• James W. Moore
  • S. Ramamoorthy
Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)


Copper is widely distributed in nature in the free state and in sulfides, arsenides, chlorides, and carbonates. It is soft and ductile with a high thermal and electrical conductivity second only to silver. Copper is classified as intermediate between hard and soft acids in its chemical interactions with donor atoms. Hard acids prefer O donors forming essentially electrovalent bonds whereas soft acceptors prefer S or Se donor atoms forming covalent bonds. Copper belongs to the third transition metal series, exhibiting a wide variation in properties such as spectral, magnetic, complexing capacity, and oxidation states. These properties result from the partially filled d subshell. Copper complexes of oxidation states (+1), (+2), and (+3) are known, though Cu(+2) is most common. Cu(+1) is a typical soft acid.


Heavy Metal Rainbow Trout Fulvic Acid Water Hardness Copper Level 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • James W. Moore
    • 1
  • S. Ramamoorthy
    • 1
  1. 1.Alberta Environmental CentreVegrevilleCanada

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