Advertisement

Rabies

  • Hilary Koprowski

Abstract

When Ajax and Achilles called Hector “a rabid dog” in the Illiad (before 700 B.C.) they referred metaphorically to a condition associated with a disease first mentioned before 1800 B.C. in Mesopotamian “Laws of Eshnunna.” In the course of centuries, Democritus, Aristotle, Aulus Cornelius Celsus, Girolamo Fracastoro (who first described the “incurable” course of the disease) and scores of others have studied and described rabies not only because of particular interest in the disease but also because of morbid fascination with this infection to which all warm-blooded animals, including bats, are susceptible. Rabies causes infected animals and sometimes humans to behave in such a frenzied and unnatural way that popular superstition claimed them to be “possessed” by a demon that can be transmitted to new victims. The millennia of rabies studies culminated in the late part of the 19th century with Pasteur, who ordered his disciples to search for rabies protective treatment, since the infection, which was thought then to be transmitted only by bite, presented the unique attribute that the exact time of exposure (day/hour) could be ascertained. This resulted not only in the production of the first vaccine for treatment of humans [1], but also in “dissemination” throughout the world of a score of “Pasteurians” who, in order to perpetuate work of the master, modified in various ways the original version of the vaccine and even modified the original post-exposure treatment by addition of anti-rabies serum [2]. Unfortunately, they contributed little to our scanty knowledge of pathogenesis of rabies.

Keywords

Rabies Virus Rabies Vaccine Experimental Allergic Encephalitis Rabies Infection Street Rabies Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Pasteur L (1887) Lettre sur la rage. Ann Inst Pasteur 1:1–18Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Marie AC (1908) Recherches sur le serum antirabique. Ann Inst Pasteur 22:271Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Murphy FA (1977) Rabies pathogenesis. Arch Virol 54:279–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schneider LG (ed) (1975) Spread of virus from the central nervous system. Natural History of Rabies. Academic Press, New York, p 199–215Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Koprowski H, Black J (1954) Studies on chick-embryo-adapted rabies virus. V. Protection of animals with antiserum and living attenuated virus after exposure to street strain of rabies virus. J Immunol 72:85–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wiktor TJ, Doherty PD, Koprowski H (1977) Suppression of cell-mediated immunity by street rabies virus. J Exp Med 145:1617–1622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wiktor TJ, Kuwert E, Koprowski H (1968) Immune lysis of rabies virus-infected cells. J Immunol 101:1271–1282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Koprowski H, Wiktor T (1980) Monoclonal antibodies against rabies virus. In Kennett RH, Mearn TJ, Bechtol KB (eds) Monoclonal Antibodies. Hybridomas: A New Dimension in Biological Analyses. Plenum Press, New York, p 335–351Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wiktor TJ, Koprowski H (1980) Antigenic variants of rabies virus. J Exp Med 152:99–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dietzschold B, Wunner W, Wiktor TJ, Lopes DA, Lafon M, Smith CL, Koprowski H (1983) Characterization of an antigenic determinant of the glycoprotein that correlates with pathogenicity of rabies virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:70–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gremliza L (1953) Kasuistik zum Lyssa-Problem. Zeitschrift für Tropenmedizin und Parasitologic 4:382–389Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bahmanyar M, Fayaz A, Nour-Salehi S, Mohammadi M, Koprowski H (1976) Successful protection of humans exposed to rabies infection. J Am Med Assoc 236:2751–2754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wunner W, Dietzschold B, Curtis PJ, Wiktor TJ (1984) Rabies subunit vaccine. Miami Winter Symposium January 1983 meeting. Academic Press, New York, in pressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hilary Koprowski
    • 1
  1. 1.The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and BiologyPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations