Advertisement

Immunity and Its Role in Conventional Cancer Therapy

  • P. K. Ray
  • M. Seshadri
  • T. B. Poduval
Part of the Advances in Immunity and Cancer Therapy book series (IMMUNITY, volume 1)

Abstract

Drugs can only repress symptoms. They cannot erradicate the disease. The true remedy for all diseases is nature’s remedy…. Nature has provided, in the white corpuscles as you call them—in the phagocytes as we call them—a natural means of devouring and destroying all disease germs. There is at bottom only one genuinely scientific treatment for all diseases, and that is to stimulate the phagocytes. Stimulate the phagocytes… they devour the disease, and the patient recovers. Unless, of course, he’s too far gone.

Keywords

Natl Cancer Inst Suppressor Cell Natural Killer Cell Activity Antitumor Immunity Natural Killer Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Fidler IJ: Tumor heterogenity and the biology of cancer invasion and metastasis. Cancer Res 38: 2651–2658, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fidler IJ, Gersten DM, Hart IR: The biology of cancer invasion and metastases. Adv Cancer Res 28: 149–165, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fidler IJ, Kripke ML: Tumor cell antigencity, host immunity and cancer metastases. Cancer Immunol Immunother 7: 201, 1980.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nossal GJV: The case history of Mr. Tumor Immunology. Terminal patient or still curable? Immunol Today 1: 5–12, 1980.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Catalona WJ, Sample WF, Chretient PB: Lymphocyte reactivity in cancer patients: Correlation with tumor histology and clinical stage. Cancer 31: 65–79, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ducos J, Migueres J, Colombies P, Kessous A, Pougoulet N: Lymphocyte response to PHA in patients with lung cancer. Lanceti: 1111–1113, 1970.Google Scholar
  7. Garrioch DB, Good RA, Tatti RA: Lymphocyte response to PHA in patients with nonlymphoid tumors. Lanceti: 618–627, 1970.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gerosa MA, Amadori G, Semenzato P, Gasparotto G, Carteri A: Immunobiology of primary CNS tumor in infancy and childhood: Bone marrow derived, thymus dervied, cell dependent immunity and cytotoxicity and cell kinetics evaluation. Child’s Brain 6: 92–105, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Han T, Takita H: Immunological impairment in bronchogenic carcinoma: A study of lymphocyte response to PHA. Cancer 30: 616–624, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Herberman RB: Assessment of cellular immune response to cancer of the breast. Ann Clin Lab Sci 9: 467–474, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Klippel KF, Hutschenreiter G, Jacobi G, Graff J: Urological primary multiple neoplasias: Diminished immunocompetence. Onkologie 2: 12–26, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lander I, Bone G: Lymphocyte transformation in large bowel cancer. Br J Cancer 27: 409–421, 1973.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Leb L, Merritt JA: Decreased monocytic function in patients with Hodgkin’s disease. Cancer 41: 1794–1812, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Menconi E, Barzi A, Greco M, Caprino MC, de Vecchis L, Muggia F: Immunologic profile of breast cancer patients in early or advanced disease. Experientia 35: 820–825, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Menconi E, Barzi A, Grew M: Immunological reactivity in patients bearing solid tumors. Tumori 66: 311–317, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Solowey AC, Rapaport FT: Immunologic responses in cancer patients. Surg Gynecol Obstet 121: 756–764, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Umeda T, Yokoyama H, Kobayashi K, Akaza H, Nijime T: Subsets of thymus derived lymphocytes of patients with maligancies of urogenital tract. Cell Mol Biol 25: 95–104, 1979.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pitman SW, Parker LM, Tattersall MHN, Jaffe N, Frei E, III: Clinical trial of high dose Methotrexate with Citrovorum factor-toxicologic and therapeutic observations. Cancer Chemotherap Rep Part 3 6: 43–51, 1975.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Whittaker MG, Rees K: Reduced-lymphocyte transformation in breast cancer. Lanceti: 892–894, 1971.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yanagawa E, Yasumoto K, Manabe H, et al: Cytostatic activity of peripheral blood monocyte against bronchogenic carcinoma cells in patients with lung cancer. Gann 70: 533–542, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gross RL, Steel CM, Levin AG, Singh S, Brubaker G: In vitro immunological studies on East African cancer patients. III. Spontaneous rosette formation by cells from Burkitt lymphoma biopsies. Int J Cancer 15; 139–148, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Haskill JS, Yamamura Y, Radov L: Host responses within solid tumors: non-thymus derived specific cytotoxic cells within a murine mammary adenocarcinoma. Int J Cancer 16: 798–807, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Haskill JS, Proctor JW, Yamamura Y: Host responses within solid tumors. I. Monocytic effector cells within rat sarcomas. J Natl Cancer Inst 54:387–394, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jondal M, Klein G: Classification of lymphocytes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies. Biomedicine 23: 163–172, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Juhlin I, Blomgren H, Wasserman J: Evidence for the appearance of nonspecific inhibitory cells in the blood after radiation therapy for breast carcinoma. Cancer Lett 3: 311–316, 1977.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Klein E, Becker S, Svedmyr E, Jondal M, Vanky F: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Ann NY Acad Sci 276: 207–212, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Underwood JCE: Lymphoreticular infiltration in human tumors: Prognostic and biological implication. A review. Br J Cancer 30: 538–543, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yata J, Desgranges C, The G De, et al: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma. VII. B and T lymphocytes in the circulating blood and in tumor tissue. Biomedicine 21: 244–254, 1975.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Haskill JS, Yamamura Y, Radov L, Parthenasis E: Are peripheral and in situ tumor immunity related? Ann NY Acad Sci 276: 373–385, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Holden HT, Haskill JS, Kirchner H, Herberman RB: Two functionally distinct antitumor effector cells isolated from primary murine sarcoma virus induced tumors. J Immunol 117: 440–449, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Iochim HL: The stromal reaction of tumors: an expression of immune surveillance. J Natl Cancer Inst 57: 465–472, 1976.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vanky F, Klein E, Stjernsward J, Rodriguez L, Peterffy A, Steiner L, Nilsonne U: Human tumor lymphocyte interaction in vitro. III. T lymphocyte in autologous tumor stimulation. Int J Cancer 22: 679–688, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vose BN, Vanky F, Fopp M, Klein E: In vitro generation of cytotoxicity against autologous human tumor biopsy cells. Int J Cancer 21: 588–594, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pelouze GA, Pelletier G: Lack of in situ cell mediated cytotoxicity in human lung cancer. Abstr No 10.3.30, 4th International Congress of Immunology, 1980.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Byfield PE, Stratton JA, Small R: Lymphocyte response after radiotherapy. Lancet 1: 309–310, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kozlowski H, Hrabowske M: Types of cell mediated immune response in invasive zones of carcinoma of uterine cervix. Arch Geschwulstforch 49: 240–245, 1979.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Deutsch O, Devens B, Naor D: Immune responses to weakly immunogenic murine leukemia virus induced tumors. VIII. Characterization of suppressor cells. Isr J Med Sci 16: 538–547, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Devens B, Galili N, Deutsch O, Naor D, Klein E: Immune responses to weakly immunogenic virally induced tumors. II. Suppressive effects of the in vivo carried tumor YAC. Eur J Immunol 8: 575–584, 1978.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fujimoto S, Greene MI, Sehon AH: Regulation of the immune response to tumor antigens. I. Immunosuppressor cells in tumor bearing hosts. J Immunol 116: 791–799, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Takei F, Levy JG, Kilburn DG: Characterization of suppressor cells in mice bearing syngeneic mastocytoma. J Immunol 118: 412–421, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kirchner JH, Chusadm TM, Herberman RB, Holden HT, Larvin DH: Evidence of suppressor cell activity in spleens of mice bearing primary tumors induced by Moloney Sarcoma virus. J Exp Med 139: 1473–1482, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kold JP, Arrian S, Zolla-Pazner S: Suppression of tumor immune response by plasmacytomas: mediation by adherent mononuclear cells. J Immunol 118: 702–714, 1977.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Treves AJ, Cohen IR, Feldman M: Suppressor factor secreted by T lymphocytes from tumor bearing mice. J Natl Cancer Inst 57: 409–417, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gorczynski RM: Immunity to murine sarcoma virus induced tumors. II. Suppression of T cell mediated immunity by cell from progressor animals. J Immunol 112: 1826–1834, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cerny J, Stiller RA: Immunosuppression by spleen cells from Moloney leukemia. Comparison of the suppressive effect on antibody response and on mitogen induced response. J Immunol 115: 943–955, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stiller RA, Cerny J: Immunosuppression by spleen cells from Moloney leukemia. II. Studies on the mechanism of suppression and failure to detect an extracellular suppressive product. J Immunol 117: 889–894, 1976.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hillinger SM, Herzig GP: Increased suppressor cell activity in Hodgkin’s disease. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 18: 152, 1977.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Broder S, Poplack D, Whang-Peng J, Drum M, Goldman C, Maul L, Waldman TA: Characterization of a suppressor cell leukemia. Evidence for the requirement of two T cells in development of a tumor suppressor effector cell. N Engl J Med 298: 66–72, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kumar V, Bennet M: H-2 compatibility requirements for T suppressor cell function induced by Friend leukemia virus. Nature 265: 345–346, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Schechter B, Feldman M: Hydrocortisone affects tumor growth by eliminating precursors of suppressor cells. J Immunol 119: 1563–1573, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ray PK, Raychaudhuri S: Low dose cyclophosphamide inhibition of transplantable fibrosarcoma growth by augmentation of the host immune responses. J Natl Cancer Inst 67 (6): 1341–1352, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fujimoto S, Greene MI, Sehon AH: Regulation of the immune response to tumor antigens. II. The nature of immunosuppressor cells in tumor bearing host. J Immunol 116: 800–810, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stelzer GT, Wallace JH: Suppressor cells in mice bearing B-16 melanoma. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 18: 68–72, 1977.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rudczynski AB, Mortensen RF: Suppressor cells in mice with murine mammary tumor virus induced mammary tumors. I. Inhibition of mitogen induced lymphocyte stimulation. J Natl Cancer Inst 60: 205–212, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Schaaf-Lafontaine N: Separation of lymphoid cells with a suppressor effect on the activity of cytotoxic cells in vitro during the growth of a syngeneic mouse tumor Int J Cancer 21: 329–334, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Small M, Trainin N: Separation of population of sensitized lymphoid cells into fractions inhibiting and fractions enhancing syngeneic tumor growth in vivo. J Immunol 117: 292–302, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kamo I, Friedman H: Immunosuppression and the role of suppressive factors in cancer. Adv Cancer Res 25: 271–284, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Raychaudhuri S, Ray PK, Bassett JG, et al: Changing pattern of blocking and effector immune mechanisms during the growth of methylocholanthrene fibrosarcomas. Fed Proc 39 (3): 696, 1980.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Saha S, Ray PK: Tumor antigen mediated induction of humoral and cellular tumor growth enhancing factors. Fed Proc 41 (3): 411, 1982.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lang H, Domzig W, Lohmann-Mathes ML: Cooperative effects between lymphokine-induced and antibody-dependent macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity in C57 BL/10 and C3 H/HeJ mice. Immunobiol 157: 109–114, 1980.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ting CC, Rodrigues D: Increased susceptibility to tumor cell immunosuppressive effect in tumor bearing mice. J Natl Cancer Inst 65: 205–212, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ting CC, Rodrigues D: Subversion by tumor cells of the host immune surveillance via macrophages. 4th Int Cong Immunol Abstr 10. 3. 42, 1980.Google Scholar
  63. Seshadri M, Poduval TB, Sundaram K: Studies on Metastasis. I. Role of sensitisation and immunosuppression. J Natl Cancer Inst 1205–1214, 1979.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Seshadri M, Poduval TB: Immunity stimulation and Metastasis. Cancer Immunol Immunother 9: 213–218, 1980.Google Scholar
  65. Karre K, Klein G, Kiessling R, Klein G, Roder J: Low resistance against transplantable syngeneic leukemias in natural killer deficient C57 BL Biege mutant mice. 4th Int Cong Immunol Abstr 10.2. 17, 1980.Google Scholar
  66. Flannery GR, Robins RA, Baldwin RW: Natural killer cell infiltrates solid tumors. 4th Int Cong Immunol Abstr 10.2. 08, 1980.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Eremin O, Ashby J, Stephens JP: Human natural cytotoxicity in the blood and lymphoid organ of healthy donors and patients with malignant disease. Int J Cancer 21: 35–44, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Heindenreich W, Jagla K, Schussler J, Borner P, Dehnhard F, Kalden JR, Liebold W, Peter H-H, Deicher H: Spontaneous cell mediated cytotoxicity and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity in peripheral blood and draining lymph nodes of patients with mammary carcinoma. Cancer Immunol Immunother 7: 65 - 74, 1979.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Peter HH, Eife RF, Kalden JR: Spontaneous cytotoxicity (SCMC) of normal human lymphocyte against a human melanoma cell line: A phenomenon due to a lymphokine-like mediator. J Immunol 116: 342–354, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Peter HH, Pavite-Fischer J, Fridman WH, Aubert C, Cessarini JP, Roubin R. Kourilsky FM: Cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro of human lymphocytes against a tissue culture melanoma cell line (IGR 3). J Immunol 115: 539–546, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Takasugi M, Ramsemeyer A, Takasugi J: Decline of natural nonselective cell-mediated cytotoxicity in patients with tumor progression. Cancer Res 413: 419, 1977.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Peter HH, Heidenrich W: Spontaneous cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Cancer Immunol Immunother 8: 79–88, 1980.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Peter HH, Lange B, Serbin A, Euler S, Stangl W, Avenarius HJ, Deicher H: Natural killing in hemopoietic disorders and immunodeficiency syndromes. Evidence for the bone marrow dependency of human NK effector cells. Immunobiology 156: 206–210, 1979.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hanna MG, Zbar B, Rapp HJ: Histopathology of tumor regression after intralesional injection of Mycobacterium bo vis. I. Tumor growth and metastasis. J Natl Cancer Inst 48: 1441–1452, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lala PK: Dynamics of leukocyte migration into the mouse ascites tumor. Cell Tissue Kinet 7: 239–304, 1974.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Levy MH, Wheelock EF: The role of macrophage in defence against neoplastic disease. Adv Cancer Res 20: 131–152, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nelson DS (ed): Immunobiology of the Macrophage. New York, Academic Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Shin HS, Hayden M, Langley S, Kaiiss N, Smith MR: Antibody-mediated suppression of grafted lymphoma. III. Evaluation of the role of the thymic function, non thymus derived lymphocytes, macrophages, platelets, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in syngeneic and allogeneic hosts. J Immunol 114: 1255–1264, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Klein E: Immunotherapy of cutaneous and mucosal neoplasms. NY State J Med 68: 900–910, 1968.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Papermaster BW, Holterman OA, Rosner D, Klein E, Dao T, Kjerassi, I: Regressions produced in breast cancer lesions by a lymphokine fraction from a human lymphoid cell line. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 8: 413–424, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Snyderman R, Seigler HF, Meadows L: Abnormalities of monocyte chemotaxis in patients with melanoma: Effects of immunotherapy and tumor removal. J Natl Cancer Inst 58: 37–46, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Snyderman R, Maedows L, Well SA, Jr, Hoder W: Abnormal monocyte chemotaxis in patients with breast cancer: evidence for a tumor-mediated effect. J Natl Cancer Inst 60: 737–743, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Black MM: Human breast cancer. A model for cancer immunology, inWeiss DW(ed): Immunological parameter of host-tumor relationship. New York, Academic Press, 1973, pp 80–105.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hausman MS, Brosman S, Snyderman R: Defective monocyte function in patients with genitourinary carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 55:1047–1054, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Fink MA (ed): The Macrophage in Neoplasia. New York, Academic Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Klein G, Sjogren HO, Klein E, Hellstrom KE: Demonstration of resistance against Methylcholantherene induced sarcomas in the primary autochthonous. Cancer Res 20: 1561–1574, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Cohen D, Yron I, Grover NB, Weiss DW: Chemoimmunotherapy of Syngeneic mouse mammary carcinomas employing methanol extraction residue. Ann NY Acad Sci 277: 195–204, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hellstrom KE, Hellstrom I, Brown JP: Unique and common tumor specific transplantation antigens of chemically induced mouse sarcomas. Int J Cancer 21: 317–326, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kudo H, Waga T, Sato T, Ogasawara M, Ito I, Usubuchi I: Cross immunity between syngeneic tumors in mice immunized with gamma irradiated ascites tumors. Tohoku J Exp Med 131: 285–292, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Leffel MS, Coggin JH, Jr: Common transplantation antigen on Methylchol- anthrene-induced mouse sarcomas detected by three assays of tumor rejection. Cancer Res 37: 4112–4121, 1977.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Parmiani G, Invernizzi G: Alien histocompatability determinants on the cell surface of sarcomas induced by MCA. 1. in vivo studies. Int J Cancer 16: 756–762, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Usubuchi I, Sobajima Y, Kudo H, Sugawara M: Cross immunity among syngeneic tumors of mice. Tohoku J Exp Med 108: 79–89,1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Usubuchi I, Nishimura S, Kudo H, Ito I, Sobajima Y: Further studies on cross immunity among syngeneic tumors of mice. Tohoku J Exp Med 116: 373–384, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Martin WJ, Imamura M: Variable expression of histocompatibility antigens on tumor cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother 8: 219–224, 1980.Google Scholar
  95. De Baetselier P, Katzav S, Feldman M, Segal S: H-2 antigenic differences between a primary tumor and its descendant pulmonary metastasis. 4th Int Cong Immunol 10.3. 09, 1980.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Basslet K, Schirrmacher V: Escape of spleen metastasising tumor cell variant from T cell immunity. 4th Int Cont Immunol 10. 3. 04, 1980.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Anderson JM, Campbell JB, Wood SE, Boyd JE, Kelly F: Lymphocyte subpopulations in mammary cancer after radiotherapy. Clin Oncol 1:201–213, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wara WM, Phillips TL, Wara DW, Ammann AJ, Smith V: Immunosuppression following radiation therapy for carcinoma of the nasopharynx. Am J Roentgenol 123: 482–492, 1975.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Weber W, Missmahl HP, Mazloumi B: Tuberculin and dinitrochlorobenzene tests in cancer patients before and after cytostatic drug therapy. Klin Wochenschr 56: 905–909, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Golub SH, Rangel DM, Morton DL: In vitro assessment of immune competence in patients with malignant melanoma. Int J Cancer 20: 873–886, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Teasdale C, Hillyard JW, Webster DJT, Bolton PM, Hughes LE: Pretreatment general immune competence and prognosis in breast cancer. A prospective 2 year follow up. Eur J Cancer 15: 975–982, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Schullenberger CC: Chemoimmunotherapy of 3 categories of solid tumors (sarcoma, melanoma and lymphoma), in Crispen RG (ed): The Problem of Immunoresistant Tumors. Chicago, ITR Press, 1973, pp 193–225.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Herberman RB: Cell mediated immunity to tumor cells. Adv Cancer Res 19: 207–218, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Black MM: Cellular and biological manifestation of immunogenicity in precancerous mastopathy. Natl Cancer Inst Monograph 35: 73–82, 1972.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Alexander P: Back to the drawing board: The need for more realistic model systems for immunotherapy. Cancer 40: 467–479, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Baldwin RW: Relevant animal models for tumor immunotherapy. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1: 197–204, 1976.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Bartlett GL, Kreider JW, Purnell DM: Immunotherapy of cancer in animals: Models or muddles? J National Cancer Inst. 56: 207–215, 1976.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Fidler IJ: Experimental Basis of Immunotherapy of Metastatic Disease, in The Univ Texas System Cancer Center: Immunotherapy of Human Cancer. New York, Raven Press, 1971, pp 63–85.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Fidler IJ, Hart IR: Host Immunity in Experimental Metastasis, in Castro JE (ed): Immunological Aspects of Cancer. Lancaster, England, MTP Press, 1978, pp 193–192.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Anderson RE, Warner NL: Ionizing radiation and the immune response. Adv Immunol 24: 215–221, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Taliaferro WH, Taliaferro LG, Joroslow BN: Radiation and Immune Mechanisms. New York, Academic Press, 1964.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Denham S, Grant CK, Hall JG, Alexander P: Occurrence of two types of cytotoxic lymphoid cells in mice immunized with allogeneic tumor cells. Transplantation 9: 366–373, 1970.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Poduval TB, Seshadri M, Sundaram K: Studies on development of concomitant immunity in a murine fibrosarcoma. Aspects Allergy Appl Immunol 11: 240–251, 1978.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Anderson RR, Sprent J, Miller JFAP: Radiosensitivity of T and B lymphocytes. I. Effect of irradiation on cell migration. Eur J Immunol 4: 199–207, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Makinodan T, Nettesheim P, Morita T, Chadwick CJ: Synthesis of antibody by spleen cells after exposure to kiloroentgen doses of ionizing radiation. J Cell Physiol 69: 355–362, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Miller JJ III, Cole LJ: The radiation resistance of long-lived lymphocytes and plasma cells in mouse and rat lymph nodes. J Immunol 93: 982–991, 1967.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Moroson H, Schechter M: Enhanced cytotoxic reactivity of rat splenic cells after lethal or sublethal whole body X-irradiation. Int J Radiat Biol 33:595–602, 1978.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Dutton RW: Inhibitory and stimulatory effects of Concanavalin A on the response of mouse spleen cell suspension to antigen: I. Characterization of the inhibitory cell activity. J Exp Med 136: 1445–1457, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    McCullagh P: Radiosensitivity of suppressor cells in newborn rats. Aust J Exp Biol MedSci 53: 399–412, 1975.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Herberman RB, Holden HT: Natural cell mediated immunity. Adv Cancer Res 27: 305–315, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Shellam GR: Gross virus induced lymphoma in the rat. V. Natural cytotoxic cells are non T cells. Int J Cancer 19: 225–234, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Ellis ST, Govans JL, Howard JC: Cellular events during the formation of antibody. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 32: 395–400, 1967.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Gershon H, Feldman M: Studies on the immune reconstitution of sublethally irradiated mice by peritoneal macrophages. Immunology 15: 827–834, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kornfeld L, Greenman V: Effects of total body X-irradiation on peritoneal cells of mice. Radiat Res 29: 433–442, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Feldman JD, Pick E, Lee S, Silvers WK, Wilson DB: Renal homotransplantation in rats. III. Tolerant recipients. Am J Pathol 52: 687–692, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Poduval TB, Seshadri M, Ray PK, Thakur VS, Sundaram K: Effect of host sensitization to tumor on splenic depletion and recovery following severe immunosuppressive treatment. Ind J Exp Biol 17: 1064–1074, 1979.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Baral E, Blomgren H, Petrini B, Wasserman J: Blood lymphocytes in breast cancer patients following radiotherapy and surgery. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2: 289–293, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Stratton JA, Fast PE, Weintraub I: Enhanced or repressed mitogen responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells after radiation therapy and prognosis in cancer. 4th Int Cong Immunol 10.7. 29, 1980.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Benninghoff DL, Tyler RW, Everett NB: Repopulation of irradiated lymph node by recirculating lymphocytes. Radiat Res 37: 381–392, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Engeset A: Irradiation of lymph nodes and vessels. Experiments in rats, with reference to cancer therapy. Acta Radiol(Suppl) 229: 1–7, 1964.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Weissman IL, Peacock M, Eltringham JR: Regional lymph node irradiation: Effect of local and distant generation of antibody forming cells. J Immunol 110: 1300–1315, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Thomas L: Discussion, in Lawrence HS (ed): Cellular and Humoral Aspects of the Hypersensitive States. London, Cassell, 1959, 529–539.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Grapp C, Havemann K: Cellular immune reactions in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma before and after radio-chemo-and immunotherapy. Z imunitaetsforsch 153: 236–242, 1977.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Hoppe Richard T, Freks ZY, Strober S, Kaplan HS: The long term effects of radiation on the T and B lymphocyte in the peripheral blood after regional irradiation. Cancer 40: 2071–2076, 1977.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Nishikawa H, Yasaki S, Yoshimoto T, Sakatani M, Itoh M: Effect of BCG cell-well skeleton immunotherapy on the peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with lung cancer after radiotherapy. Jpn J Cancer Res 69:819–826, 1978.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Blomgren H, Wasserman J, Baral E, Petrini B: Evidence for the appearance of nonspecific suppressor cells in the blood after local radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phy 4: 249–254, 1978.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Stjernsward J: Immunological changes after radiotherapy for mammary carcinoma. Ann Inst Pasteur 122: 833–891, 1972.Google Scholar
  138. Stjernsward J, Jondal M, Vanky F, Wigzell H, Seally R: Lymphopenia and changes in distribution of human B and T lymphocytes in peripheral blood induced by irradiation for mammary carcinoma. Lanceti: 1352–1353, 1972.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Meyer KK: Radiation-induced lymphocyte-immune deficiency. AM A Arch Surg 101: 114–118, 1970.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Rafla S, Yang SJ, Maleka F: Changes in cell-mediated immunity in patients undergoing radiotherapy. Cancer 41: 1076–1084, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    McCredie JA, Inch WR, Sutherland RM: Effect of postoperative radiotherapy on peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with carcinoma of the breast. Cancer 29: 349–354, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Clement JA, Kramer S: Immunocompetence in patients with solid tumors undergoing Cobalt-60 irradiation. Cancer 34: 193–202, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Fukushima H: Immunological studies concerned with high dose radiotherapy for osteosarcoma. Nippon Seikei Geka Gakkai Zasshi 53:1607–1614, 1979.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Manabe H, Yasumoto K, Ohta M, Toyahira K, Nomoto K: Effect of anticancer therapy on lymphocytic cytotoxicity in lung cancer patients. Gann 68: 477–482, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Doria G: Immunological effects of irradiation: Waiting for a model. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 5: 1111–1118, 1979.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Suit HD, Sedlacek R, Wagner M, Orsi L, Silobric V, Rothman KJ: Effect of Cory neb act erium parvum on the response to irradiation of a C3H fibrosarcoma. Cancer Res 36: 1305–1311, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Tsukahara Y, Shiozawa I, Shoji I, Tohoru F: Effect of protein binding polysaccharide PS-K on radiotherapy of uterine cervical carcinoma. Gan No Rinsho 25: 783–786, 1979.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Ray PK, Thakur VS, Sundaram K: Antitumor immunity. I. Differential response of neuraminidase-treated and X-irradiated tumor vaccine. Eur J Cancer 11: 1–11, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Ray PK, Thakur VS, Sundaram K: Antitumor immunity II. Viability, tumorigenicity and immunogenicity of neuraminidase-treated tumor cells: Effective immunization of animals with a tumor vaccine. J Natl Cancer Inst 56: 83–94, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Elves MW: Comparison of Mitomycin C and X-rays for the production of one way stimulation of mixed Leucocyte cultures. Nature 223: 90–92, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    McKhann CF: The effect of X-ray on the antigenicity of donor cells in transplantation immunity. J Immunol 92: 811–816, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Maruyama Y: Contribution of host resistance to radiosensitivity of an isologous murine lymphoma in vivo. Int J Radiat Biol 12: 277–282, 1967.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Nio Y: Studies on the cells producing an antitumor agent (Japanese). Nippon Acta Radiol 30: 481–487, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Sato I, Nio Y, Abe M: In vitro production of an antitumor agent by Reticuloendothelial cells. Gann 59: 273–279, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Moroson H, Nowakowski J, Schechter M: Enhanced lymphocyte-mediated killing of tumor irradiation in vivo. Int J Radiat Biol 33: 473–481, 1978.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Sheldon PW: The effect of irradiating a transplanted solid sarcoma on the subsequent development of metastasis. Br J Cancer 30: 416–424, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Sheldon PW, Fowler JF: The effect of irradiating a transplanted murine lymphosarcoma on the subsequent development of metastases. Br J Cancer 28: 508–515, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Suit HD, Kastelan A: Immunological status of host and immune response of a MCA-induced sarcoma to local X-irradiation. Cancer 26: 232–242, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Crile G Jr, Deodhar SD: Role of preoperative irradiation in prolonging concomitant immunity and preventing metastasis. Cancer 27: 629–634, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Seshadri M, Poduval TB, Ray PK, Sundaram K: Involvement of immune surveillance in radiotherapy. Aspect Allergy Appl Immunol 11: 256–262, 1978.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Gerber M, Budois JB, Gauci L, Serrou B: The effect of local irradiation on the immune response in mice. II. Alteration due to low dose scattering. Ann Immunol(Paris) 130: 735–742, 1979.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Vaage J, Doroshow JH, DuBois TT: Radiation-induced changes in established tumor immunity. Cancer Res 34: 129–134, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Crile G Jr: The effect of metastasis of removing or irradiating regional nodes of mice. Surg Gynecol Obstet 126: 1270–1278, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Warram J: Preoperative irradiation of the cancer of the lung: Final report of a therapeutic trial: A collaborative study. Cancer 36: 914–923. 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Stewart THM, Hollinshead AC, Herberman RB: Soluble Membrane antigens of human malignant lung cells, in Maltoni C (ed): Advances in Tumor Prevention, Detection and Characterization. Vol 2, New York, American Publ. Co, Inc, 1974, pp 638–674.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Fisher B, Slack NH, Cavanaugh PH, Gardner B, Ravdin RG: Postoperative radiotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer. Ann Surg 172: 711–721, 1971.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    CRC Working party: Cancer Research campaign King’s Cambridge troa; for early breast cancer. A detailed update at the tenth year. Lancetii: 55–65, 1980.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Fisher B, Fisher ER: Studies concerning the regional lymph node in cancer. II. Maintenance of immunity. Cancer 29: 1496–1507, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Hancock BW, Bruce L, Heath J, Sugden P, Ward AM: The effects of radiotherapy on immunity in patients with localised carcinoma of the cervix uteri. Cancer 43: 118–124, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Nordman E, Toivanen A: Effects of irradiation on the immune function in patients with mammary, pulmonary or head and neck carcinoma. Acta Radiol Oncol Radiat Biol 17: 3–14, 1978.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Stefani S, Krman R, Abbate J: Serial studies of immunocompetence in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Am J Roentgenol 126: 880–892, 1976.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Sciichi K: Immunocompetence in Human Cancer Patients. Nippon Geka Hokan 120: 504–512, 1979.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Makidono R, Madidono A, Matsura K: Leukopenia and lymphopenia during the radiotherapy and their recovery by anti-leukopenia drugs. Nippon Igaku Hoshasen Gakkai Zasshi 37: 1153–1161, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    del Regato JA: Total body irradiation in the treatment of chronic lymphogenous leukemia. Amer J Roentgenol 120: 504–512, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Johnson RE: Total body irradiation as primary therapy for advanced lymphosarcoma. Cancer 35: 242–253, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Melamed JS, Michael GC, Brown JW, Katagiri CA: Acute hematological tolerance to multiple fraction, whole body low dose irradiation in an experimental murine system. Radiology 134: 503–514, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Yonkosky DM, Feldman MI, Cathcart ES, Kim S: Improvement of in vitro mitogen proliferative responses in non Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients exposed to fractionated total body irradiation. Cancer 42: 1204–1215, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Hellstrom I, Hellstrom KE: Antitumor effect of whole body X-irradiation: Possible role of an X-ray sensitive T suppressor cell population. Transplant Proc 11: 1073, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Chanana AD, Cronkite EP, Joel DD, Stevens JB: Prolonged renal allograft survival: extracorporeal irradiation of the blood. Transplant Proc 3:838–844, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Kutzner J, Goldhofer R, Kreienberg R, Lemmel EM: Examinations carried out in order to determine the effects of radiotherapy on the immunity stimulation in tumor patients. Strahlentherapie 155: 341–349, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Wara WM: Immunosuppression associated with radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2: 593–597, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Chee CA, Ilbery PLT, Rickinson AB: Depression of lymphocyte replicating activity in radiotherapy patients. Brit J Radiol 3: 562–567, 1969.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Ruhl H, Vogt W, Ruhl U: Effect of hydrocortisone treatment and whole body irradiation on mouse lymphocyte stimulation in vitro. Immunology 25: 753–759, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Barendsen GW: Responses of cultured cells, tumors and normal tissues to radiations of different linear energy transfer in Ebert M, Howard A (ed): Current Topics in Radiation Research, Vol. IV, Amsterdam, North Holland Biological Company, 1968, pp. 332–346.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Berenbaum MC: The effect of cytotoxic agents on the production of antibody to TAB vaccine in the mouse. Biochem Pharma 11: 29–34, 1962.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Gabrielsen AE, Good RA: Chemical suppression of adoptive immunity. Adv Immunol 6: 91–99, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Hersh EM, Friereich EJ: Host defence mechanism and their modification by cancer chemotherapy. Methods in Cancer ResIV: 355–382, 1968.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Hersh EM, Gutterman JU, Mavligit GM, et al: Host defence, chemical immunosuppression and transplant recipient, relative effect of intermittent versus continuous immunosuppressive therapy with reference to objective of treatment. Transplant Proc 5: 1191–1205, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Yamaki H, Tanaka N, Umezawa H: Effects of several tumor inhibitory antibiotics on immunological responses. J Antibiot 22: 315–322, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Schwartz RS: Are immunosuppressive anticancer drugs self defeating? Cancer Res 28: 1452–1462, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Baldwin RW, Embleton MJ: Assessment of cell mediated immunity to human tumor associated antigens. Int Rev Exp Pathol 17: 49–54, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Cerottini JC, Brunner KT: Cell mediated cytotoxicity, allograft rejection with tumor immunity. Adv Immunol 19: 67–84, 1974.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Mantovani A, Potentarutti N, Luine W, Peri G, Spreafico F: Role of host defence mechanism in the antitumor activity of adriamycin and Daunomycin in mice. J Natl Cancer Inst 63: 61–72, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Riccardi C, Puccetti P, Santoni A, Herberman RB, Bonmassar E: Adriamycin-induced antitumor response in lethally irradiated mice. Immunopharmacology 1: 211–224, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Schwartz HS, Grindey GB: Andriamycin and Daunorubicin: Comparison of antitumor activities and tissue uptake in mice following immunosuppression. Cancer Res 33: 1837–1845, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Segerling M, Ohanian SH, Borsos T: Enhancing effect by metabolic inhibitors on the killing of tumor cells by antibody and complement. Cancer Res 35: 3195–3211, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Valeriote F, Vietti T, Coulter D: Cytotoxicity of Adriamyoin combined with Methotrexate against L 1210 leukemia in mice. J Natl Cancer Inst 64:801–810, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Vecchi A, Fioretti MC, Mantovani A, Barzi A, Spreafico F: The immunode-pressive and hematotoxic activity of imidazole 4-carboxamide, 5-(3,3-di-methyl-l-triazeno)K in mice. Transplantation 22: 619–624, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    DellaBurna C, Sanfillippo A: Immunodepressive activity of Adriamycin in experimental infection of the mouse with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Experientia 27: 841–852, 1971.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Isetta AM, Intini C, Soldatai M: On the immunodepressive action of Adriamycin. Experientia 27: 202–214, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Berenbaum MC, Brown IN: Dose response relationships for agents inhibiting the immune response. Immunology 7: 65–74, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Berenbaum MC: Time dependence and selectivity of immunosuppressive agents. Immunology 36: 355–362, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Evans R, Madison LD, Eidler DM: Cyclophosphamide induced changes in the cell compartment of Methylcholantherene induced tumor and their relation to bone marrow and blood leucocyte levels. Cancer Res 40: 395–408, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Mihich E: New leads towards antitumor selectivity in therapeutics. Chemotherapy 7: 51–62, 1976.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Wanebo HJ, Jun MY, Strong EW, Oettgen H: T cell deficiency in patients with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck. Am J Surg 130: 445–452, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Parves EC, Barenbaum MC: Selective suppression of murine antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity by azathioprine. Transplantation 19: 274–281, 1975.Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Mitsuoka A, Baba M, Morikawa S: Enhancement of delayed hypersensitivity by depletion of suppressor T cells with Cyclophosphamide in mice. Nature 262: 77–79, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Askenase PW, Hayden BJ, Gershon RK: Augmentation of delayed type hypersensitivity by doses of Cyclophosphamide which do not effect antibody responses. J Exp Med 141: 697–704, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Mantovani A, Vecchi A, Tagliabue A, Spreafico F: The effects of Adriamycin and Daunomycin on antitumoral immune effector mechanisms in an allogeneic system. Eur J Cancer 12: 371–379, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Vecchi A, Mantovani A, Tagliabue A, Spreafico F: A characterization of the immunosuppressive activity of Adriamycin and Daunomycin on humoral antibody production and tumor allograft rejection. Cancer Res 36:1222–1300, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Reynolds PM, Dawkins RL, Byrme MJ: Immunological effects of cancer chemotherapy in malignant melanoma: Differential effects on function of lymphocyte subpopulations. Cancer Immunol Immunother 4: 185–191, 1978.Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Cheems AR, Hersh EM: Patient survival after chemotherapy and its relationship to in vitro lymphocyte blastogenesis. Cancer 28: 851–859, 1971.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Bowles CA, Lucas D, Norton L, Graw RG, Jr.: Immunological studies of canine lymphosarcoma: Mixed leucocyte reactivity following chemotherapy. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 9: 211–214, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Weese JL, Oldham RK, Torney DC et al: Immunologic monitoring of carcinoma of breast. Surg Gynecol Obstet 145: 209–214, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Hancock BW, Bruce L, Dunsmore IR, Ward MA, Richmond J: Follow up studies on the immune status of patients with Hodgkin’s disease after splenectomy and treatment, in relapse and in remission. Br J Cancer 36:347–352, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Roth JA, Eilber FR, Morton DL: Effect of Adriamycin and high dose Methotrexate chemotherapy on in vivo and in vitro cell mediated immunity in cancer patients. Cancer 41: 814–821, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Zighelboim J: Deficiency of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytoxicity and mitogen-induced cellular cytotoxicity effector cell function in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia in remission. Cancer 39: 3357–3362, 1979.Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Krienberg R, Melchert F, Lemmel EM: Monitoring of the immunological status of breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and poly chemotherapy. Onkologie 2: 181–186, 1979.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Mihich E: Combined effects of chemotherapy and immunity against leukemia L1210 in DBA/2 mice. Cancer Res 29: 848–851, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Moore M, Williams DE: Contribution of host immunity to cyclophosphamide therapy of a chemically induced murine sarcoma. Int J Cancer 11:358–362, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Steele G, Pierce GE: Effects of cyclophosphamide on immunity against chemically induced syngeneic murine sarcoma. Int J Cancer 13:572–581, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Teller MN, Faanes RB: Association of host immunity with 5-Flurouracil initiated cure of plasmacytoma LPC-1 in BALB/c mice. Cancer Res 40: 2790–2799, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Santoni A, Riccardi C, Sorci V, Herberman RB: Effects of Adriamycin on activity of mouse natural killer cells. J Immunol 124: 2329–2334, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Mantovani A, Tagliabaue A, Luini W, Facchinetti T, Spreafico F: The Role of Macrophages in the Antitumoral Activity of Adriamycin or in Combination with C. parvum, in James K, McBride B, Stuart A (ed): The Proc EURES Symp on ‘The Macrophage and Cancer’. Edinburgh, Ecoprint, 1977, pp 203–225.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Mantovani A: In vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity of Adriamycin and Daunomycin on murine macrophages. Cancer Res 37: 815–824, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Teller MN, Bowie M, Mountain IM, Stock CC: Combination chemotherapy of advanced murine myeloma and subsequent resistance to tumor challenge. J Natl Cancer Inst 52: 667–672, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Lubet RA, Carlson DE: Immunity against MOPC 104E plasmacytoma: Effects of tumor size and time post therapy on in vivo tumor immunity. J Natl Cancer Inst 60: 1107–1114, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Hengst JCD, Mokyr MB, Dray S: Importance of timing in cyclophosphamide therapy of MOPC315 tumor bearing mice. Cancer Res 40: 2135–2142, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Borsos T, Bast RC Jr, Ohanian SH, Segerling M, Zbar B, Rapp H: Induction of tumor immunity by anti-tumoral chemotherapy. Ann NY Acad Sci 276: 565–574, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Glaser M: Regulation of specific cell mediated cytotoxic response against SV40 induced tumor associated antigen by depletion of suppressor T cells with cyclophosphamide in mice. J Exp Med 149: 774–782, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Philips FS, Chou TC, Hutchinson DJ, Schmid F, Sternberg SS: Selective Toxicity and Chemotherapeutic Efficacy, in Pharmacological Basis of Cancer Chemotherapy, MD Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, MD. 1975, pp 469–492.Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Radov LA, Haskill JS, Korn JH: Host immune potentiation of drug responses to a murine mammary adenocarcinoma. Int J Cancer 17: 773–781, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Carter RL, Connors RA, Weston BJ, Davies AJS: Treatment of a mouse lymphoma by L-asparaginase: Success depends on the host’s immune response. Int J Cancer 11: 345–352, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Gregory SA, Fried W, Knopse WH, Trobaugh FE: Accelerated regeneration of transplanted hemopoietic stem cells in irradiated mice pretreated with cyclophosphamide. Blood 37: 196–208, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Lubet RA, Carlson DE: Therapy of the murine plasmacytoma MOPC 104E: role of the immune response. J Natl Cancer Inst 61: 896–904, 1978.Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Mathe G, Halle-Pannenko I, Bourut C: Effectiveness of murine leukemia chemotherapy according to the immune state. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2: 139–146, 1977.Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Orsini F, Eppolito C, Ehrke MJ, Mihich E: Inhibition by selected anticancer agent of the development of primary cell-mediated immunity against allogeneic tumor cells in culture. Cancer Treat Rep 64: 211–219, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Bonmassar E, Bonmassar A, Vadlamudi S, Goldin A: Immunological alteration of leukemic cells in vivo after treatment with anti-tumor drug. Proc Natl Acad Sci(USA) 66: 1089–1097, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Houchene DP, Bonmassar E, Gershon MR, Kende M, Goldin A: Drug mediated immunogenic changes of virus induced leukemia in vivo. Cancer Res 36: 1347–1354, 1976.Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Mihich E: Modification of tumor regression by immunological means. Cancer Res 29: 2345–2351, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Giampietri A, Fioretti MC, Goldin A, Bonmassar E: Drug induced antigenic changes in murine leukemic cells: Antagonistic effects of quinacrine, and antimutagenic compound. J Natl Cancer Inst 64: 297–304, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Dye ES, North RJ: Macrophage accumulation in murine ascites tumors. I. Cytoxan induced dominance of macrophage over tumor cells and the antitumor effects of endotoxin. J Immunol 125: 1650–1657, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    L’age-Stehr J, Diamantstein T: Studies on induction and control of cell mediated autoimmunity. I. Induction of “autoreactive” T lymphocytes in mice by cyclophosphamide. Eur J Immunol 8: 620–627, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Wander RH, Hilgard HR: Does cyclophosphamide alter tumor cell antigenicity? Lancetii: 1077–1078, 1980.Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Knock F, Gait R, Oester Y, Sylvester R, Rebechini-Zasadny H: Selected Sulfhydryl inhibitors capable of inducing immunity against cancer in mice. Oncology 36: 197–208, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Brock N: Experimental basis of cancer chemotherapy. Chemotherapy 7:19–26, 1976.Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    Ohto Y, Sucki K, Kitta K, Takcmoto K, Ishitsuka H, Yagi Y: Comparative studies on the immunosuppressive effect among 5’-Deoxy-5Fluorouridine, Ftorafuand 5FU. Gann 71: 190–199, 1980.Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    Anderson T, McManamin M, Schein P: Chlorozotocin 2-(3-(2-chlorothyl))- 3-nitosourea, an antitumor agent with modified bone marrow toxicity. Cancer Res 35: 761–768, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Durden DL, Distasio JA: Comparison of the immunosuppressive effects of Asparaginase from E. coli and Vibrio succinogenes. Cancer Res 40:1125–1132, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Schwartz RS: Immunosuppression by L-asparaginase. Nature 224:275–281, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Deodhar SD: Enhancement of metastases by L-asparaginase in a mouse tumor system. J Reticuloendothelial Soc 10: 212–219, 1971.Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Hoth DF, Schein PS, Winokur S et al: A phase II study Chlorozotocin in metastatic malignant melanoma. Cancer 46: 1544–1552, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Millar JL, Hudspith BN, Blackett NM: Reduced lethality in mice receiving a combined dose of Cyclophosphamide and busulfan. Cancer 32: 193–201, 1975.Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    Goldin A, Venditti JM, Hymphreys SR, Mantel N: Quantitative evaluation of chemotherapeutic agents against advanced leukemia in mice. J Natl Cancer Inst 21: 495–505, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Skipper HE, Schabel FM Jr, Wilcox WS: Experimental evaluation of potential anticancer agents. XIII. On the criteria and kinetics associated with curability of experimental leukemia. Cancer Chemother Rep 35: 3–11, 1964.Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Bruce WR, Mechker RE, Powers WE, Valeriote FA: Comparison of the dose and time survival curves for normal hematopoietic and lymphoma colony forming cells exposed to Vinblastine, Arabinosyl cytosine and Amethopterin. J Natl Cancer Inst 42: 1015–1022, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Wierda D, Pazdernik TL: Toxicity of platinum complexes on hemopoietic precursor cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 211: 531–537, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Israel L, Dapierre A, Choffel C, Milleron B, Edelstein R: Immunoche- motherapy in 34 cases of oat cell carcinoma of lung with 19 complete responses. Cancer Treatment Rep 61: 343–349, 1977.Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    Mulder JH, Van Putten LM: Adriamycin—Cyclophosphamide combination chemotherapy: the importance of drug scheduling. Eur J Cancer 15:1503–1508, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Sen L, Borell L: Expression of cell surface markers and T and B lymphocyte after long term chemotherapy of acute leukemia. Cell Immunol 9: 84–91, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Frie E. Ill: Methotrexate revisited. Med Pediat Oncol 2: 227–234, 1976.Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Schreml W, Lohrmann HP: Effect of high dose Methotrexate with ci- trovorum factor on human granulopoiesis. Cancer Res 39: 4195–4204, 1979.Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Lohrmann HP, Schreml W, Lang M, Betzler M, Fliedner TM, Heimpel H: Changes of granulopoiesis during and after adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer. Br J Haematol 40: 369–374, 1976.Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Ghose T, Rapth MRC, Nigam SP: Antibody as carrier of chlorambucil. Cancer 29: 1398–1402, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Goldernberg MD, DeLand F, Klin E, Bennet S, Primus JF, Van Nagel JR, Estes N, DeSimone P, Rayburn P: Use of radiolabeled antibody to carcinoembryonic antigen for detection and localization of diverse cancers by external photoscanning. N Engl J Med 298: 1384–1395, 1978.Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    March JP, Carrel S, Merenda C, Sordat B, Cerrotoni JC: In vivo localization of radiolabeled antibody to carcinoembryonic antigen in human colon carcinoma grafted into nude mice. Nature 248: 704–715, 1974.Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    Order SE, Klein JL, Sgagias M, Ettinger E, Trump D: Isotopic immunoglobulin therapy: A phase I-II trial. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 20: 366–372, 1979.Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    Kohler G, Milstein C: Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature 256: 495–504, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Woodbury RG, Brown JP, Yeh MY, Hellstrom I, Hellstrom KE: Identification of a cell surface protein, p 97, in human melanomas and certain other neoplasms. Proc Natl Acad Sci(USA) 787: 2183–2192, 1980.Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    Bale WF, Contreras MA, Grady ED: Factors influencing localisation of labelled antibodies in tumors. Cancer Res 40: 2965–2974, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Weinstein JN, Magin RL, Yatvin RL, Zaharko DS: Science 204:188–195, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Weinstein JN, Magin RL, Cysyk RL, Zaharko DS: Treatment of solid L 1210 murine tumors with local hyperthermia and temperature sensitive liposomes containing methotrexate. Cancer Res 40: 1388–1397, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Chang BK, Huang AT, Joines WT: Inhibition of DNA synthesis and enhancement of the uptake and action of Methotrexate by low power density microwave radiation in L 1210 leukemia cells. Cancer Res 40:1002–1013, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    DeDuve C, Trouet A: Lysosomes and lysosomotropic drugs in host-parasite relationship, in Braun W, Ungar J (ed): Nonspecific Factors Influencing Host Resistance Basel, Karger, 1973, pp 153–164.Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    Trouet A, Compeneere DD, DeDuve C: Chemotherapy through lysosomes with a DNA-daunorubicine complex. Nature(New Biol) 239: 110–118, 1972.Google Scholar
  276. 276.
    Damusz A, Wutkiewicz M, Wierzbe K: Influence of insulin on pharmacokinetics of mannosulfan in rats. Arch Immunol Ther Exp 27: 376–382, 1979.Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    Obefield RA, Cady B, Booth JC: Regional arterial chemotherapy for advanced cancer of the head and neck. Cancer 32: 82–94, 1973.Google Scholar
  278. 278.
    Fraile RJ, Baker LH, Buroker TR, Horbvitz J, Vaitkevicius VK: Pharmacokinetics of 5-FU administered orally by rapid intravenous and by slow infusion. Cancer Res 40: 2223–2232, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Till JE, McCulloch EA: Early repair processes in marrow cells irradiated and proliferating in vivo. Radiat Res 18: 96–105, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Vos O: Survival of lymphatic cells after X-irradiation in mice. Effects of ionizing radiations on the hematopoietic tissues. IAFA, Vienna, 1967, pp 134–149.Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Bewley DK: Fast neutron beams for tumor therapy, in Ebert M, Howard A (ed): Current Topics in Radiation Research, Vol VI, Amsterdam, North Holland Biological Company, 1970, pp. 249–262.Google Scholar
  282. 282.
    Broerse JJ, Barendsen GW, Freriks G, Van Putten LM: RBE values of 15 MeV neutrons for effects on normal tissue. Eur J Cancer 7:171–182, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Gottlieb CF, Gengozian N: The humoral immune response in mice after neutron or X-irradiation at different dose rates. J Immunol 109:711–721, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Carlson DE, Gengozian N: The effect of acute radiation exposure rates on formation of hemagglutinating antibody in mice. J Immunol 106: 1535–1544, 1971.Google Scholar
  285. 285.
    Gengozian N: Transplantation of rat bone marrow in irradiated mice: effect of exposure rate. Science 146: 663–672, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Vaeth JM (editor): Electron beam therapy. (Proc 2nd Ann San Francisco Cancer Symp, 1966 ) Kargar, Basel, 1968.Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    Zuppinger A, Poretti G (editors): Proc Symp High Energy Electrons. Springer, Berlin, 1965.Google Scholar
  288. 288.
    Jacobson LO, Simmons EL, Marks EK, Eldredge Jr: Recovery from radiation injury. Science 113: 510–514, 1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Svet-Moldavsky GJ, Pavlotsky Al, Ravkina LI: The principle of selective defence at chemotherapy of malignant tumors. Vestn Acad Med Sci U.S.S.R. 5: 42–51, 1967.Google Scholar
  290. 290.
    Svet-Moldavsky GJ, Pavlotsky Al: Particular carriage of radio-resistance. Lancetii: 779–781, 1967.Google Scholar
  291. 291.
    Talas M, Batkai L: Study of interferon inducers as radioprotective agents. 6th Int Cong Radiat Res AbstrE-6–1, 1979.Google Scholar
  292. 292.
    Yuhas JM: Active versus passive absorption kinetics as the basis for selective protection of normal tissues by 5–2-(30-aminopropylamino) ethylphos- phorothioic acid. Cancer Res 40: 1519–1524, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Yuhas JM, Storer JB: Differential chemoprotection of normal and malignant tissues. J Natl Cancer Inst 42: 332–339, 1969.Google Scholar
  294. 294.
    Utley JF, Marlowe C, Waddell WJ: Distribution of 35S-labelled WR-2721 in normal and malignant tissues of mouse. Radiat Res 68: 264–271, 1976.Google Scholar
  295. 295.
    Denekamp J, Michael BD: Preferential sensitisation of hypoxic cells to radiation in vivo. Nature(New Biol) 239: 21–23, 1972.Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    Chapman JD, Urtasum RC: The application in radiation therapy substances which modify cellular radiation response. Cancer 40(Suppl): 484–491, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Chizhov AY, Strelkov RB: On practical use of a gas hypoxic mixture GHM- 10 as a radioprotectant. 6th Int Cong Rad Res AbstrE-6–5, 1979.Google Scholar
  298. 298.
    Suit HD, Sedlacek R, Wagner M, Orsi L: Radiation response of C3H librosarcoma enhanced in mice stimulated by Cory neb act erium parvum. Nature 255: 493–495, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Yonemoto RH, Terasaki PI: Cancer immunotherapy with HLA compatible thoracic duct lymphocyte transplantation. Cancer 30: 1438–1441, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Yonemoto RH: Adoptive immunotherapy utilizing thoracic duct lymphocytes. Ann NY Acad Sci 277: 7–15, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Frenster JH, Rogoway WM: Immunotherapy of human neoplasms with autologous lymphocytes activated in vitro, in Harris JE (ed): Proc Fifth Leucocyte Culture Conf, New York, Academic Press, 1982, pp 359–378.Google Scholar
  302. 302.
    Gillis S, Smith KA: Long term culture of tumor specific cytotoxic T cells. Nature 268: 154–156, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Thomas ED, Buckner CD, Banaji M: One hundred patients with acute leukemia treated by chemotherapy, total body irradiation, and allogeneic marrow transplantation. Blood 49: 511–519, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Scuderi P, Rosse C: Unsensitised bone marrow uniquely interacts with sensitised splenocytes in inhibiting tumor growth. 4th Int Cong Immunol Abstr 10. 2. 40, 1980.Google Scholar
  305. 305.
    Kaplan HJS, Strober S, Gottlieb M, et al: Induction transplantation tolerance without graft versus host disease by total lymphoid irradiation. 6th Int Cong Rad Res AbstrC-23–9, 1979.Google Scholar
  306. 306.
    Fefer A, Thomas ED: Marrow transplants in aplastic anemia and leukemias. Sem Hematol 11: 353–362, 1974.Google Scholar
  307. 307.
    Van Bekkum DW: Perspectives of immunological reconstitution. Proc 9th Int Cong Allergology, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1977.Google Scholar
  308. 308.
    Amery WK, Spreafico F, Rojas AF, Denissen E, Chirigos MA: Adjuvant treatment with levamisole in cancer. A review of experimental and clinical data. Cancer Treatment Rev 4: 167–174, 1977.Google Scholar
  309. 309.
    Senn JS, Lai CC, Price GB: Levamisole: Evidence for activity on human progenitor cells. Br J Cancer 41: 40, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Mavligit GM, Raphael LS, Calvo DB, Wong WL: Indomethacin-induced monocyte-dependent restoration of local graft versus host reaction among cells from cancer patients. J National Cancer Inst 65: 317–324, 1980.Google Scholar
  311. 311.
    Mashiba H, Yoshinaga H, Matsunaga K, et al: Effect of immunochemotherapy on lymphocyte response of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. J Surg Oncol 12: 275–282, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Kurukowa T, Nakao I, Furukawa K, Kanko T, Yokoyama T, Obashi Y: Multidrug combination in cancer chemotherapy: Mitomycin C with 5-FU. Tohoku J Exp Med 129: 337–346, 1979.Google Scholar
  313. 313.
    Grecom FA, Breseton HD: Effect of lithium carbonate on the neutropenia caused by chemotherapy: A preliminary clinical trial. Oncology(Basel) 34: 153–157, 1977.Google Scholar
  314. 314.
    Stein RS, Flexner JM, Graber SE: Lithium and granulocytopenia during induction therapy of acute myelogenous leukemia. Blood 54: 636–647, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Lyman GH, Williams CC, Preston D: The use of lithium carbonate to reduce infection and leukopenia during systemic chemotherapy. N Engl J Med 302: 257–268, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Huys JV, Plum JR: Effect of nandrolone decanoate on thymus derived lymphocyte during radiotherapy. Clin Ther 2: 352–364, 1979.Google Scholar
  317. 317.
    Cupissol D, Serrou B: Evaluation of the immunorestorative properties of retinoic acid derivative in patients with advanced solid tumors. 4th Int Cong Immunol Abstr 10. 5. 13, 1980.Google Scholar
  318. 318.
    Patek PO, Collins JL, Yogeeswaran G, Dennert G: Antitumor potential of retinoic acid: Stimulation of immune mediated effectors. Int J Cancer 24: 624–635, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Leibovici J, Stark Y, Wolman M: Combined effects of levan and cyclophosphamide on the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma in C57BL mice. 4th Int Cong Immunol Abstr 10.5. 46, 1980.Google Scholar
  320. 320.
    Shoham J, Brenner HJ, Chaitchik S: Enhancement of the immune system of chemotherapy treated cancer patients by simultaneous treatment with the thymic extract, TP-1. 4th Int Cong Immunol Abstr 10.5. 63, 1980.Google Scholar
  321. 321.
    Stojanovic DB, Milivojevic KS: Reaction of some radiosensitive physiological systems of irradiation and injury, in Radiobiological Research and Radiotherapy, Vol. II. (Proc. Symp. Vienna, 1976), IAEA, Vienna 1977, pp 247–272.Google Scholar
  322. 322.
    Basic I, Kastelan, Milas L: Increased sensitivity of Corynebacterium parvum treated mice to ionising whole body irradiation. 6th Int Cong Radiat Res AbstE-19–2, 1979.Google Scholar
  323. 323.
    Mathe G, Amiel JL, Schwarzenberg L, Schneider M, Cattan A, Schulumberger JR, Hayat M, de Vassal F: Active immunotherapy for acute lymphoid leukemia. Lancet 1: 697–699, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Yasumoto K, Manabe H, Ueno M, et al: Immunotherapy of human lung cancer with BCG cell wall skeleton. Gann 67: 787–794, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Stupp Y, Saltoun R, Weiss DW: Prevention by the methanol extraction residue tubercle bacillus fraction of immunosuppression induced by cancer chemotherapeutic agents. I. Antibody response of mice treated with cyclophosphamide. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1: 219–224, 1976.Google Scholar
  326. 326.
    Zimber C, Ben-Efraim S, Weiss DW: Prevention by the MER tubercle bacillus fraction of immunosuppression induced by cancer chemotherapeutic agents. II. Contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs and mice treated with cyclophosphamide. Cancer Immunol Immunother 3: 35–44, 1977.Google Scholar
  327. 327.
    Robinson E, Cohen BY, Mekori T: Immunotherapy counteracting the immunodepressive effect of radio and chemotherapy, in (Proc. Symp. Vienna, 1976) Radiobiological Research and Radiotherapy, Vol II, Vienna, IAEA, 1977, pp 261–274.Google Scholar
  328. 328.
    Ray PK, Mohammed J, Raychaudhuri S, Bassett JG, Cooper DR: Growth inhibition of rat primary mammary adenocarcinomas (MA) by immunoad-sorption of blocking immune complexes. 4th Int Cong Immunol Abstr 10.7. 25, 1980.Google Scholar
  329. 329.
    Ray PK, Cooper DR, Bassett JG, Mark R: Antitumor effect of staphylococcus aureus organisms. Fed Proc 38: 1089, 1979.Google Scholar
  330. 330.
    Ray PK, Idiculla A, Rhoads JE Jr, Mark R, Besa E, Thomas H, Bassett JG, Cooper DR: Extracorporeal immunoadsorption of pathologic plasma immunoglobulin G or its complexes. A novel approach for their selective removal from the plasma. Proceedings of the First Annual Apheresis Symposium: Current Concepts and Future Trends. Chicago, October 1979, pp 203–215.Google Scholar
  331. 331.
    Ray PK, Idiculla A, Mark R, Rhoads JE Jr, Thomas H, Bassett JG, Cooper DR: Extracorporeal immunoadsorption of plasma from a metastatic colon carinoma patient by protein A-containing nonviable Staphylococcusaureus. Clinical, biochemical, serological, and histological evaluation of the patient’s response. Cancer 49 (9): 1800–1807, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Ray PK, Idiculla A, Mark R, Thomas H, Rhoads JE Jr, Bassett JG, Cooper DR: Immunotherapy of cancer: extracorporeal adsorption of plasma blocking factors using nonviable Staphylococcus aureusCowan I, in Nagel G (ed): Plasma Exchange Symposium, 1980, Basel, S Derger, 1981, pp 102–113.Google Scholar
  333. 333.
    Farquhar D, Loo TL, Gutterman JU, Hersh EM, Luna MA: Inhibition of drug metabolising enzymes in rat after Bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment. Biochem Pharmacol 25: 1529–1534, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Fisher B, Wolmark N, Robin H: Further observations on the inhibition of tumor growth by Corynebacterium parvum with cyclophosphamide. III. Effect of C. parvum on cyclophosphamide metabolism. J Natl Cancer Inst 57: 225–234, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Sparks FC, Albert NE, Andreone PA, Breeding JH: Effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin on immunosuppression from cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-flurouracil. Cancer Res 37: 2560–2568, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Stewart THM, Hollinshead AC, Harris JE, S et al: Immunochemotherapy of lung cancer. Ann NY Acad Sci 277: 436–442, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Jun MH, Johnson RH: Effect of cyclophosphamide on tumor growth and cell mediated immunity in sheep with ovine squamous cell carcinoma. Res Vet Sci 27: 155–162, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Theilen GH, Worley M, Benjamini E: Chemoimmunotherapy for canine lymphosarcoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc 170: 607–612, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Ray PK: Bacterial neuraminidase and altered immunological bahaviour of treated mammalian cells. Adv Appl Microbiol 21: 227–242, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Holland JF: Prospectus from cancer treatment. Cancer 36 (Suppl): 299–306, 1975.Google Scholar
  341. 341.
    Holland JF, Bekesi JG, Cuttner J: Chemoimmunotherapy for acute myelocytic leukemia, in Immunotherapy of Human Cancer. The Univ of Texas System Cancer Centre. New York, Raven Press, 1977, pp 237–252.Google Scholar
  342. 342.
    Rosenberg SA, Terry WD: Passive immunotherapy of cancer animals and man. Adv Cancer Res 25: 323–332, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Kedar E, Schwartzbach M, Raanan Z, Hefetz S: In vitro induction of cell mediated immunity to murine leukemia cells. II. Cytotoxic activity in vitro and tumor neutralizing capacity in vivo of anti-leukemia cytotoxic lymphocytes generated in macrocultures. J Immunol Methods 16: 39–48, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Kedar E, Raanan Z, Kafka I, Holland JF, Bekesi GJ, Weiss DW: In vitro induction of cytotoxic effector cells against human neoplasms. I. Sensitization conditions and effects of cryopreservation on the induction and expression of cytotoxic responses to allogeneic leukemia cells. J Immunol Methods 28: 303–312, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Bartlett GL, Katsilas DC, Dreider JW, Purnell DM: Immunogenicity of viable tumor cells after storage in liquid nitrogen. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2: 127–134, 1977.Google Scholar
  346. 346.
    Golub SH: Cryopreservation of human lymphocytes, in Bloom BR, David JR (ed): In Vitro Methods in Cell Mediated and Tumor Immunity. New York Academic Press, 1976, pp 731–756.Google Scholar
  347. 347.
    Fefer A: Adoptive tumor immunotherapy in mice as an adjunct to whole body X-irradiation and chemotherapy. A review, in Weiss DW (ed): Immunological Parameter of Host Tumor Relationship. Vol II, New York, Academic Press, 1973, pp 146–162.Google Scholar
  348. 348.
    Gloderson A: In vitro approach to development of immune reactivity. Current Topics in Microbiol. Immunol 75: 1–21, 1976.Google Scholar
  349. 349.
    Golub SH, Morton DL: Sensitisation of lymphocytes in vitro against human melanoma associated antigens. Nature 251: 161–172, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Kali MA, Hellstrom I: Specific stimulatory and cytotoxic effects of lymphocytes sensitised in vitro to either alloantigen or tumor antigen. J Immunol 114: 1083–1088, 1975.Google Scholar
  351. 351.
    Kedar E, Raanan Z, Schwartzbach M: In vitro induction of cell mediated immunity to murine leukemia cells. VI. Adoptive immunotherapy in combination with chemotherapy of leukemia in mice using lymphocytes sensitised in vitro to leukemia cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother 4: 161–169, 1978.Google Scholar
  352. 352.
    Kedar E, Schwartzbach M, Raanan Z, Hefetz S: In vitro induction of cell mediated immunity to murine leukemia cells. V. Adoptive immunotherapy of leukemia in mice with lymphocytes sensitised in vitro to leukemia cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother 4: 151–159, 1978.Google Scholar
  353. 353.
