Advertisement

Olympic Games Participation and Warfare

Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Social Psychology book series (SSSOC)

Abstract

These words from the “Fundamental Principles” of the Olympic Rules and Regulations are largely attributed to the progenitor of the modern Olympic Games, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, a wealthy French educator who almost single-handedly revived the ancient Games in the late 19th century. As the quote indicates, the Olympic Games were then and are today viewed as a source of peace in the world. Part of this favorable judgment derives from Coubertin’s original thesis that by meeting others from around the world, young men would grow more tolerant, and friendships and international respect would arise that would help stem the tide of war in the world.

Keywords

Sport Participation Olympic Game Contact Sport Competitive Athletic Standardize Regression Weight 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ardrey, R. The territorial imperative. New York: Atheneum, 1966.Google Scholar
  2. Arms, R. L., Russell, G. W., & Sandilands, M. L. Effects on the hostility of spectators of viewing aggressive sports. Social Psychology Quarterly, 1979, 42, 275–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ball, D. W. Olympic games competition: Structural correlates of national success. International journal of Comparative Sociology, 1972, 13, 186–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973.Google Scholar
  5. Berg, B. Helping behavior on the gridiron: It helps if you’re winning. Psychological Reports, 1978, 42, 531–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berkowitz, L., & Alioto, J. T. The meaning of an observed event as a determinant of its aggressive consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1973, 25, 206–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brundage, A. Brundage urges use of one flag. New York Times, February 14, 1960.Google Scholar
  8. Cheffers, J. A wilderness of spite: Rhodesia denied. New York: Vantage, 1972.Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1975.Google Scholar
  10. Coubertin, P. de The Olympic Games of 1896. The Century Magazine, 1896, 53(1), 39–53.Google Scholar
  11. Daniel, C, & Wood, F. S. Fitting equations to data. New York: Wiley, 1980.Google Scholar
  12. Espy, R. The politics of the Olympic games. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  13. Freud, S. Beyond the pleasure principle. London: Hogarth, 1948.Google Scholar
  14. Goldstein, J. H. Violence in sports. Paper presented at Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Research on Aggression. Mexico City, August 1982. (a)Google Scholar
  15. Goldstein, J. H. Sports violence. National Forum, 1982, 62(1), 9–11. (b)Google Scholar
  16. Goldstein, J. H., & Arms, R. L. Effects of observing athletic contests on hostility. Sociometry, 1911, 34, 83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goldstein, J. H., & Bredemeier, B. J. Sports and socialization: Some basic issues. Journal of Communication, 1977, 27, 154–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goldstein, J. H., Davis, R. W., & Herman, D. Escalation of aggression: Experimental studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1975, 31, 162–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Harreil, W. A. Verbal aggressiveness in spectators at professional hockey games: The effects of tolerance of violence and amount of exposure to hockey. Human Relations, 1981, 54, 643–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hastorf, A. H., & Cantril, H. They saw a game: A case study. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1954, 49, 129–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Killian, L., & Rodda, J. The Olympic games. New York: Macmillan, 1976.Google Scholar
  22. Kingsmore, J. M. The effect of a professional wrestling and a professional basketball contest upon the aggressive tendencies of spectators. In G. S. Kenyon (Ed.), Contemporary psychology of sport. Chicago: Athletic Institute, 1970.Google Scholar
  23. Kyrolainen, H., & Varis, T. Approaches to the study of sports in international relations. Current Research on Peace and Violence, 1981, 4(1), 55–88.Google Scholar
  24. Leuck, M. R., Krahenbuhl, G. S., & Odenkirk, J. E. Assessment of spectator aggression at intercollegiate basketball contests. Review of Sport and Leisure, 1979, 4, 40–52.Google Scholar
  25. Lorenz, K. On aggression. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1966.Google Scholar
  26. Lowe, B., Kanin, D. B., & Strenk, A. Sport and international relations. Champaign, Ill.: Sipes, 1978.Google Scholar
  27. Mandell, R. D. The Nazi Olympics. New York: Macmillan, 1971.Google Scholar
  28. Mandell, R. D. The first modern Olympics. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  29. Mann, L. On being a sore loser: How fans react to their team’s failure. Australian Journal of Psychology, 1974, 26, 37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Marsh, P., Rosser, E., & Harré, R. The rules of disorder. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978.Google Scholar
  31. Michener, J. A. Sports in America. New York: Random House, 1976.Google Scholar
  32. Milshteyn, O. A., & Molchanov, S. V. The shaping of public opinion regarding sport by the mass media as a factor promoting international understanding. International Review of Sport Sociology, 1976, 5, 71–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nosanchuk, T. A. The way of the warrior: The effects of traditional martial arts training on aggressiveness. Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Working paper 79–10, 1979.Google Scholar
  34. Prisuta, R. H. Televised sports and political values. Journal of Communication, 1979, 29(1), 94–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Proctor, R. C, & Eckard, W. M. “Toot-toot” or spectator sports: Psychological and therapeutic implications. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 1976, 4(2), 78–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Roberts, J. M., & Sutton-Smith, B. Child training and game involvement. Ethnology, 1962, 1, 166–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Russell, G. W. Spectator moods at an aggressive sports event. Journal of Sport Psychology, 1981, 3, 217–227.Google Scholar
  38. Singer, J. D., & Small, M. The wages of war, 1816–1965. Ann Arbor: Inter-University Consortium for Political Research, 1974.Google Scholar
  39. Sipes, R. G. War, sports and aggression: An empirical test of two rival theories. American Anthropologist, 1973, 75, 64–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Small, M., & Singer, J. D. Resort to arms. Beverly Hills: Sage, 1982.Google Scholar
  41. Smith, M. D. Significant others’ influence on the assaultive behaviour of young hockey players. International Review of Sport Sociology, 1974, 3/4, 217–227.Google Scholar
  42. Statistical Yearbook. New York: United Nations, 1965.Google Scholar
  43. Storr, A. Human aggression. New York: Atheneum, 1968.Google Scholar
  44. Zillmann, D., Bryant, J., & Sapolsky, B. S. The enjoyment of watching sport contests. In J. H. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports, games, and play. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1979.Google Scholar
  45. Zimbardo, P. G. The human choice: Individuation, reason and order vs. deindividu-ation, impulse and chaos. In W. Arnold & D. Levine (Eds.), Nebraska symposium on motivation. Vol. 17. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1969.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1983

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations