Advertisement

Bone and Joint Infections

  • Melvin I. Marks
Part of the Comprehensive Manuals in Pediatrics book series (CM PEDIATRICS)

Abstract

The incidence of bone infections continues to be high and the clinical consequences serious.98 This situation is due partly to nonspecific pre-sentations, particularly in young patients. Most cases of osteomyelitis occur after hematogenous spread of bacteria or other microorganisms and involve the metaphyses of long bones, particularly those of the femur, tibia, and humerus, which account for approximately three-quarters of all cases. Any bone or joint space in the body can be involved, and cases of osteomyelitis epiphyses, of the vertebral bodies, disc space, and pelvis38 are not uncommon.

Keywords

Familial Mediterranean Fever Septic Arthritis Joint Infection Fusidic Acid Joint Fluid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ament ME, Gaal SA: Bacteroides arthritis. Am J Dis Child 114: 427–428, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson JR, Scobie WG, Watt B: The treatment of acute osteomyelitis in children: a ten-year experience. J Antimicrob Chemother 7: 43–50, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bannatyne RM, Karmali MA: Meningococcal osteomyelitis. Can Med Assoc J 125: 1313–1314, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barnhart RA, Weitekamp MR, Aber RC: Osteomyelitis caused by veillonella. Am J Med 74: 902–904, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barton LL, Saied KR: Thorn-induced arthritis. J Pediatr 3: 322–327, 1978.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baum J: Juvenile arthritis. Am J Dis Child 135: 557 - 560, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bjorksten B, Boquist L: Histopathological aspects of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis. J Bone Joint Surg 62: 376–380, 1980.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bosler EM, Coleman JL, Benach JL, et al.: Natural distribution of the Ixodes dammini spirochete. Science 220: 321–322, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Breckenridge RL Jr, Buck L, Tooley E, et al.: Listeria monocytogenes septic arthritis. Am J Clin Pathol 3: 140–141, 1980.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Buchanan GR, Glader BE: Leukocyte counts in children with sickle cell disease. Am J Dis Child 132: 396–398, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Carroll WL, Balistreri WF, Brilli R, et al.: Spectrum of salmonella-associated arthritis. Pediatrics 68: 717–720, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chang MJ, Barton LL: Mycobacterium fortuitum osteomyelitis of the calcaneus secondary to a puncture wound. J Pediatr 85: 517–519, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Corrall CJ, Merz WG, Rekedal K, et al.: Aspergillus osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent adolescent: a case report and review of the literature. Pediatrics 70: 455–461, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dee TH, Kozin F: Gentamicin and tobramycin penetration into synovial fluid. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 12: 548–549, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dich VQ, Nelson JD, Haltalin KC: Osteomyelitis in infants and children. Am J Dis Child 129: 1273–1278, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Doern GV, Blacklow NR, Gantz NM, et al.: Neiserria sicca osteomyelitis. J Clin Microbiol 16: 595–597, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Echols RM, Selinger DS, Hallowell C, et al.: Rhizopus osteomyelitis. A case report and review. Am J Med 66: 141–145, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Editorial: Synovial fluid lactate in septic arthritis. Lancet i: 261–262, 1982.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Enarson DA, Fujii M, Nakielna EM, et al.: Bone and joint tuberculosis: a continuing problem. Can Med Assoc J 120: 139–145, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fainstein V, Gilmore C, Hopfer RL, et al.: Septic arthritis due to Candida species in patients with cancer: report of five cases and review of the literature. Rev Infect Dis 4: 78–85, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Feigin RD, San Joaquin VH, Middlekamp JN: Septic arthritis due to Moraxella osloensis. J Pediatr 75: 116–117, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fischer GW, Popich GA, Sullivan DE, et al.: Diskitis: a prospective diagnostic analysis. Pediatrics 62: 543–548, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fitzgerald RH, Brewer NS, Dahlin DC: Squamous-cell carcinoma complicating chronic osteomyelitis. J Bone Joint Surg 58: 1146–1148, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Friedman HM, Pincus T, Gibilisco P, et al.: Acute monoarticular arthritis caused by herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus. Am J Med 69: 241–247, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fritz RH, Crosson FJ: Concerning the source of Pseudomonas osteomyelitis of the foot. J Pediatr 91: 161–162, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gay RM, Lane TW, Keller DC: Septic arthritis caused by Kingella kingae. J Clin Microbiol 17: 168–169, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Givner LB, Luddy RE, Schwartz AD: Etiology of osteomyelitis in patients with major sickle hemoglobinopathies. J Pediatr 99: 411–413, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Goldin RH, Chow AW, Edwards JE Jr, et al.: Sternoarticular septic arthritis in heroin users. N Engl J Med 289: 616–618, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Goodwin RA Jr, Shapiro JL, Thurman GH, et al.: Disseminated histoplasmosis: clinical and pathologic correlations. Medicine 59: 1–33, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Grahame R, Armstrong R, Simmons NA, et al.: Isolation of rubella virus from synovial fluid in five cases of seronegative arthritis. Lancet ii: 649–652, 1981.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gristina AG, Rovere GD, Shoji H: Septic arthritis complicating chronic rheumatoid arthritis. J Bone Joint Surg 56A: 1180–1184, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gumpel JM, Martin C, Sanderson PJ: Reactive arthritis associated with Campylobacter enteritis. Ann Rheumatic Dis 40: 64–65, 1981.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hanissian AS, Silverman A: Arthritis of sickle cell anemia. South Med J 67: 28–32, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Harris LF: Clostridium septicum arthritis. South Med J 76:415, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Heldrich F, Harris V: Osteomyelitis of the pubis. Acta Paediatr Scand 68: 39–41, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Highland TR, LaMont RL: Osteomyelitis of the pelvis in children. J Bone Joint Surg 65: 230–234, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ho G Jr, Su EY: Antibiotic therapy of septic bursitis. Arthritis Rheumat 24: 905–911, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Horsburgh CR Jr, Cannady PB Jr, Kirkpatrick CH: Treatment of fungal infections in the bones and joints with ketoconazole. J Infect Dis 147: 1064–1069, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Howard JB, Highgenboten CL, Nelson JD: Residual effects of septic arthritis in infancy and childhood. JAMA 236: 932–935, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hurst NP, Martynoga AG, Nuki G: Coxsackie B infection and arthritis. Br Med J 286: 605, 1983.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Iwarson S, Fasth S, Olaison L, et al.: Adverse reactions to intravenous administration of fusidic acid. Scand J Infect Dis 13: 65–67, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jacobs RF, Adelman L, Sack CM, et al.: Management of Pseudomonas osteochondritis complicating puncture wounds of the foot. Pediatrics 69: 432–435, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jarvis WR, Banko S, Snyder E, et al.: Pasteurella multocida osteomyelitis following dog bites. Am J Dis Child 135: 625–627, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jupiter JB, Ehrlich MG, Novelline RA, et al.: The association of septicthrombophlebitis with subperiosteal abscesses in children. J Pediatr 101: 690–695, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kelfer H, Haller JS: Gowers’ sign in diskitis. Am J Dis Child 136: 555, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kolyvas E, Rosenthall L, Ahronheim G, et al.: Serial 67 Ga-citrate imaging during treatment of acute osteomyelitis in childhood. Clin Nuclear Med 3: 461–466, 1978.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kolyvas E, Ahronheim G, Marks MI, et al.: Oral antibiotic therapy of skeletal infections in children. Pediatrics 65: 867–872, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lutzker LG, Koenigsberg M, Freeman LM: Focal bone pain—infection or infarction? JAMA 235: 425–426, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mackowiak PA, Jones SR, Smith JW: Diagnostic value of sinus-tract cultures in chronic osteomyelitis. JAMA 239: 2772–2775, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mandell GL, Moorman DR: Treatment of experimental staphylococcal infections: effect of rifampin alone and in combination on development of rifampin resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 17: 658–662, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    May JW Jr, Gallico GG III, Lukash FN: Microvascular transfer of free tissue for closure of bone wounds of the distal lower extremity. N Engl J Med 306: 253–257, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Merritt K, Boyle WE Jr, Dye SK, et al.: Counter immunoelectrophoresis in the diagnosis of septic arthritis caused by Haemophilus influenzae. J Bone Joint Surg 58A: 414–415, 1976.