    Zarling JM, Raich PC, McKcough M, Bach FH: Generation of cytotoxic lymphocytes in vitro against autologous human leukemic cells. Nature 262: 691–702, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Kedar E, Unger E, Schwartzbach M: In vitro induction cell mediated immunity to murine leukemia cells. I. Optimization of tissue culture conditions for the generation of cytotoxic lymphocytes. J Immunol Methods 13: 1–12, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Lee SK, Oliver RTD: Autologous leukemia specific T Cell-mediated lym- phocytotoxicity in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia. J Exp Med 147: 912–921, 1976.Google Scholar
  356. 356.
    Zarling JM, Robins HI, Raich PC, Bach FH, Bach ML: Generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes to autologous human leukemia cells by sensitization to pooled allogeneic normal cells. Nature 274: 269–276, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Kedar E, Lupu T: In vitro induction of cell mediated immunity to murine leukemia cells. IV. Amplification of the generation of cytotoxic lymphocytes by enzymatically and chemically modified stimulatory leukemia cells. J Immunol Methods 21: 35–45, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Kedar E, Lupu T, Schwartzbach M, Avrahan Y: In vitro induction of cell mediated immunity to murine leukemia cells. VIII. Methods for augmenting the induction and expression of the cytotoxic response in vitro to syngenic tumors. J Immunol Methods 26: 157–162, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Kedar E, Nahas F, Unger E, Weiss DW: In vitro induction of cell mediated immunity to murine leukemia cells. III. Effect of the methanol extraction residue fraction of tubercle bacilli on the generation of anti-leukemia cytotoxic lymphocytes. J Natl Cancer Inst 60: 1097–1104, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Cheever MA, Kempf RA, Fefer A: Tumor neutralisation immunotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy of a Friend Leukemia with cells secondarily sensitised in vitro. J Immunol 119: 714–721, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Rollinghoff M, Wagner H: In vitro protection against murine plasma cell tumor growth by in vitro activated syngeneic lymphocytes. J Natl Cancer Inst 51: 1317–1324, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Rouse BT, Wagner H, Harris AW: In vivo activity of in vitro immunized lymphocytes. I. Tumor allograft rejection mediated by in vitro activated mouse thymocytes. J Immunol 108: 1353–1362, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Treves AJ, Cohen IR, Feldman M: Immunotherapy of lethal metastases by lymphocytes sensitized against tumor cell in vitro; J Natl Cancer Inst 54: 777–784, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Rosenberg SA, Schwarz S, Spiess PJ: In vitro growth of murine T cells. II. Growth of in vitro sensitized cells cytotoxic for alloantigens. J Immunol 121: 1951–1962, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Burton RC, Warner NL: In vitro induction of tumor specific immunity. IV. Specific adoptive immunotherapy with cytotoxic T cells induced in vitro to plasmacytoma antigens. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2: 91–101, 1977.Google Scholar
  366. 366.
    Bortin MM, Rimm AA, Rodey GE, Giller RH, Saltzstein EC: Prolonged survival in long passage AKR leukemia using chemotherapy, radiotherapy and adoptive immunotherapy. Cancer Res 34: 1851–1859, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    Lawrence HS: in Bach FH, Good RA (ed): Clinical Immunology. Vol 2, New York, Academic Press, 1974, pp 115–132.Google Scholar
  368. 368.
    Alexander P, Delorme EJ, Hamilton LDG, Hall JG: Effect of nucleic acids from immune lymphocytes on rat sarcomata. Nature (Lond) 213: 569–571, 1967.Google Scholar
  369. 369.
    Decker PJ, Davis RC, Parker GA, Mannick J: Effect of tumor size on concomitant tumor immunity. Cancer Res 33: 33–43, 1973.Google Scholar
  370. 370.
    Whitney RB, Levy JG, Smith AG: Influence of tumor size and surgical resection on cell mediated immunity in mice. J Natl Cancer Inst 53: 111–116, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. 371.
    Youn JK, Lefrancois D, Barski G: In vitro studies on the mechanism of the eclipse of cell-mediated immunity in mice bearing advanced tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst 50: 921–929, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    Golub SH, O’Connell TX, Morton DL: Correlation of in vivo and in vitro assays of immunocompetence in cancer patients. Cancer Res 34: 1833–1839, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  373. 373.
    Krant MJ, Manskopf G, Brandrupp CS, Madoff MA: Immunologic alterations in Bronchogenic cancer. Cancer 21: 623–631, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    Adler WH, Takiguchi T, Smith RT: Phytohemagglutinin unresponsiveness in mouse spleen cells induced by methylcholanthrene sarcomas. Cancer Res 31: 864–872, 1971.Google Scholar
  375. 375.
    Rowland GF, Edwards AJ, Sumner MR, Hurd CM: Thymic dependency of tumor induced immunosuppression. J Natl Cancer Inst 50: 1329–1334, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Baldwin RW, Price MR, Robins RA: Inhibition of hepatoma-immune lymph node cell cytotoxicity by tumor-bearer serum and solubilized hepatoma antigen. Int J Cancer 11: 527–531, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  377. 377.
    Hellstrom KE, Hellstrom I: Immunological enhancement as studies by cell culture techniques. Ann Rev Microbiol 24: 373–394, 1970.Google Scholar
  378. 378.
    Waldmann TA, Broder S: Suppressor cells in the regulation of the immune response, in Schwartz RS (ed): Progress in Clinical Immunology, Vol 3, New York, Grune and Stratton, 1977, pp. 269–283.Google Scholar
  379. 379.
    Whitney RB, Levy JG: Suppression of mitogen responses by serum from tumor bearing mice. Eur J Cancer 10: 739–744, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. 380.
    Lundy J, Lovett EJ, Wolinsky SM, Conran P: Immune impairment and metastatic tumor growth. The need for an immunorestorant drug as an adjunct to surgery. Cancer Res 19 (19): 945–954, 1979.Google Scholar
  381. 381.
    Simpson-Herren I, Sanford AH, Holmquist JP: Effect of surgery on the cell kinetics of residual tumor. Proceedings of Cell Kinetics and Chemotherapy Meeting in Annapolis, Maryland, November 4–6, 1975. Cancer Treatment Report 60: 1749–1760, 1976.Google Scholar
  382. 382.
    Saba TM, Antikatzides TG: Decrease resistance to intravenous tumor-cell challenge during reticuloendothelial depression following surgery. Surg Ann 7: 71–76, 1975.Google Scholar
  383. 383.
    Saba TM, Scovill WA: Effect of surgical trauma on host defence. Surg Ann 7: 71–76, 1975.Google Scholar
  384. 384.
    Roberts S, Long L, Jonassen O, McGrath R, McGraw E, Cole WH: The isolation of cancer cells from the blood stream during uterine curretage. Surg Gynecol Obstetlll(l): 3–9, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. 385.
    Schatton WE, Kramer WM: An experimental study of postoperative tumor metastases. II. Effects of anesthesia, operation and cortisone administration on growth of pulmonary metastasis. Cancer Res 39: 501–511, 1961.Google Scholar
  386. 386.
    Warren S, Gates O: Fate of intravenously injected tumor cells. Ann J Cancer 27: 485–492, 1936.Google Scholar
  387. 387.
    Watanbe S: Metastasizability of tumor cells. Cancer 7: 215–223, 1954.Google Scholar
  388. 388.
    Zeidman I, McCutcheon M, Coman DR: Factors affecting number of tumor metastases: experience with transplantable mouse tumor. Cancer Research 10: 357–359, 1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. 389.
    Vose BM, Moudgil OC: Effect of surgery on tumor-directed leukocyte responses. Br Medical Journal 1: 56–58, 1975.Google Scholar
  390. 390.
    Riddle PR, Berenbaum MC: Post-operative depression of lymphocyte response to PHA. Lancet 1: 746–754, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. 391.
    Le Francois DL, Goun Jr, Belehradek J Jr, Barski G: Evaluation of cell-mediated immunity in mice bearing tumors produced by a mammary carcinoma cell line. Influence of tumor growth, surgical removal, and treatment with irradiated tumor cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 46: 981–988, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  392. 392.
    Mikulska IB, Smith C, Alexander P: Incidence for an immunological reaction of the host directed against its own actively growing primary tumor. J Natl Cancer Inst 36: 29–34, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. 393.
    Heppner GH: In vitro studies on cell mediated immunity following surgery in mice sensitized to syngenic mammary tumors. Int J Cancer 9: 119–123, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. 394.
    Alexander P, Bensted J, Delorme EJ, Hall JG, Hodgitt J: The cellular immune response to primary sarcomata in rats. II. Abnormal response of nodes draining the tumor. Proc Roy Soc LondB 174: 237–247, 1969.Google Scholar
  395. 395.
    Bray AE, Keast D: Changes in host immunity following excision of a murine melanoma. Brit J Cancer 31: 170–178, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. 396.
    Safir M, Bekesi JG, Papatestas A, Slatu G, Anfses AH: Preoperative and post-operative immunological evaluation of patients with colorectal cancer. Cancer 46: 700–708, 1979.Google Scholar
  397. 397.
    Greco RS, Salvati E, Rubin R: Cell mediated immunity in adenocarcinoma of the colo-rectum. J Surg Res 24: 253–257, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  398. 398.
    Greco RS, Rubin R, Salvati E: A comparison of cellular immunity in patients undergoing electrocoagulation and resection for adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Surg Gynec Obst 151: 471–479, 1980.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. K. Ray
  • M. Seshadri
  • T. B. Poduval

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations