:21, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Habener JF, Potts JT Jr: Modified method of CT iodination. In Antoniades HN (Ed.): Hormones in Human Blood. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, p. 551, 1976.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Glover JS, Salter DN, Sheperd BP: A study of some factors that influence the iodination of ox insulin. Biochem J 103:120, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Redshaw MR, Lynch SS: An improved method for the preparation of iodinated antigens for radioimmunoassay. J Endocrinol 60:527, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Marchalonis J J: An enzymic method for the trace iodination of immunoglobulins and other proteins. Biochem J 113:299, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Robinson CJ, Reit B, Martin TJ: Effect of iodination by the chloramine-T and lactoperoxidase methods upon the biological activity of PTH. Proc Soc Endocrinol. 27P, 1975.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dermody WC, Levy AG, Davis PE, Plowman JK: Heterogeneity of chloramine-T and lactoperoxidase-radioiodinated human calcitonin. Clin Chem 25:989, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Teitelbaum AP, Nissenson RA, Abbott SR, Arnaud CD: Radioiodination of parathyroid hormone using solid-phase lactoperoxidase. Clin Res 28:54A, 1980.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pennisi F, Rosa U: Preparation of radioiodinated insulin by constant current electrolysis. J Nucl Biol Med 13:64, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    DiBella FP, Dousa TP, Miller SS, Arnaud CD: Parathyroid receptors of renal cortex: Specific binding of biologically active, 125I-labeled hormone and relationship to adenyl cyclase activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci 71:723, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nielsen ST, Barrett PQ, Neuman MW, Neuman WF: The electrolytic preparation of bioactive radioiodinated parathyroid hormone of high specific activity. Anal Biochem 92:67, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Scarpace PJ, Deftos LJ: Preparation and immunological characteristics of biologically active radioiodinated human calcitonin. Endocrinology 101:1398, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fraker PJ, Speck JC, Jr: Protein and cell membrane iodinations with a sparingly soluble chloramide, l,3,4,5-tetrachloro-3d,6a-diphenylglycoluril. Biochem Bio-phys Res Commun 80:849, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bolton AE, Hunter WM: The labelling of proteins to high specific radioactivities by conjugation to a 125I-containing acylating agent. Biochem J 133:529, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wood FT, Wu MM, Gerhart JC: The radioactive labeling of proteins with an iodinated amidination reagent. Anal Biochem 69:339, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Habener JF, Kronenberg HM: Parathyroid hormone biosynthesis: structure and function of biosynthetic precursors. Fed Proc 37:2561, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zull JE, Chuang J: Further studies on acetamidination as a technique for preparation of biologically valid 3H labeled tracer for PTH. J Biol Chem 250:1668, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bolton AE: Radioiodination Techniques. Amersham Corporation, Arlington Heights, IL, 1978.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Weast RC (Ed.): Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 59th ed. CRC Press, West Palm Beach, Fla., 1978.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Segre GV, Rosenblatt M, Reiner BL, Mahaffey JE, Potts JT Jr: Characterization of parathyroid hormone receptors in canine renal cortical plasma membranes using a radioiodinated sulfur-free hormone analogue. J Biol Chem 254:6980, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    As performed in the laboratories of CD Arnaud and SB Arnaud, personal communication.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sutcliffe HS, Martin TJ, Eisman JA, Pikczyk R: Binding of PTH to bovine kidney cortex plasma membranes. Biochem J 134:913, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Schräder WT, O’Malley BW (Eds.): Laboratory Methods Manual for Hormone Action and Molecular Endocrinology, 6th edition. Houston Biological Association, Houston, 1981.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yalow RS, Berson SA: Immunoassay of plasma insulin. In Glick D (Ed.): Methods of Biochemical Analysis, vol. 12. Interscience Publishers, New York, p. 69, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Neuman WF, Neuman MW, Sammon PJ, Lake K: The metabolism of labeled parathyroid hormone. II. Methodological studies. Calcif Tissue Res 18:241,1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Abbott SR: Doctoral dissertation, University of Leeds, England, 1980.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nissenson RA, Arnaud CD: Properties of the parathyroid hormone receptor adenylate cyclase system in chicken renal plasma membranes. J Biol Chem 254:1469, 1978Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zanelli JM, O’Hare MJ, Nice EC, Corran PH: Purification and assay of bovine parathyroid hormone by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 223:59, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bennett HPJ, Solomon S, Goltzman D: Isolation and analysis of human parathyrin in parathyroid tissue and plasma. Biochem J 197:391, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nissenson RA, Abbott SR, Teitelbaum AP, Clark O, Arnaud CD: Endogenous biologically active human parathyroid hormone: measured by a guanyl nucleo-tide-amplified renal adenylate cyclase assay. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 52:840, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Segre GV, Rosenblatt M, Reiner BL, Mahaffey JE, Potts JT Jr: Characterization of parathyroid hormone receptors in canine renal cortical plasma membranes using a radioiodinated sulfur-free hormone analogue. J Biol Chem 254:6980, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rasmussen H, Shirasu H, Ogata E, Hawker C: Parathyroid hormone and mitochondrial metabolism. J Biol Chem 242:4669, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Raisz LG, Niemann FI: Effect of phosphate, calcium and magnesium on bone resorption and hormonal responses in tissue culture. Endocrinology 85:446, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Goltzman D, Henderson B, Loveridge N: Cytochemical bioassay of parathyroid hormone. J Clin Invest 65:1309, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Parsons JT: A bioassay for PTH using chicks. Endocrinology 92:454, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Munson PL: Biological assay of PTH. In Greco RO, Talmage RV (Eds.): The Parathyroids. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, p. 94, 1961.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hirsch PF, Voelkel EF, Munson PL: Thyrocalcitonin: hypocalcemic hypophos-phatemic principle of the thyroid gland. Science 146:412, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Arnaud CD, Tsao HS: Porcine calcitonin. Simple procedure for isolation in high yield. Biochem 8:449, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Scarpace PJ, Neuman WF, Raisz LG: Metabilism of radioiodinated calcitonin in rats. Endocrinology 100:1260, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Loreau N, LaJotte C, Wahbe F, Ardaillou R: Effects of guanyl nucleotides on calcitonin-sensitive adenylate cyclase and calcitonin binding in rat renal cortex. J Endocrinol 76:533, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tashjian AH Jr, Wright DR, Ivey JL, Pont A: Calcitonin binding sites in bone: relationships to biological response and “escape.” Recent Prog Horm Res 34:285, 1978.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne P. Teitelbaum

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations