An ecological concept for the assessment of side-effects of agrochemicals on soil microorganisms

  • K. H. Domsch
  • G. Jagnow
  • Traute-Heidi Anderson
Part of the Residue Reviews book series (RECT, volume 86)

Abstract

High quality data describing changes in the biotic compartments of soils are indispensable prerequisites for ecotoxicological characterization of chemicals. Numerous results from careful experimental work are now available. The wealth of data, however, contributes only partially to our understanding and capability of hazard assessment. Frequently we experience a kind of helplessness on how to weight, rate, and evaluate data and ignore the urgent need for interpretation in sensible ecological terms.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdel-Malek, Y., M. Monib, and M. N. Zayad: Action of dry guava leaves on bacteria, contributing to nitrogen transformations in soil. Z. Bakt. II, 126, 672 (1971).Google Scholar
  2. Abdel-Malek, Y., M. Monib, and M. N. Zayad, and S. G. Rizk: Microbial and nitrogen changes in Sharaqi soils. J. Microbiol. U.A.R. 1, 47 (1966).Google Scholar
  3. Abou-Elfadl, M. M., and M. Fahmy: Effect of sodium 2,4-D and MCPA on root nodulation of legumes and soil microorganisms. Agr. Res. Rev. (Cairo) 36, 333 (1958).Google Scholar
  4. Abueva, A. A.: The effect of 2,4-D on the growth of micro-organisms and on nitrogen metabolisms in a derno-podzolic soil. Khimiya sel’Khoz. 8, 601 (1970).Google Scholar
  5. Afscharpour, F., and F. H. Meyer: Einfluß von Bodenentsüchungsmitteln auf die Mykorrhiza von Forstpflanzen (II). Nachrichtenbl. Dtsch. Pflanzenschutzd. (Braunschweig) 19, 4 (1967).Google Scholar
  6. Ahrens, E., and A. v. Klopotek: Über das Verhalten verschiedener Mikroorganismengruppen in feucht und trocken gelagerten Böden. Z. Bakt. II, 124, 250 (1970).Google Scholar
  7. Amer, F. M., and W. V. Bartholomew: Influence of oxygen concentration in soil air on nitrification. Soil Sci. 71, 215 (1951).Google Scholar
  8. Ammon, H. U., and W. Jäggi: Erfassung von Herbizid-Nebenwirkungen auf Bodenmikroorganismen mit Screening-Tests als Grundlage zur Abschätzung des Umweltrisikos. Proc. EWRS Symp. “Theory and Practice of the Use of Soil Applied Herbicides”, p. 111 (1981).Google Scholar
  9. Anderson, O. E., and F. C. Boswell: The influence of low temperature and various concentrations of ammonium nitrate on nitrification in acid soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 28, 525 (1964).Google Scholar
  10. Anderson, O. E., and F. C. Boswell, and R. M. Harrison: Variations in low temperature adaptability of nitrifiers in acid soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 35, 68 (1971).Google Scholar
  11. Andrews, R. E., L. W. Parks, and K. D. Spence: Some effects of Douglas fir ter-penes on certain microorganisms. Applied Environ. Microbiol. 40, 301 (1980).Google Scholar
  12. Ayanaba, A., S. B. Tuckwell, and D. S. Jenkinson: The effects of clearing and cropping on the organic reserves and biomass of tropical forest soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 8, 519 (1976).Google Scholar
  13. Barkworth, H., and M. Bateson: The population level of presumptive Nitroso-monas and Nitrobacter in some English soils. Pl. Soil 22, 220 (1965).Google Scholar
  14. Basaraba, J.: Influence of vegetable tannins on nitrification in soil. Pl. Soil 21, 8 (1964).Google Scholar
  15. Beck, Th., and H. Poschenrieder: Wechselwirkungen von Biotop and Boden-mikroflora im Bereich des Hochmoores. Bayer. Lw. Jb. 38, 110 (1961).Google Scholar
  16. Behera, B., and G. H. Wagner: Microbial growth rate in glucose-amended soil.Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 38, 591 (1974).Google Scholar
  17. Benoit, R. E., and R. L. Starkey: Inhibition of decomposition of cellulose and some other carbohydrates by tannin. Soil Sci. 105, 291 (1967).Google Scholar
  18. Biederbeck, V. O., and A. C. Campbell: Influence of simulated fall and spring conditions on the soil system. I. Effect on soil microflora. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 35, 474 (1971).Google Scholar
  19. Biederbeck, V. O., and A. C. Campbell, Soil microbial activity as influenced by temperature trends and fluctuations. Can. J. Soil Sci. 53, 363 (1973).Google Scholar
  20. Bollag, J. M., and N. M. Henninger: Influence of pesticides on denitrification in soil and with an isolated bacterium. J. Environm. Qual. 5, 15 (1976).Google Scholar
  21. Boois, H. M. de: Measurement of seasonal variations in the oxygen uptake of various litter layers of an oak forest. Pl. Soil 40, 545 (1974).Google Scholar
  22. Boyd, W. L.: Microbiological studies of arctic soils. Ecology 39, 332 (1958).Google Scholar
  23. Boyd, W. L., U. T. Staley, and J. W. Boyd: Ecology of soil microorganisms of Ant-arctica. Antarctic Res. Ser. (Amer. Geophys. Union) 8, 125 (1966).Google Scholar
  24. Boylen, C. W.: Survival of Arthrobacter crystallopoietes during prolonged peri-ods of extreme desiccation. J. Bact. 113, 33 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bryan, O. C.: Effect of acid soils on nodule-forming bacteria. Soil Sci. 15, 37 (1923).Google Scholar
  26. Budoi, G. H., and I. Budoi: Influenta atrazinului asupra unor elemente ale fertilitatii solului cultivat cu porumb in miriste. Lucr. stiint. Inst. Agron. Nicolae Balcescu, Ser. A 10, 369 (1967).Google Scholar
  27. Bunnell, F. L., D. E. N. Tait, P. W. Flanagan, and K. van Cleve: Microbial respiration and substrate weight loss. I. A general model of the influences of abiotic variables. Soil Biol. Biochem. 9, 33 (1977).Google Scholar
  28. Bunt, J. S., and A. D. Rovira: The effect of temperature and heat treatment on soil metabolism. J. Soil Sci. 6, 129 (1955).Google Scholar
  29. Burrichter, E.: Beiträge zur Beurteilung von Böden auf Grund fluoreszenzmikroskopischer Untersuchungen ihrer Mikroflora. Z. Pflanzenern. Bodenkde 63, 154 (1953)Google Scholar
  30. Burrichter, E. Untersuchungen über die Massenentwicklung der Bodenbakterien im Laufe des Jahres. Ber. dt. bot. Ges. 71, 71 (1958).Google Scholar
  31. Bååth, E.: Soil fungal biomass after clear-cutting of a pine forest in central Sweden. Soil Biol. Biochem. 12, 495 (1980).Google Scholar
  32. Campbell, C. A., and V. O. Biederbeck: Soil bacterial changes as affected by growing season weather conditions: a field and laboratory study. Can. J. Soil Sci. 56, 293 (1976).Google Scholar
  33. Campbell, C. A., and V. O. Biederbeck, and F. G. Warder: Simulated early spring thaw conditions injurious to soil microflora. Can. J. Soil Sci. 50, 257 (1970).Google Scholar
  34. Campbell, C. A., and V. O. Biederbeck, Influence of simulated fall and spring conditions on the soil system: II. Effect on soil nitrogen. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 35, 480 (1971).Google Scholar
  35. Campbell, C. A., and V. O. Biederbeck, Influence of simulated fall and spring conditions on the soil system: III. Effect of method of simulating spring temperatures on ammonification, nitrification and microbial populations. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 37, 382 (1973).Google Scholar
  36. Carini, S.: Escrezione di una sostanza da parte della medica e sua influenza sulla microflora del terreno e sugli azotobatteri. Possibili rapporti col deperimento dei medicai. Ann. Microbiol. 14, 27 (1964).Google Scholar
  37. Carlyle, R. E., and J. D. Thorpe: Some effects of ammonium and sodium 2,4dichlorophenoxyacetates on legumes and the Rhizobium bacteria. J. Amer. Soc. Agron. 39, 929 (1947).Google Scholar
  38. Chandra, P.: Note on the effect of shifting temperatures on nitrification in a loam soil. Can. J. Soil Sci. 42, 314 (1962).Google Scholar
  39. Chen, M., and M. Alexander: Survival of soil bacteria during prolonged desiccation. Soil Biol. Biochem. 5, 213 (1973).Google Scholar
  40. Chiang, C., J. Sinnaeve, and G. Dubuisson: The microbial ecology of Moroccan soils. I. Seasonal variations. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 122, 1171 (1972).Google Scholar
  41. Christensen, N. L.: Fire and the nitrogen cycle in California chaparral. Science 181, 66 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Clarholm, M., and T. Rosswall: Biomass and turnover of bacteria in a forest soil and a peat. Soil Biol. Biochem. 12, 49 (1980).Google Scholar
  43. Coleman, D. C., and J. T. McGinnis: Quantification of fungus—small arthropod food chains in the soil. Oikos 21, 134 (1970).Google Scholar
  44. Cook, R. J., and R. I. Papendick: Soil water potential as a factor in the ecology of Fusarium roseum f. sp. cerealis “culmorum”. Pl. Soil 32, 131 (1970).Google Scholar
  45. Cook, R. J., and R. I. Papendick, and D. M. Griffin: Growth of two root-rot fungi as affected by osmotic and matric water potentials. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 36, 78 (1972).Google Scholar
  46. Corden, M. E., and R. A. Young: Changes in the soil microflora following fungicide treatments. Soil Sci. 99, 272 (1965).Google Scholar
  47. Cullimore, D. R., and A. E. McCann: Influence of four herbicides on the algal flora of a prairie soil. Pl. Soil 46, 499 (1977).Google Scholar
  48. Curl, E. A., R. Rodriguez-Kabana, and H. H. Funderburk: Influence of atrazine and varied carbon and nitrogen amendments on growth of Sclerotium rolfsii and Trichoderma viride in soil. Phytopathol. 58, 323 (1968).Google Scholar
  49. Cutler, D. W.: The action of protozoa on bacteria when inoculated into sterile soil. Ann. Applied Biol. 10, 137 (1923).Google Scholar
  50. Cutler, D. W., and L. M. Crump: Daily periodicy in the numbers of active soil flagellates: With a brief note on the relation of trophic amoebae and bacterial numbers. Ann. Applied Biol. 7, 11 (1920).Google Scholar
  51. Cutler, D. W., and L. M. Crump, and H. Sandon: A quantitative investigation of the bacterial and protozoan population of the soil, with an account of the protozoan fauna. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. Series B 211, 317 (1922).Google Scholar
  52. Da Cruz-Paixio, J., and J. Döbereiner: Action of 2,4-D (amine) on microorganisms of various types of soils. Portug. Acta Biol., Lisboa 4, 243 (1955).Google Scholar
  53. Danso, S. K. A., S. O. Keya, and M. Alexander: Protozoa and the decline of Rhizobium populations added to soil. Can. J. Microbiol. 21, 884 (1975).Google Scholar
  54. Dommergues, Y.: Influence du rayonnement infra-rouge et du rayonnement solaire sur la teneur en azote minéral et sur quelques caractéristiques biologiques des sols. Agron. Trop. 15, 381 (1960).Google Scholar
  55. Dommergues, Y.: Contribution à l’étude de la dynamique microbienne des sols en zone semi-aride et en zone tropical sache. Première partie. Ann. Agron. 13, 265 (1962 a).Google Scholar
  56. Dommergues, Y.: Contribution à l’étude de la dynamique microbienne des sols en zone semi-aride et en zone tropicale sache. Deuxième Partie. Ann. Agron. 13, 391 (1962 b).Google Scholar
  57. Dommergues, Y.: Etude de quelques facteurs influant sur le compartement de la micro-flore du sol au cours de la desiccation. Sci. Sol, p. 141 (1964).Google Scholar
  58. Dommergues, Y., and F. Mangenot: Ecologie Microbienne du Sol. Paris: Masson (1970).Google Scholar
  59. Dommergues, Y.: Domsch, K. H.: Distribution of soil fungi. Proc. 1st Intersect. Congress of IAMS 2, 340 (1975).Google Scholar
  60. Dommergues, Y.: Methoden zur Erfassung der Nebenwirkungen von Pflanzenschutzmitteln auf Bodenmikroorganismen und Interpretation der Versuchsergebnisse. 4. Internat. Koll. “Kriterien zur Beurteilung der Nebenwirkung von Pflanzenschutzmitteln auf Bodenmikroorganismen”. Braunschweig (1977).Google Scholar
  61. Dommergues, Y.: Criteria for evaluation and interpretation of results—Basic ecological considerations. 1st Internat. Workshop “Side-effects of pesticides on non-target micro-organisms”. Braunschweig (1978).Google Scholar
  62. Dommergues, Y.: Laboratory and field methods for evaluating toxic effects of chemicals on soil microorganisms. Abstr. IXth Internat. Congress Plant Prot., No. 365, Washington (1979).Google Scholar
  63. Dommergues, Y.: Evaluation of results. In M. P. Greaves and H. P. Malkomes: Effects on soil microflora. In: R. J. Hance (ed.): Herbicide-soil-interactions, p. 234. London: Academic Press (1980 a).Google Scholar
  64. Dommergues, Y.: Interpretation and evaluation of data. In: M. P. Greaves, N. J. Poole, K.H. Domsch, G. Jagnow, and W. Verstreate: Recommended tests for assess- ing the side-effects of pesticides on the soil microflora. Tech. Report Agr. Res. Council Weed Res. Organization 1980 (59), p. 6 (1980 b).Google Scholar
  65. Dommergues, Y.: Soil ecological implications in the application of pesticides. In: R. Kickuth: Environmental protection from hazards of pesticides. Proc. Egypt.-German Seminar, Alexandria 1979, p. 155. Bad Godesberg: DAAD, Blue Series (1980 c).Google Scholar
  66. Dommergues, Y.: Effect of environmental chemicals on microorganisms. Degradation of environmental chemicals by soil microorganisms. Eur. Environm. Res. Programme, pp. 656–662 (1980 d).Google Scholar
  67. Doran, J. W.: Soil microbial and biochemical changes associated with reduced tillage. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 44, 765 (1980).Google Scholar
  68. Dospekhov, B. A., T. I. Kuzyakina, A. E. Alekseeva, and B. N. Malmusov: The effect of rototilling on the biological activity of dernopodzolic soil. Izv. timiryazev. sel’. khoz. Akad. 2, 36 (1974).Google Scholar
  69. Drude, G.: Beiträge zur Wirkung hoher Mineralstickstoffgaben auf die Mikroflora des Bodens. Z. Bakt. II, 115 123 (1962).Google Scholar
  70. Dubey, H. D.: Effect of soil moisture levels on nitrification. Can. J. Microbiol. 14, 1348 (1968).Google Scholar
  71. El-Nawawy, A. S., A. T. F. Tag El-Din, A. A. Komeil, M. A. S. Khalifa, S. T. ElDeeb, S. Abou Donia, and E. A. Kadous: Effect of several pesticides on the activity of soil enzymes. Meded. Fac. Landb. Wetensch. Gent 42, 901 (1977).Google Scholar
  72. Eno, C. F., and P. H. Everett: Effects of soil applications of 10 chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides on soil microorganisms and the growth of stringless Black Valentine beans. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 22, 235 (1958).Google Scholar
  73. Fehér, D., and M. Frank: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über den Einfluß der Temperatur und des Wassergehaltes auf die Tätigkeit der Mikroorganismen des Bodens. Arch. Mikrobiol. 8, 249 (1937).Google Scholar
  74. Fehér, D., and M. Frank, Untersuchungen über den Einfluß der Temperatur und des Wassergehaltes auf die Tätigkeit der Mikroorganismen des Bodens. II. Die Bestätigung der experimentell abgeleiteten Gesetzmäßigkeiten durch Untersuchung der Wald-und Ackerböden und ihre Übertragung auf den Wärme-und Wasserhaushalt der höheren Pflanzen. Arch. Mikrobiol. 9, 193 (1938).Google Scholar
  75. Fisyunov, A. V.: Effect of triazine derivatives on soil respiration. Agrokhimiya No. 3, 112 (1969 a).Google Scholar
  76. Fisyunov, A. V.: Effect of herbicides on nitrate content and nitrification in ordinary chernozem. Agrokhimiya No. 2, 122 (1969 b).Google Scholar
  77. Flanagan, P. W.: Microbial ecology and decomposition in arctic tundra and subarctic taiga ecosystems. In M. W. Loutit, and J. A. R. Miles (eds.): Microbial ecology, p. 161. Berlin: Springer (1978).Google Scholar
  78. Fletcher, W. W., P. B. Dickenson, J. D. Forrest, and J. C. Raymond: The effect of soil-applications of certain substituted phenoxyacetic and phenoxybutyric acids on the growth and nodulation of Trifolium repens sylvestre. Phyton 9, 41 (1957).Google Scholar
  79. Flieg, O. and C. Pfaff: Über Wanderung und Abbau der 2,4-D im Boden sowie ihren Einfluß auf mikrobiologische Umsetzungen. Landw. Forsch. 3, 113 (1951).Google Scholar
  80. Foulds, W.: Effect of drought on three species of Rhizobium. Pl. Soil. 35, 665 (1971).Google Scholar
  81. Franz, G.: Der jahreszeitliche Wechsel des Mikrobenbesatzes zweier Pseudogleye mit unterschiedlichem Wasserhaushalt. Pedobiologia 13 376 (1973).Google Scholar
  82. Franz, G.: Mikrobiologische Untersuchungen an Böden aus SW-Afrika. Pedobiologia 14 28 (1974).Google Scholar
  83. Franz, G.: Temperaturansprüche mikroskopischer Bodenpilze aus klimatisch und geographisch verschiedenen Standorten. Z. Pflanzenern. Bodenkde 1975, 73 (1975).Google Scholar
  84. Fraps, G. S., and A. J. Sterges: Nitrification capacities of Texas soil types and factors which affect nitrification. Texas Agr. Exp. Station Bull. No. 693, 1 (1947).Google Scholar
  85. Frederick, L. R.: The formation of nitrate from ammonium nitrogen in soils:I. Effect of temperature. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 20, 496 (1956).Google Scholar
  86. Gambaryan, M. E.: Method of determining the generation time of microorgan-isms in benthic sediments. Microbiologiya 34, 1070 (1965).Google Scholar
  87. Ghinea, L.: L’ influence des aminotriasines sur l’activité microbiologique du sol. Trans. 8th Internat. Congress Soil Sci. Bucharest III, 857 (1964).Google Scholar
  88. Gisi, U., and J. J. Oertli: Ökologische Entwicklung in Brachland verglichen mit Kulturwiesen. III. Mikrobiologische Veränderungen im Boden. Acta Oecologica—Oecologia Plantarum 2, 165 (1981).Google Scholar
  89. Goarin, P., and R. Didier De Saint Armand: Influence des herbicides sur la vie microbienne d’un sol de rizière. Agron. trop. Nogent 12, 508 (1957).Google Scholar
  90. Gorlenko, M. V., G. F. Lebedeva, and N. V. Manturovskaya: Triazine derivatives and the soil mycoflora. Agrokhimiya No. 8, 122 (1969).Google Scholar
  91. Gray, T. R. G., R. Hissett, and T. Duxbury: Bacterial populations of litter and soil in a deciduous woodland. II. Numbers, biomass and growth rates. Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol 11, 15 (1974).Google Scholar
  92. Greaves, J. E., and E. G. Carter: Influence of moisture on the bacterial activities of the soil. Soil Sci. 10, 361 (1920).Google Scholar
  93. Greaves, J. E., and E. G. Carter, and L. W. Jones: The influence of temperature on the microflora of the soil. Soil Sci. 58, 377 (1944).Google Scholar
  94. Greaves, M. P., N. J. Poole, K. H. Domsch, G. Jagnow, and W. Verstraete: Recommended tests for assessing the side-effects of pesticides on the soil micro-flora. Tech. Rep. Agr. Res. Council Weed Res. Organ. 1978 (45), 55 pp. (1978).Google Scholar
  95. Griffin, D. M.: Ecology of soil fungi. London: Chapman and Hall (1972).Google Scholar
  96. Grossbard, E.: An appraisal of the criteria by which to measure the effect of her-bicides on the soil microflora. Meded. Fac. Landbwetensch. Gent 35, 515 (1970).Google Scholar
  97. Grossbard, E., and D. M. Hall: An investigation into the possible changes in the microbial population of soils stored at -15°C. Pl. Soil 19, 317 (1964).Google Scholar
  98. Guillemat, J., and J. Montegut: Deuxième contribution à l’étude de la microflora fongique des sols cultivés. Annls Epiphyt. No. 2, 185 (1957).Google Scholar
  99. Gyllenberg, H. G., and V. Rauramaa: Density, activity, and composition of the bacterial soil flora with special reference to the employed technique of crop husbandry. Acta agr. Scand. 16, 39 (1966).Google Scholar
  100. Haber, W.: Zur Okologie des Bodenlebens in verschiedenen Pflanzengesellschaften. Ber. dt. bot. Ges. 71, 399 (1958).Google Scholar
  101. Haber, W.: Vergleichende Untersuchungen der Bodenbakterienzahlen und der Bodenatmung in verschiedenen Pflanzenbeständen. Flora 147, 1 (1959).Google Scholar
  102. Habte, M., and M. Alexander: Protozoa as agents responsible for the decline of Xanthomonas campestris in soil. Applied Microbiol. 29, 159 (1975).Google Scholar
  103. Hattori, T.: Distribution of bacterial cells in soil aggregates. J. Sci. Soil Manure 37, 302 (1966).Google Scholar
  104. Hauke-Pacewiczowa, T.: Influence of the insecticide BHC on soil microflora. Roczn. nauk. rolnicz. Ser. A 76, 641 (1957).Google Scholar
  105. Hauke-Pacewiczowa, T.: Influence of herbicides on the activity of soil microflora. Pam. Pulawski -Prace Iung Zeszyt 46, 6 (1971).Google Scholar
  106. Hauke-Pacewiczowa, T., and M. Trzcinska: Effect of prescribed burning on the microbial acti-vity of a forest soil. Roczniki glebozn. 31, 33 (1980).Google Scholar
  107. Hedlin, R. A., and J. D. Newton: Some factors influencing the growth and survival of rhizobia in humus and soil cultures. Can. J. Res. Sect. C 26, 174 (1948).Google Scholar
  108. Heinemeyer, O.: Zum Einfluß kommerzieller Pestizide auf die asymbiotische Stickstoffbindung und die mikrobielle Denitrifikation. Diss. Univ. Braunschweig (1979).Google Scholar
  109. Hirte, W. F.: Untersuchungen zur Wechselwirkung zwischen Bodenreaktion und Mikroorganismen. 3. Mitt.: Die Wirkung des pH-Milieus auf die Mikroorganismen. Z. Bakt. II, 125, 647 (1970).Google Scholar
  110. Höflich, G.: Die Wirkung verschiedener chemischer Substanzen auf die Nitrifikation, einige Bodenorganismen und die Stickstoffauswaschung. Thaer-Archiv 12, 691 (1968).Google Scholar
  111. Höflich, G.: Einsatz von Bioziden zur Beeinflussung der Bodenmikroflora und deren Umsetzungen. 4. Mitteilung: Einfluß von strohabbauhemmdenden Wirkstoffen auf den Stickstoffumsatz. Z. Bakt. II, 132 (1977).Google Scholar
  112. Horowitz, M., T. Blumenfeld, G. Herzlinger, and N. Huhn: Effects of repeated applications of ten soil-active herbicides on weed population, residue accumulation and nitrification. Weed Res. 14, 97 (1974).Google Scholar
  113. Houseworth, L. D., and B. G. Tweedy: Effect of atrazine in combination with captan or thiram upon fungal and bacterial populations in the soil. Pl. Soil. 38, 493 (1973).Google Scholar
  114. Hulea, A., Gh. Eliade, and L. Ghinea: Untersuchungen über den Einfluß des Herbicids Atrazin auf die Bodenmikroflora. Probleme Agr. 13, 57 (1961).Google Scholar
  115. Hulpoi, N., S. Dakesian, Gh. Eliade, and L. Ghinea: Beziehungen zwischen der Durchlüftung und der Nitrifikationsfähigkeit des Bodens. Z. Pflanzenern. Bodenkde. 113, 45 (1966).Google Scholar
  116. Ilialetdinov, A. N., and R. T. Zharakova: The influence of herbicides on the soil microflora. Trudy Inst. Microb. Virusol. 7, 163 (1963).Google Scholar
  117. Jager, G.: Changes in the activity of soil microorganisms influenced by physical factors (drying-remoistening, freezing-thawing). In O. Graff and J. E. Satchell (eds.): Progress in soil biology, p. 178. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg u. Sohn (1967).Google Scholar
  118. Jagnow, G.: Untersuchungen über die Verbreitung von Streptomyceten in Naturböden. Arch. Mikrobiol. 25, 274 (1956).Google Scholar
  119. Jagnow, G.: Bodenmikrobiologische Untersuchungen der engeren Rhizosphäre eini-ger Grünlandpflanzen auf Wiesenstandorten. Z. Bakt. II, 114, 475 (1961).Google Scholar
  120. Jagnow, G.: The influence of crops on Azotobacter in irrigated soil of the Sudan Gezira. Trans. 8th Internat. Congress Soil Sci. Bucharest III, 959 (1964).Google Scholar
  121. Jagnow, G.: Keimzahl, Nitrifikanten-und Azotobactergehalt in bewässerten Böden des nördlichen Sudan. In O. Graff and J. E. Satchell (eds.): Progress in soil biology, p. 382. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg u. Sohn (1967 a).Google Scholar
  122. Der Humushaushalt tropischer Böden und seine Beeinflussung durch Klima, Bodennutzung, Trocknung und Erhitzung. Habilitationsschrift, Landw. Fakultät, Justus Liebig-Universität Gießen (1967 b).Google Scholar
  123. Jagnow, G.: Seasonal amounts of fungal mycelium, numbers of aerobic bacteria and bacterial spores and numbers of saccharolytic anaerobic bacteria and bacterial spores in a beech and spruce forest soil of the Solling. I.N.R.A. Publ. 71–7, 303 (1971).Google Scholar
  124. Jagnow, G.: , und O. Graff: Auswirkungen der Strohverbrennung auf die Boden-mikroflora, die Bodenfauna und den Nährstoffhaushalt. Mitt. dt. landw. Ges. 34, 983 (1974).Google Scholar
  125. Jensen, H. L.: Observations on the vegetative growth of actinomycetes in the soil. Proc. Linnean Soc. N. S. Wales 68, 67 (1943).Google Scholar
  126. Jagnow, G.: The distribution of lucerne and clover rhizobia in agricultural soils in Denmark. Tidsskr. Planteavl 73, 61 (1969).Google Scholar
  127. Jagnow, G., and H. I. Petersen: Decomposition of hormone herbicides by bacteria.Acta Agr. Scand. 2, 215 (1952).Google Scholar
  128. Johnen, B. G.: Nebenwirkungen von Pflanzenschutzmitteln auf die Populations-dynamik von Bodenorganismen. Mitt. Biol. Bundesanst. 178, 53 (1977).Google Scholar
  129. Jones, H. E.: The influence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on nitrate forma-tion in a prairie soil. Agron. J. 40, 522 (1948).Google Scholar
  130. Jones, L. W.: Effects of some pesticides on microbial activities of the soil. Utah Agr. Exp. Station Bull. 390, 17 pp. (1956).Google Scholar
  131. Jorgensen, J. R., and C. S. Hodges: Microbial characteristics of a forest soil after twenty years of prescribed burning. Mycologia 62, 721 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Justice, K. J., and R. L. Smith: Nitrification of ammonium sulfate in a calcareous soil as influenced by combinations of moisture, temperature, and levels of added nitrogen. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 26, 246 (1962).Google Scholar
  133. Kaszubiak, H., C. Kulielska, and W. Kaczmarek: An attempt to estimate the productivity of microorganisms in soil in comparison to primary production. Pol. Ecol. Studies 2, 53 (1976).Google Scholar
  134. Katan, J., Rotem, I., Finkel, Y., and J. Daniel: Solar heating of the soil for the control of pink root and other soil-borne diseases in onion. Phytoparasitica 8, 39 (1980).Google Scholar
  135. Kelley, W. D., and R. Rodriguez-Kabana: Effects of sodium azide and methyl bromide on soil bacterial populations, enzymic activities and other biological variables. Pesticide Sci. 10, 207 (1979).Google Scholar
  136. Kemoklidze, A. P.: Distribution of proactinomycetes in soils of Georgia. Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR. Ser. biol. 2, 310 (1966).Google Scholar
  137. Khalil, F.: The effect of drying on the microbiological processes in soils. Z. Bakt. II, 79, 93 (1929).Google Scholar
  138. Klein, D. A., and Shenyuh Wu: Stress: a factor to be considered in heterotrophic microorganism enumeration from aquatic environments. Applied Microbiol. 27, 429 (1974).Google Scholar
  139. Klevenskaya, I. L.: Leaching of micro-organisms as a result of irrigation of chestnut soils of the Kulundin steppe. Sb. Biol. Osnov3orosh. Zeml. 1966, 381 (1966).Google Scholar
  140. Klyuchnikov, L. Yu., A. N. Petrova, and Yu. A. Polesko: Effect of simazine and atrazine on microflora of sandy soil. Mikrobiologiya 33, 992 (1964).Google Scholar
  141. Koike, H.: The effects of fumigants on nitrate production in soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 25, 204 (1961).Google Scholar
  142. Koike, H., and P. L. Gainey: Effects of 2,4-D and CADE, singly and in combination upon nitrate and bacterial content of soils. Soil Sci. 74, 165 (1952).Google Scholar
  143. König, E.: Der jahreszeitliche Wechsel des Mikroorganismenbesatzes in verschiedenen Bodenprofilen. Z. Pflanzenern. Bodenkde. 111 23 (1965).Google Scholar
  144. Kowalenko, C. G., K. C. Ivarson, and D. R. Cameron: Effect of moisture content, temperature and nitrogen fertilization on carbon dioxide evolution from field soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 10 417 (1978).Google Scholar
  145. Kozhevin, P. A., G. A. Kochkina, T. G. Yagodina, and D. G. Zvyagintsev: The criteria of microbial succession in soil. Microbiology 49 335 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Krasilnikov, N. A.: Soil microorganisms and higher plants. Washington: Office of Technical Services, U.S. Dept. Commerce (1958).Google Scholar
  147. Krause, U.: Die Keimdichteschwankungen in Böden von Buchenwaldhängen im Hagental des Hils in Beziehung zum Klima, geschlossen aus Untersuchungen der Bewuchsstärke von Cholodnyplatten und Zählung der auf Koch’schen Platten erscheinenden Kolonien. Diss. Univ. Göttingen (1949).Google Scholar
  148. Kruglov, Yu., A. N. Pertseva, N. A. Sosnin, and G. S. Vas’kovskaya: Change of microbiological characteristics in soil with various fallow maintenance methods. Soviet Soil Sci. 11 415 (1979).Google Scholar
  149. Kulin’ska, D.: Effect of herbicides on oxygen uptake by soil. Roczn. Nauk rolnicz. Ser. A, 93, 125 (1967).Google Scholar
  150. Kutuzova, R. S.: The character of temporal changes in the total incidence of soil bacteria and ammonifiers within the vegetative period. Mikrobiologiya 48 906 (1979).Google Scholar
  151. Ladd, J. N., P. G. Brisbane, J. H. A. Butler, and M. Amato: Studies on soil fumigation—III. Effects on enzyme activities, bacterial numbers and extractable ninhydrin reactive compounds. Soil Biol. Biochem. 8 255 (1976).Google Scholar
  152. Lajudie, J.: Contribution â l’étude des bactéries thermophiles telluriques. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 105 565, 737 (1963).Google Scholar
  153. Lara, F. G., P. Fusi, and E. Daniele: Effetto del limonene sulle attivitâ biologiche del suolo: 1a Nitrificazione. Italia for. mont. 33, 224 (1978).Google Scholar
  154. Laskowski, D. A.: Effects of pesticides on soil microorganisms. Weed Sci. Soc. Ann. Meet., San Francisco, CA (1979).Google Scholar
  155. Laudelout, H. R. Lambert, and M. L. Pham: Variation saisonnière de la popu-lation microbienne du sol. Rev. E’col. Biol. Sol 15 147 (1978).Google Scholar
  156. Lenhard, G.: The effect of 2,4-D on certain physiological aspects of soil micro-organisms. S. Afr. J. Agr. Sci. 2, 487 (1959).Google Scholar
  157. Lewis, J. A., and R. L. Starkey: Vegetable tannins, their decomposition and effects on decomposition of some organic compounds. Soil Sci. 106 241 (1968).Google Scholar
  158. Loub, W., and G. Haybach: Jahreszyklische Beobachtungen der Mikroflora’und Mikrofauna von Böden im südlichen Wienerwald. Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol 4 59 (1967).Google Scholar
  159. Lozano Calle, J. M.: Seasonal variations on the microbial populations of various wheat soils under dry and irrigated conditions. Effect of soil and environmental factors on microbiological activity. An. Edafol. Agrobiol. 27 835 (1968).Google Scholar
  160. Lynch, J. M., and L. M. Panting: Cultivation and the soil biomass. Soil Biol. Biochem. 12, 29 (1980).Google Scholar
  161. Mack, A. R.: Biological activity and mineralization of nitrogen in three soils as induced by freezing and drying. Can. J. Soil Sci. 43, 316 (1963).Google Scholar
  162. Macrae, I. C., and E. Vinckx: Effect of lindane and DDT on populations of protozoa in a garden soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 5, 245, (1973).Google Scholar
  163. Mahendrappa, M. K., R. L. Smith, and A. T. Christiansen: Nitrifying organisms affected by climatic region in Western United States. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 30, 60 (1966).Google Scholar
  164. Mahler, R. L., and A. G. Wollum: Influence of water potential on the survival of rhizobia in a Goldsboro loamy sand. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 44, 988 (1980).Google Scholar
  165. Mahler, R. L., and A. G. Wollum: The influence of soil water potential and soil texture on the survival of Rhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium leguminosarum isolates in the soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 45, 761 (1981).Google Scholar
  166. Makawi, A. A. M.: The effect of salt spray on plant and soil microorganisms. Z. Bakt. II, 121, 611 (1967).Google Scholar
  167. Marsh, J. A. P.: Natural variation in some soil nutrients as a means of assessing the importance of herbicide effects on microbial activity. Proc. Brit. Crop Prot. Conf. Weeds, p. 617 (1978).Google Scholar
  168. Martinez Viera, R. and H. Pagel: Untersuchungen über den Einfluß von Atrazin and Simazin auf die N-bindenden Bakterien Azotobacter and Beijerinckia in ferralitischen Böden Kubas. Beiträge Trop. Landw. Vet. med. 16, 137 (1978).Google Scholar
  169. McCalla, T. M., T. J. Army, and A. F. Wiese: Comparison of the effects of chemical and sweep tillage methods of summer fallow on some properties of Pullman silty clay loam. Agron. J. 54, 404 (1962).Google Scholar
  170. McCormick, R. W., and D. C. Wolf: Effect of sodium chloride on CO2 evolution, ammonification, and nitrification in a Sassafras sandy loam. Soil Biol. Biochem. 12, 153 (1980).Google Scholar
  171. McGill, W. B., H. W. Hunt, R. G. Woodmansee, and J. O. Reuss: PHOENIX, a model of the dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in grassland soils. In F. E. Clark, and T. Rosswall (eds.): Terrestrial nitrogen cycles, p. 49. Ecol. Bull. (Stockholm) 33(1981).Google Scholar
  172. McKeen, C. D.: Methyl bromide as a soil fumigant for controlling soil-borne pathogens and certain other organisms in vegetable seedbeds. Can. J. Bot. 32, 101 (1954).Google Scholar
  173. Meiklejohn, J.: Numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes in a Kenya soil. J. Soil Sci. 8, 240 (1957).Google Scholar
  174. Meiklejohn, J.: Numbers of nitrifying bacteria in some Rhodesian soils under natural grass and improved pastures. J. Applied Ecol. 5, 291 (1968).Google Scholar
  175. Mendez-Castro, F. A., and M. Alexander: Acclimation of Rhizobium to salts, increasing temperature and acidity. Rev. lat.-am. Microbiol.18,155 (1976).Google Scholar
  176. Mickovski, M.: Effect of burnt straw on the microflora of the soil. Ann. Fac. Agr. Univ. Skopje 20, 55 (1967).Google Scholar
  177. Mikhailova, E. I., and Yu, Kruglov: Effect of some herbicides on the algal flora of soil. Pochvovedenie 8, 81 (1973).Google Scholar
  178. Milkowska, A., and A. Gorzelak: Effect of atrazine and simazine on the soil microflora in weed control in forest nurseries. Sylwan 110, 13 (1966).Google Scholar
  179. Miller, R. B., D. J. Stout, and K. E. Lee: Biological and chemical changes follow- ing scrub burning on a New Zealand hill soil. N. Z. J. Sci. 37B, 290 (1955).Google Scholar
  180. Miller, R. D., and D. D. Johnson: The effect of soil moisture tension on carbon dioxide evolution, nitrification and nitrogen mineralization. Soil Sci. Soc.Amer. Proc. 28, 644 (1964).Google Scholar
  181. Mishustin, E. N., and E. Z. Tepper: Effect of a long rotation, of monocultures and of fertilizers on composition of the soil microflora. Izv. timiryazev. sel’.-khoz. Akad. 6, 85 (1963).Google Scholar
  182. Monib, M., Y. Abd-el-Malek, M. N. Zayed, and M. S. M. Saber: The antibacterial effect of dry tomato plants, onion peels, and guava leaves on soil microorganisms. Z. Bakt. II, 126, 630 (1971).Google Scholar
  183. Morita, S., and A. Aoki: The effect of 2,4-D on the microbial action in orchard soils. Saikyo Univ. Fac. Agr. Sci. Rept. 2, 1 (1952).Google Scholar
  184. Morrill, L. G., and J. E. Dawson: Growth rates of nitrifying chemoautotrophs in soil. J. Bact. 83, 205 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Morton, L. H. G., and H. O. W. Eggins: The effect of constant alternating and fluctuating temperatures on the growth of some wood inhabiting fungi. Int. Biodeteriorat. Bull. 13, 116 (1977).Google Scholar
  186. Moser, U. S., and R. V. Olsen: Sulfur oxidation in four soils as influenced by soil moisture tension and sulfur bacteria. Soil Sci. 76, 251 (1953).Google Scholar
  187. Mughogho, L. K.: The fungus flora of fumigated soils. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 51, 441 (1968).Google Scholar
  188. Munro, P. E.: Inhibition of nitrifiers by grass rot extracts. J. Applied Ecol. 3, 231 (1966).Google Scholar
  189. Myers, R. J. K.: Temperature effects on ammonification and nitrification in a tropical soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 7, 83 (1975).Google Scholar
  190. Nagatsuka, T., and C. Furusaka: Effect of oxygen tension on bacterial number in a soil suspension. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 22, 287 (1976).Google Scholar
  191. Naumann, K.: Veränderungen in der Zusammensetzung der Bodenbakterienflora nach Einbringung von Pflanzenschutzmitteln in den Boden. Z. Bakt. II, 126, 530 (1971).Google Scholar
  192. Naumann, K.: Die Wirkung einiger Umweltfaktoren auf die Reaktion der Bodenmikro-flora gegenüber Pflanzenschutzmitteln. Z. Bakt. II, 127, 379 (1972).Google Scholar
  193. Nelson, L. M., and D. Parkinson: Effect of freezing and thawing on survival of three bacterial isolates from an arctic soil. Can. J. Microbiol. 24,1468 (1978).Google Scholar
  194. Nepomiluev, V. F., and T. I. Kuzyakina: Effect of herbicides on microflora of peat-bog soil. Izv. timiryazev. sel’.-khoz. Akad. No.4, 84 (1967).Google Scholar
  195. Nissen, T. V.: Microbial activity in soil at different temperatures. Tidsskr. Planteavl. 78, 211 (1974).Google Scholar
  196. Novak, B., and J. Pokorna’-Kozovâ: The effect of drying on the microbiological and biochemical properties of soil samples. Rostl. Vy’roba 15, 251 (1969)Google Scholar
  197. Ou, L. T., J. M. Davidson, and D. F. Rothwell: Response of soil microflora to high 2,4-D applications. Soil Biol. Biochem. 10, 443 (1978).Google Scholar
  198. OECD, Environment Committee—Chemicals Group, Chemicals Testing Programme: Report on the assessment of potential environmental effects of chemicals, Vol. 1 (1979).Google Scholar
  199. Overman, A. J., and D. S. Burgis: Allyl alcohol as a soil fungicide. Phytopathol. 46, 532 (1956).Google Scholar
  200. Pantera, H.: The effect of herbicides on algae in the soil. Meded. Fac. Landb. wetensch. Gent 35, 847 (1970).Google Scholar
  201. Panterowa, H., H. Zurawski, and I. Gonetowa: Effect of claying light soil and adding herbicides on the soil microflora. Roczn. Gleboznawcze 26, 247 (1975).Google Scholar
  202. Parinkina, O. M.: Determination of bacterial growth rates in tundra soils. In T. Rosswall: Modern methods in the study of microbial ecology, p. 303. Bull. Ecol. (Stockholm) 17 (1973).Google Scholar
  203. Parinkina, O. M.: Bacterial production in tundra soils. In A. J. Holding, O. W. Heal, S. F.MacLean, Jr., and P. W. Flanagan (eds.): Soil organisms and decomposition in tundra, p. 65. Tundra Biome Steering Committee, Stockholm (1974).Google Scholar
  204. Parkinson, D., S. Visser, and J. B. Whittaker: Effects of collembolan grazing on fungal colonization of leaf litter. Soil Biol. Biochem. 11 529 (1979).Google Scholar
  205. Percich, J. A., and J. L. Lockwood: Interaction of atrazine with soil microorganisms: population changes and accumulation. Can. J. Microbiol. 24, 1145 (1978).Google Scholar
  206. Peshakov, G., E. Raikov, and D. Tsvetanov: Effect of some herbicides on soil microflora, ammonification and nitrification in soil. Pochv. Agrokhim. 4 (No. 6), 89 (1970).Google Scholar
  207. Polonenko, D. R., C. I. Mayfield, and E. B. Dumbroff: Microbial responses to salt-induced osmotic stress. I. Population changes in an agricultural soil. Pl. Soil 59 269 (1981).Google Scholar
  208. Postgate, J. R.: Death in macrobes and microbes. In T. R. G. Gray and J. R. Postgate: The survival of vegetative microbes, p. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press (1976).Google Scholar
  209. Prusinkiewicz, Z.: Microbiological activity of soils as a function of the soil-water potential. Pol. J. Soil Sci. 7 81 (1974).Google Scholar
  210. Raju, K. S., and G. Rangaswami: Studies on the effect of herbicides on the soil microflora. Indian J. Microbiol. 11 25 (1971).Google Scholar
  211. Ramanujam, T., L. Batistic, and C. Bellinck: Effect of herbicides on decomposition of cellulose by Trichoderma viride in soil and in vitro effect of cellulase activity. Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol 15 159 (1978).Google Scholar
  212. Ramanujam, T., L. Batistic, and C. Bellinck, C. Bellinck, and J. Mayaudon: The effect of herbicides on the decom-Google Scholar
  213. position of 14 C-labelled cellulose and straw in soil. Effect of phenylcarbamates on biological activity. Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol 16, 151 (1979).Google Scholar
  214. Ratzke, U.: Proactinomycetes of derno-podzolic soil. Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Biol. 5 735 (1964).Google Scholar
  215. Ratzke, U.: Untersuchungen an Proactinomyceten (Nocardia). 1. Uber die Verbrei-tung von Proactinomyceten in den Böden eines Dauerdüngungs-and Fruchtfolgeversuches. Z. Bakt. II, 119 601 (1965).Google Scholar
  216. Reichman, G. A., D. L. Grunes, and F. G. Viets: Effect of soil moisture on ammonification and nitrification in two Northern Plains soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 30 363 (1966).Google Scholar
  217. Remade, J.: Microbial transformation of nitrogen in forests. Oecol. Plant. 12 33 (1977).Google Scholar
  218. Richardson, L. T.: The persistence of thiram in soil and its relationship to the microbiological balance and damping-off control. Can. J. Bot. 32, 335 (1954).Google Scholar
  219. Ridge, E. H.: Studies on soil fumigation—II. Effects on bacteria. Soil Biol. Biochem. 8, 249 (1976).Google Scholar
  220. Roberts, J. E., and W. B. Bollen: A microplating method for soil moulds and its use to detect some effects of certain insecticides and herbicides. Applied Microbiol. 3, 190 (1955).Google Scholar
  221. Robinson, J. B. D.: The critical relationship between soil moisture content in the region of wilting point and the mineralization of natural soil nitrogen. J. Agr. Sci. 49 100 (1957).Google Scholar
  222. Robinson, J. B. D., P. O. Salonius, and F. E. Chase: A note on the differential response of Arthrobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. to drying in soil. Can. J. Microbiol. 11 746 (1965).Google Scholar
  223. Rose, A. H.: Osmotic stress and microbial survival. In T. R. G. Gray and J. R. Postgate (eds.): The survival of vegetative microbes, p. 155. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press (1976).Google Scholar
  224. Ross, D. J.: Effects of storage on dehydrogenase activities of soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 2, 55 (1970).Google Scholar
  225. Rouatt, J. W., E. A. Peterson, H. Katznelson, and V. E. Henderson: Microorganisms in the root zone in relation to temperature. Can. J. Microbiol. 9 227 (1963).Google Scholar
  226. Rübensam, E., K. Steinbrenner, and F. Naglitsch: Die Veränderungen der Bodenmikroflora und -mesofauna im Thyrower Nährstoffmangelversuch. ThaerArchiv 6 403 (1962).Google Scholar
  227. Rybalkina, A. V., and E. V. Kononenko: Methode d’étude de la microflore active des sols. Pédologie 7 (numéro special), 190 (1957).Google Scholar
  228. Sabey, B. R.: Influence of soil moisture tension on nitrate accumulation in soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 30, 263 (1969).Google Scholar
  229. Sabey, B. R., L. R. Frederick, and W. V. Bartholomew: The formation of nitrate from ammonium nitrogen in soil: III. Influence of temperature and initial population of nitrifying organisms on the maximum rate and delay period. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 23, 462 (1959).Google Scholar
  230. Sakai, H.: Effect of temperature on nitrification in soils. Soil Pl. Fd. 4159 (1959).Google Scholar
  231. Salonius, P. 0.: Effects of mixing and various temperature regimes on the respiration of fresh and air-dried coniferous raw humus materials. Soil Biol. Biochem. 10, 479 (1978).Google Scholar
  232. Schaller, G., und W. R. Fischer: Die Verwendung von Antimon-Elektroden zur pH-Messung in Böden. Z. Pflanzenern. Bodenkde 144 197 (1981).Google Scholar
  233. Schreven, D. A. van, and W. H. Sieben: The effect of storage of soils under waterlogged conditions upon subsequent mineralization of nitrogen, nitrification and fixation of ammonia. Pl. Soil 37 245 (1972).Google Scholar
  234. Seifert, J.: Ecology of soil microbes. Acta Univ. Carol. Biol. Vol. 1965 (No. 3), 245 (1965).Google Scholar
  235. Seifert, J.: Ecology of soil microbes II. Acta Univ. Carol. Biol. Vol. 1966 (No. 2),139 (1966).Google Scholar
  236. Seifert, J.: The influence of temperature on the number of bacteria in soil. Acta Univ. Carol. Biol. Vol. 1970 471 (1972).Google Scholar
  237. Seifert, J.and Z. Mrazkova: The effect of soil drying on the number of bacteria and the degree of nitrification. Rostl. Vy’roba 12 29 (1966).Google Scholar
  238. Sharma, L. N., and S. N. Saxena: Influence of 2,4-D on soil microorganisms with special reference to Azotobacter. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 22, 168 (1974).Google Scholar
  239. Shields, J. A., E. A. Paul, and W. E. Lowe: Factors influencing the stability of labelled microbial materials in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 6 31 (1974).Google Scholar
  240. Shklyar, M. Z., A. V. Voevodin, and A. V. Beshanov: Effect on the soil micro-flora of herbicides applied before the emergence of crop seedlings. Agrobiologiya No. 2, 222 (1961).Google Scholar
  241. Sindhu, M. A., and A. H. Cornfield: Effect of sodium chloride and moisture content on ammonification and nitrification in incubated soil. J. Sci. Food Agr. 18 505 (1967).Google Scholar
  242. Singer, O., F. Bukatsch, and H. Poschenrieder: Über den Einfluß mineralischer and organischer Düngung auf Zahl and Tätigkeit von Mikroorganismen in lange Zeit ungedüngten Grasflächen. Mitt. f. Landkultur, Moor-and Torfwirtsch. 6 42 (1958).Google Scholar
  243. Singh, K.: The effect of 2,4-D and simazine on total bacteria, fungi, Azotobacter, ammonification and nitrification under field conditions. Pesticides India 6, 14 (1971).Google Scholar
  244. Smirnova, V. I.: Der Einfluß von Herbiciden auf die Entwicklung der Mikroflora in der Rhizosphäre des Maises. Agrobiologiya (Moskva) No. 1, 88 (1963).Google Scholar
  245. Smith, N. R., V. T. Dawson, and M. E. Wenzel: The effect of certain herbicides on soil microorganisms. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 10, 197 (1946).Google Scholar
  246. Smith, N. R., V. T. Dawson, and M. E. Wenzel: Soil microorganisms are affected by some of the new insecticides. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 12 227 (1947).Google Scholar
  247. Sobieszczariski, J.: Role of microorganisms in life of cultivated plants. I. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the microflora of the rhizosphere of rye and winter vetch during the vegetation period. Acta Microbiol. Polon. 14 161 (1965).Google Scholar
  248. Söderström, B. E.: Seasonal fluctuations of active fungal biomass in horizons of a podzolized pine-forest soil in central Sweden. Soil Biol. Biochem. 11 147 (1979).Google Scholar
  249. Sommers, L. E., R. F. Harris, F. N. Dalton, and W. R. Gardner: Water potential relations of three root-infecting Phytophthora species. Phytopathol. 60 932 (1970).Google Scholar
  250. Soulides, D. A., and F. E. Allison: Effect of drying and freezing soils on carbon dioxide production, available mineral nutrients, aggregation, and bacterial populaton. Soil Sci. 91 291 (1961).Google Scholar
  251. Sparling, G. P., and M. V. Cheshire: Effects of soil drying and storage on subsequent microbial growth. Soil Biol. Biochem. 11, 317 (1979).Google Scholar
  252. Stanford, G., H. M. Frere, and R. A. van der Pol: Effect of fluctuating tempera-tures on soil nitrogen mineralization. Soil Sci. 119 222 (1975).Google Scholar
  253. Stevenson, I. L.: Some observations on the microbial activity in remoistened air dried soils. Pl. Soil 8, 170 (1956).Google Scholar
  254. Stevenson, I. L., and F. E. Chase: Microbiological studies on an orchard soil under three cultural practices. Can. J. Microbiol. 3 351 (1957).Google Scholar
  255. Stotzky, G.: Activity, ecology, and population dynamics of microbes in soil. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 2 59 (1972).Google Scholar
  256. Stotzky, G., and R. D. Goos: Adaptation of the soil microbiota to high carbon dioxide and low oxygen tensions. Can. J. Microbiol. 12 849 (1966)Google Scholar
  257. Stotzky, G., and R. D. Goos, and M. I. Timonin: Microbial changes occurring in soil as a result of storage. Pl. Soil 16 1 (1962).Google Scholar
  258. Stout, J. D.: Bacterial populations of some grazed pastures in Hawkes Bay. N. Z. J. Agr. Res. 7, 91 (1964).Google Scholar
  259. Stout, J. D.: The distribution of soil bacteria in relation to biological activity and pedogenesis. I. General introduction and factors affecting populations at Taita Experimental Station, New Zealand. II. Soils of some Pacific Islands. N. Z. J. Sci. 14, 816, 834 (1971).Google Scholar
  260. Strijdom, B. W., and C. J. Steenkamp: The combined effect of temperature and desiccation on Beijerinckia spp. in soil. S. Afr. J. Agr. Sci. 10, 197 (1967).Google Scholar
  261. Sundman, V., V. Huhta, and S. Niemelä: Biological changes in northern spruce forest soil after clear-cutting. Soil Biol. Biochem. 10, 393 (1978).Google Scholar
  262. Tag El-Din, A. T. F., S. T. El-Deeb, A. A. Komeil, and A. S. El-Nawawy: Pesticides and soil enzymes relationships: II. Effect of three different herbicides on the activity of soil-dehydrogenase. Alex. J. Agr. Res. 25, 507 (1977).Google Scholar
  263. Taha, S. M., A. Halim El-Domaty, S. A. Z. Mahmoud, and A. M. Abdel-Hafez: Seasonal variation of microbial flora, organic matter and nitrogen fractions in Egyptian soil. J. Microbiol. U. A. R. 2, 195 (1967).Google Scholar
  264. Tamm, E., and G. Krzysch: Zur Intensität des Abbaues organischer Düngerstoffe im Winterhalbjahr. Z. Acker-u. Pflanzenbau 124, 101 (1966).Google Scholar
  265. Tate, R. L., and R. E. Terry: Variation in microbial activity in histosols and its relationship to soil moisture. Applied Environ. Microbiol. 40, 313 (1980).Google Scholar
  266. Taylor, C. B.: Short-period fluctuations in the numbers of bacterial cells in the soil. Proc. Royal Soc., Series B. (London) 119, 269 (1936).Google Scholar
  267. Tepper, E. Z., and L. A. Karyagina: Distribution of proactinomycetes in demopodzolic and chermozemic soil. Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Biol. 5, 772 (1965).Google Scholar
  268. Terry, R. E., and R. L. Tate: Effect of flooding on microbial activities in organic soils: nitrogen transformations. Soil Sci. 129, 88 (1980).Google Scholar
  269. Thiagalingam, K., and Y. Kanehiro: Effect of two fumigating chemicals and 2chloro-6-trichloromethylpyridine and temperature on nitrification of added ammonia in Hawaiian soils. Trop. Agr. 48, 357 (1971).Google Scholar
  270. Thornton, H. G., and P. H. H. Gray: The fluctuations of bacterial numbers and nitrate content of field soils. Proc. Royal Soc., Series B (London) 106, 399 (1930).Google Scholar
  271. Thornton, H. G., and P. H. H. Gray, and C. B. Taylor: Short-period fluctuations in bacterial numbers in soil. Trans. 3rd Internat. Congress Soil Sci. Vol. I, 175, Oxford (1935).Google Scholar
  272. Tiwari, V. K., and B. Rai: Effect of soil burning on microfungi. Pl. Soil 47, 693(1977).Google Scholar
  273. Tret’yakova, Y. P.: Effect of temperature on ammonification and nitrification in the podzolic soils of the Far North. Pochvovedenie No. 6, 158 (1977).Google Scholar
  274. Tu, C. M.: Effect of pesticides on acetylene reduction and microorganisms in a sandy loam. Soil Biol. Biochem. 10, 451 (1978).Google Scholar
  275. Tulabaev, B., and S. Tamikaev: Effect of herbicides on meadow soil microflora. Uzbek. biol. Zh. No. 2, 14 (1968).Google Scholar
  276. Tyllova’, A.: The effect of soil drying on nitrification rates. Rostl. Vyroba 27, 315 (1981).Google Scholar
  277. Tynecka, Z., and Z. Gos’: The inhibitory action of garlic (Allium sativum L.) on growth and respiration of some microorganisms. Acta Microbiol. Polon. 5, 51 (1973).Google Scholar
  278. ITlehlova, B.: Microflora in the soils of temporarily flooded meadows. Preslia 39, 295 (1967).Google Scholar
  279. Uziak, S., K. Leoniak, and K. Gostkowska: The influence of some herbicides on the selected groups of microorganisms in loess and sandy soils. Ann. Univ. Marie Curie-Sklodowska, C, 26, 57 (1971).Google Scholar
  280. Vaartaja, O., and V. P. Agnihotri: A comparison of rhizosphere floras in conifer beds treated with fungitoxicants. Z. Bakt. II, 124, 156 (1970).Google Scholar
  281. Venkatesan, R., and G. Rangaswami: Studies on the microbial populations of paddy soil as influenced by moisture percentage and rice crop. Indian J. Exp. Biol.3, 30 (1965).Google Scholar
  282. Vincent, J. M., J. A. Thompson, and K. O. Donovan: Death of root-nodule bacteria on drying. Aust. J. Agr. Res. 13, 258 (1962).Google Scholar
  283. Vincent, J. M., J. A. Thompson, and K. O. Donovan, and L. M. Waters: The root-nodule bacteria as factors in clover establishment in the red basaltic soils of the Lismore District, New South Wales. II. Survival and success of inocula in laboratory trials. Aust. J. Agr. Res. 5, 61 (1954).Google Scholar
  284. Vindard, G., and P. Daste: Influence de l’acide 2,4-dichlorophénoxy-acétique sur le développement de l’Azotobacter dans le sol. C. r. Acad. Sci., Paris 233, 1310 (1951).Google Scholar
  285. Virzo de Santo, A., and A. Alfani: Soil metabolism and microflora of four plots under different light intensities. Pedobiologia 15, 201 (1975).Google Scholar
  286. Watson, A. G., and E. K. Vaughan: The effect of fumigants on soil recolonization in the glasshouse by organisms colonizing the spermosphere. Ann. Applied Biol. 62, 405 (1968).Google Scholar
  287. Wensley, R. N.: Microbiological studies of the action of some selected soil fumigants. Can. J. Bot. 31, 277 (1953).Google Scholar
  288. Wildung, R. E., T. R. Garland, and R. L. Buschbom: The interdependent effects of soil temperature and water content on soil respiration rate and plant root decomposition in arid grassland soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 7, 373 (1975).Google Scholar
  289. Wilson, J. M., and D. M. Griffin: Water potential and the respiration of microorganisms in the soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 7, 199 (1975).Google Scholar
  290. Witkamp, M.: Microbial populations of leaf litter in relation to environmental conditions and decomposition. Ecology 44, 370 (1963)Google Scholar
  291. Witkamp, M.: Decomposition of leaf litter in relation to environment, microflora, and microbial respiration. Ecology 47, 194 (1966).Google Scholar
  292. Wolff-Straub, R.: Mikrobiologische Untersuchungen einer Braunerde-Catena. Z. Pflanzenern. Bodenkde. 124, 108 (1969).Google Scholar
  293. Yurkevich, I. V., and N. Z. Tolkachev: Effect of different doses of 2,4-D and simazine on the microflora of a typical chernozem. Khimiya sel. Khoz. 10, 696 (1972).Google Scholar
  294. Zerfus, V. M.: Development of the microflora and biological activity of a leached chernozem upon reduction of its cultivations. Soviet Soil Sci. 11, 677 (1979).Google Scholar
  295. Zinchenko, V. A., and T. V. Osinskaya: Alteration of biological activity of soil during incubation with herbicides. Agrokhimiya No. 9, 94, (1969).Google Scholar
  296. Zvyagintsev, D. G., and V. E. Zaitseva: Short-term changes in the biomass of fungi and bacteria in derno-podzolic soil. Mikrobiologiya 48, 1082 (1979).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. H. Domsch
    • 1
  • G. Jagnow
    • 1
  • Traute-Heidi Anderson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Soil BiologyFederal Research Center of AgricultureBraunschweigFed. Rep. of Germany

Personalised recommendations