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Miller EH, Semian DW: Gram-negative osteomyelitis following puncture wounds of the foot. J Bone Joint Surg 57A: 535–537, 1975.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Miller WB Jr, Murphy WA, Gilula LA: Brodie’s abscess: reappraisal. Diagn Radiol 132: 15–23, 1979.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Molteni RA: The differential diagnosis of benign and septic joint disease in children. Clin Pediatr 17: 19–23, 1978.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Morrey BF, Peterson HA: Hematogenous pyogenic osteomyelitis in chil¬dren. Orthop Clin North Am 6: 935–951, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Musher DM, Fletcher T: Tolerant Staphylococcus aureus causing vertebral osteomyelitis. Arch Intern Med 142: 632–634, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Nelson JD, Howard JB, Shelton S: Oral antibiotic therapy for skeletal infections of children. J Pediatr 92: 131–134, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Norden CW, Shaffer MA: Activities of tobramycin and azlocillin alone and in combination against experimental osteomyelitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 21: 62–65, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ogden JA, Light TE: Pediatric osteomyelitis: III. Anaerobic microorganisms. Clin Orthop Rel Res 145: 230–236, 1979.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ogden JA, Lister G: The pathology of neonatal osteomyelitis. Pediatrics 55: 474–478, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Paisley JW: Septic bursitis in childhood. J Pediatr Orthop 2: 57–61, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Papavasiliou VA, Petropoulos AV: Bone and joint tuberculosis in childhood. Acta Orthop Scand 52: 1–4, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Peltola H, Vahvanen V: Acute purulent arthritis in children. Scand J Infect Dis 15: 75 - 80, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Petty BG, Sowa DT, Charache P: Polymicrobial polyarticular septic arthritis. JAMA 249: 2069–2072, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pichichero ME, Friesen HA: Polymicrobial osteomyelitis: report of three cases and review of the literature. Rev Infect Dis 4: 86–96, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Pinchney LE, Currarino G, Kennedy LA: The stubbed great toe: a cause of occult compound fracture and infection. Radiology 138: 375–377, 1981.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Polin K, Shulman ST: Eikenella corrodens osteomyelitis. Pediatrics 70: 462–463, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Raffin BJ, Freemark M: Streptobacillary rat-bite fever: a pediatric problem. Pediatrics 64: 214–217, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ravenel SB: Cellulitis from extravasation of calcium gluconate simulating osteomyelitis. Am J Dis Child 137: 402–403, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ray CG, Gall EP, Minnich LL, et al.: Acute polyarthritis associated with active Epstein-Barr virus infection. JAMA 248: 2990–2993, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Renne JW, Tanowitz HB, Chulay JD: Septic arthritis in an infant due to Clostridium ghoni and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Pediatrics 57: 573–574, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ribner BS, Freimer EH: Osteomyelitis caused by viridans streptococci. Arch Intern Med 142: 1739, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Robinow M, Johnson F, Nanagas MT, et al.: Skeletal lesions following meningococcemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation. A recognizable skeletal dystrophy. Am J Dis Child 137: 279–281, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rosenfeld R, Spigelblatt L, Chicoine R, et al.: Thorn-induced periostitis associated with Enterobacter agglomerans infection. Can Med Assoc J 119: 925–928, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Roy S, Bhawan J: Ultrastructure of articular cartilage in pyogenic arthritis. Arch Pathol 99: 44–47, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Saphyakhajon P, Mukhopadhyay D, Spiegel P, et al.: Mycobacterium kansasii arthritis of the knee joint. Am J Dis Child 131: 573–575, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sapico FL, Montgomerie JZ: Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis. Report of nine cases and review of the literature. Rev Infect Dis 1: 754–776, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Schaad UB, McCracken GH Jr, Nelson JD: Pyogenic arthritis of the sacroiliac joint in pediatric patients. Pediatrics 66: 375–379, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Schaad UB: Arthritis in disease due to Neisseria meningitidis. Rev Infect Dis 2: 880–888, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Schurman DJ, Johnson BL Jr, Amstutz HC: Knee joint infections with Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus species. J Bone Joint Surg 57A: 40–49, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sequeira W, Jones E, Bronson DM: Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection with arthritis and a varicella-like eruption. JAMA 246: 1936–1937, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sethi AS, Schloff I: Purulent arthritis complicating chicken pox. Clin Pediatr 13: 280–281, 1974.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Shea JM: Bilateral tuberculous osteomyelitis of medial humeral condyles. Infection secondary to cutaneous inoculation. JAMA 247: 821–822, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sheagren JN, Menes BL, Han DP, et al.: Technical aspects of the Staphylococcus aureus teichoic acid antibody assay: gel diffusion and counterimmunoelectrophoretic assays, antigen preparation, antigen selection, concentration effects, and cross-reactions with other organisms. J Clin Microbiol 13: 293–300, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Siebert WT, Dewan S, Williams TW Jr: Case report: Pseudomonas puncture wound osteomyelitis in adults. Am J Med Sci 283: 83–88, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Simms GR, Brown BSJ, Hyndman JC, Goldbloom RB: Osteomyelitis of the pubis in childhood. Can Med Assoc J 124: 1028–1030, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    So AKL, Furr PM, Taylor-Robinson D, et al.: Arthritis caused by Mycoplasma salivarium in hypogammaglobulinemia. Br Med J 286: 762–763, 1983.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Steere AC, Hutchinson GJ, Rahn DW, et al.: Treatment of the early manifestations of Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med 99: 22–26, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Steere AC, Grodzicki RL, Kornblatt AN, et al.: The spirochetal etiology of Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 308: 733–740, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Stroebel AB, Daniel TM, Lau JHK, et al.: Serologic diagnosis of bone and joint tuberculosis by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Infect Dis 146: 280–283, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Stuckey M, Quinn PA, Gelfand EW: Identification of Ureaplasma Urea-lyticum (T-strain mycoplasma) in patient with polyarthritis. Lancet ii: 917–920, 1978.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sugarman B, Clarridge J: Osteomyelitis caused by Moraxella osloensis. J Clin Microbiol 15: 1148–1149, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sugarman B, Hawes S, Musher DM, et al.: Osteomyelitis beneath pressure sores. Arch Intern Med 143: 683–688, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Sullivan JA, Vasileff TP, Leonard JC: An evaluation of nuclear scanning in orthopaedic infections. J Pediatr Orthop 1: 73–79, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Summersgill JT, Schupp LG, Raff MJ: Comparative penetration of metronidazole, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, cefoxitin, ticarcillin, and moxalactam into bone. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 21: 601–603, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Waldvogel FA, Vasey H: Osteomyelitis: the past decade. N Engl J Med 303: 360–370, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wall BA, Weinblatt ME, Darnall JT, et al.: Candida tropicalis arthritis and bursitis. JAMA 248: 1098–1099, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Watanakunakorn C, Glotzbecker C: In vitro activity of carbenicillin, ticarcillin, aminoglycosides and combinations against Staphylococcus aureus. J Antimicrob Chemother 5: 151–158, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wethers DL, Grover R: Pitfalls in diagnosis of osteomyelitis in children with sickle cell disease. Clin Pediatr 22: 614–618, 1983.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wolff JA Jr, Toumanen EI, Greenberg ID: Radionuclide joint imaging: acute rheumatic fever simulating septic arthritis. Pediatrics 65: 339–341, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Wong AS, Dyke J, Perry D, et al.: Paraspinal mass associated with intervertebral disk infection secondary to Moraxella kingii. J Pediatr 92: 86–88, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Yocum RC, McArthur J, Petty BG, et al.: Septic arthritis caused by Pro-pionibacterium acnes. JAMA 248: 1740 - 1741, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melvin I. Marks
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.College of MedicineUniversity of OklahomaOklahoma CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsOklahoma Children’s Memorial HospitalOklahoma CityUSA

Personalised recommendations