Advertisement

Roman Sports Violence

Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Social Psychology book series (SSSOC)

Abstract

The idealists of modern sports—Pierre de Coubertin, for instance, or Avery Brundage —have often made conscious use of verbal and nonverbal symbolism derived from the athletic rituals of ancient Greece. The revival of the discus throw and the creation of the marathon are two examples of idealistic historicism; the torch ignited by the sun at the altar of Zeus in Olympia and carried by relay runners to the site of the modern games is another. Coubertin (1894/1966) himself contrasted “l’athlète d’Olympie” with his ignoble counterpart, the “gladiateur de cirque” Other commentators, disillusioned with the nationalism, commercialism, political instrumentalization, and sheer violence of 20th-century sports, have consistently drawn their analogies not from Delphi and Olympia but rather from Rome and Constantinople. Football players are routinely likened to gladiators and the crowds enthralled by the Indianapolis races or by the Tour de France are said to lust for partem et circenses. Critics of modern violence have referred to ancient gore and have concluded in dismay that we too are in a phase of decadent decline or, worse yet, that humankind is biologically programmed to commit mayhem upon itself.

Keywords

Football Player Circus Faction Church Father Funeral Game Modern Game 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Auguet, R. Cruelty and civilization. London: Allen & Un win, 1972.Google Scholar
  2. Backhaus, W. Öffentliche spiele, sport und gesellschaft in der römischen antike. In H. Ueberhorst (Ed.), Geschichte der leibesübungen (6 vols.). Berlin: Bartels & Wernitz, 1972.Google Scholar
  3. Baisdon, J. P. V. D. Life and leisure in ancient Rome. London: Bodley Head, 1969.Google Scholar
  4. Bollinger, T. Theatralis licentia. Winterthur: Hans Schellenberg, 1969.Google Scholar
  5. Cameron, A. Porphyrius the charioteer. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  6. Cameron, A. Circus factions: Blues and Greens at Rome and Byzantium. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  7. Coubertin, P. de. Circular letter, 15 January 1894. In L. Diem (Ed.), L’Idee olympique. Cologne: Carl Diem-Institut, 1966.Google Scholar
  8. Dio Cassius. [Roman history] (9 vols.) (E. Cary & H. B. Foster, Trans.).New York: Macmillan, 1914–1927.Google Scholar
  9. Friedländer, L. [Roman life and manners under the early empire] (4 vols.) (J. H.Google Scholar
  10. Freese & L. A. Magnus, Trans.). London: Routledge, 1908–1913.Google Scholar
  11. Grant, M. Gladiators. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1967.Google Scholar
  12. Guilland, R. The hippodrome at Constantinople. Speculum, 1948, 23, 678–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Guttmann, A. From ritual to record: The nature of modern sports. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  14. Guttmann, A. Zum verhalten der Zuschauer im sport. Sportwissenschaft, 1981, 11, 66–68.Google Scholar
  15. Hardy, S. Politicians, promoters, and the rise of sport: The case of ancient Greece and Rome. Canadian Journal for the History of Sport and Physical Education, 1977, 5, 1–15.Google Scholar
  16. Harris, H. A. Sport in Greece and Rome. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  17. Hoenle, A., & Henze, A. Roemische amphitheater und Stadien. Zurich: Atlantis, 1981.Google Scholar
  18. Horace. [Epistles] (S. P. Boyie, Trans.) Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959.Google Scholar
  19. Juvenal. [Satires] (R. Humphries, Trans.) Bloomington: Indiana University Press,Google Scholar
  20. Kindermann, H. Das theaterpublikum der antike. Salzburg: Otto Müller, 1979.Google Scholar
  21. Novatian. [De spectaculis] (T. R. Glover, Trans.) London: Heinemann, 1931.Google Scholar
  22. Ovid. [Ars amatoria] (R. Humphries, Trans.) Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1957.Google Scholar
  23. Petronius.[Satyricon] (W. Arrowsmith, Trans.) Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1959.Google Scholar
  24. Robert, L. Les gladiateurs dans Vorient Grec (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Adolf M. Hakkert, 1971.Google Scholar
  25. Salvian. [On the government of god] (E. M. Sanford, Trans.). New York: Columbia University Press, 1930.Google Scholar
  26. Schrodt, B. Sports of the Byzantine empire. Journal of Sport History, 1981, 5, 40-59.Google Scholar
  27. Seneca. [Ad lucilium epistulae morales] (3 vols.) (R. M. Gummere, Trans.).London: Heinemann, 1917.Google Scholar
  28. Suetonius. [The twelve Caesars] (R. Graves, Trans.). Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1957.Google Scholar
  29. Tacitus. [Annals of imperial Rome] (M. Grant, Trans.). Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1959.Google Scholar
  30. Tertullian. [De spectaculis] (T. R. Glover, Trans.). London: Heinemann, 1931.Google Scholar
  31. Tumolesi, P. S. Gladiatorum pari. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letterature, 1980.Google Scholar
  32. Verspohl, F. J. Stadionbauten von der antike bis zur gegenwart. Giessen: Anabas, 1976.Google Scholar
  33. Ville, G. Les jeux des gladiateurs dans l’empire chrétien. Mélanges d’Archéologie et d’Histoire de l’Ecole Francaise de Rome, 1960, 72, 289.Google Scholar
  34. Wacke, A. Unfälle bei sport und spiel nach römischem und geltendem recht. Stadion, 1977, 3, 4–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Weismann, W. Kirche und Schauspiele. Wurzburg: Augustinus-Verlag, 1972.Google Scholar
  36. Whittaker, C. R. The revolt of Papirius Dionysius A.D. 190. Historia, 1964, 12, 348–369.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1983

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations