Data pp 147-150 | Cite as

Motions and Distances of Planetary Nebulae

  • D. F. Andrews
  • A. M. Herzberg
Part of the Springer Series in Statistics book series (SSS)


Planetary nebulae are symmetrical clouds of gas surrounding very hot stars. They probably represent a late stage in the evolution of many stars like the sun. The distances of these objects from us, and hence their intrinsic luminosities, are rather poorly estimated. Cudworth measured the angular motions of these objects across the sky and adopted other data from Perek and Kohoutek (1967). Application of the technique known in astronomy as statistical parallax, essentially the method of least squares, yielded distances for the nebulae. Table 23.1 presents the angular motions, μα and μδ, together with their mean errors and the sources for the proper motions of each nebula. Table 23.1 also lists whether the nebula is optically thick, TK, or thin, TN, the extinction parameter C, a measure of distance d and the class obtained from Greig (1971,1972).


Input Data Late Stage Statistical Paral Kinematic Parameter Proper Motion 
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  1. Anderson, C. M. (1934). The proper motions of thirty-three planetary nebulae. Lick Obs. Bull. 17, 21 – 32.Google Scholar
  2. Greig, W. E. (1971). The morphological classification of symmetrical nebulae. Astron. Astrophys. 10, 161 – 174.Google Scholar
  3. Greig, W. E. (1972). Spatial and kinematic parameters of binelsalous, centric and annular nebulae. Astron. Astrophys. 18, 70 – 78.Google Scholar
  4. Perek, L. and Kohoutek, L., (1967). Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae. Czechoslovakian Acad. Science.Google Scholar
  5. van Maanen, A. (1933). Investigations on proper motions. Astrophys. J.77, 186 – 194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. F. Andrews
    • 1
  • A. M. Herzberg
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of StatisticsUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of MathematicsImperial College of Science and TechnologyLondonUK

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