Reading Disability: A Deficit in Rule Learning?

  • Franklin R. Manis
  • Frederick J. Morrison
Part of the Springer Series in Cognitive Development book series (SSCOG)

Abstract

In recent years interest has grown among experimental, educational, and developmental psychologists in the mechanisms underlying individual differences in reading fluency (e.g., Carr, 1981; Perfetti & Lesgold, 1978; Stanovich, 1982a,b; Vellutino, 1979). One of the more puzzling questions under study is the source of reading problems among children with specific reading disability, or developmental dyslexia.

Keywords

Hunt Stein Cane Ghost Schiff 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baron, J. (1979). Orthographic and word-specific mechanisms in children’s reading of words.Child Development, 50, 60–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baron, J., & Strawson, C. (1976). Use of orthographic and word-specific knowledge in reading words aloud.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2, 386–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barron, R. W. (1981). Development of visual word recognition: A review. In T. G. Waller & G. E. MacKinnon (Eds.),Reading research: Advances in theory and practice(Vol. 3 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  4. Berdiansky, B., Cronnell, B., & Koehler, J. A. (1969). Spelling-sound relations and primary form-class descriptions for speech comprehension vocabularies of 6-9 year olds (Tech. Rep. No. 15) Southwest Regional Laboratory for Educational Research and Development.Google Scholar
  5. Blank, M . (1978). Review of “Toward an understanding of dyslexia: Psychological factors in specific reading disability.” In A. L. Benton, D. Pearl (Eds.), Dyslexia: An appraisal of current knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Boder, E. (1973). Developmental dyslexia: A diagnostic approach based on three atypical reading-spelling patterns.Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology,15, 663–687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1978). Difficulties in auditory organization as a possible cause of reading backwardness.Nature, 271, 746–747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Calfee, R. C., Chapman, R. S., & Venezky, R. L. (1972). How a child needs to think to learn to read. In L. W. Gregg (Ed.),Cognition in learning and memory. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  9. Calfee, R. C., Venezky, R. L., Chapman, R. S. (1969)Pronunciation of synthetic words with predictable and unpredictable letter-sound correspondences (Tech. Rep. No. 71). Madison, WI: Wisconsin Research and Development Center for Cognitive Learning.Google Scholar
  10. Carr, T. H. (1981). Building theories of reading ability: On the relation between individual differences in cognitive skills and reading comprehension.Cognition, 9, 73–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Doehring, D. G . (1976). Acquisition of rapid reading responses. Monographs of the SRCD, 41, (2, Serial No. 165).Google Scholar
  12. Doehring, D. G. (1978). The tangled web of behavioral research on developmental dyslexia. In A. L. Benton & D. Pearl (Eds.),Dyslexia: An appraisal of current knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Ehri, L. C., & Wilce, L. S. (1980). The influence of orthography on readers’ conceptualizations of the phonemic structure of words.Applied Psycholinguistics, 1, 371–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Firth, I. (1972).Components of reading disability. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of New South Wales.Google Scholar
  15. Fry, M. A., Johnson, C. S., & Muehl, S. (1970). Oral language production in relation to reading achievement among select second graders. In D. J. Bakker & P. Satz (Eds.),Specific reading disability: Advances in theory and method. Rotterdam: Rotterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Gibson, E. J., Gibson, J. J., Pick, A. D., & Osser, R. (1962). A developmental study of the discrimination of letter-like forms.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 897–906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gibson, E. J., & Levin, H. (1975).The psychology of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  18. Gibson, E. J., Osser, H., Schiff, W., Smith, J. (1963). An analysis of critical features of letters, tested by a confusion matrix. InFinal Report on a Basic Research Program on Reading. [Cooperative Research Project No. 639] Cornell University and U.S. Office of Education.Google Scholar
  19. Glushko, R. J. (1979). The organization and activation of orthographic knowledge in reading aloud.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 5, 674–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Guthrie, J. T. (1973a). Models of reading and reading disability.Journal of Educational Psychology, 65, 9–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Guthrie, J. T. (1973b). Reading comprehension and syntactic responses in good and poor readers.Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 294–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Guthrie, J. T., & Seifert, M. (1977). Letter-sound complexity in learning to identify words.Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 686–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Guttentag, R. E., & Haith, M. M. (1978). Automatic processing as a function of age and reading ability.Child Development, 49, 707–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hogaboam, T. W., & Perfetti, C. A. (1978). Reading skill and the role of verbal experience in decoding.Journal of Educational Psychology, 717–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Juola, J. F., Schadler, M., Chabot, R. J., & McCaughey, M. W. (1978). The development of visual information processing skills related to reading.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 25, 459–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Katz, L., & Wicklund, D. A. (1971). Word scanning rate for good and poor readers.Journal of Educational Psychology, 63, 138–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Katz, L., & Wicklund, D. A. (1972). Letter scanning rate for good and poor readers in grades two and six.Journal of Educational Psychology, 63, 363–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Krueger, L. E., Keen, R. H., & Rublevich, B. (1974). Letter search through words and nonwords by adults and fourth-grade children.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 102, 845–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. LaBerge, D., and Samuels, S. J. (1974). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading.Cognitive Psychology, 6, 293–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Liberman, I. Y., Shankweiler, D., Fischer, F. W., & Carter, B. (1974). Explicit syllable and phoneme segmentation in the young child.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 18, 201–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liberman, I. Y., Shankweiler, D., Liberman, A. M., Fowler, C., & Fischer, F. W. (1977). Phonetic segmentation and recoding in the beginning reader. In A. S. Reber & D. Scarborough (Eds.),Toward a psychology of reading: The proceedings of the CUNY Conference. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  32. Liberman, I. Y., Shankweiler, D., Orlando, C., Harris, K. S., & Bell-Berti, F. (1971). Letter confusions and reversals of sequence in the beginning reader: Implications for Orton’s theory of developmental dyslexia.Cortex, 7, 127–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Lyle, J. G., & Goyen, J. (1968). Visual recognition, developmental lag, and strepho- symbolia in reading retardation.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 73, 25–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Manis, F. R . (1981a, April).The development of automatic word recognition in normal and disabled readers. Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Boston.Google Scholar
  35. Manis, F. R. (1981b).Word knowledge and the development of word identification skills in normal and disabled readers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  36. Manis, F. R. (1983a, April).Development of decoding strategies in good and poor readers. Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Detroit.Google Scholar
  37. Marsh, G., Friedman, M., Welch, V., & Desberg, P. A. (1981). A cognitive-develop- mental theory of reading acquisition. In G. E. MacKinnon & T. G. Waller (Eds.),Reading research: Advances in theory and practice(Vol. 3 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  38. Mason, J. M. (1976). Overgeneralization in learning to read.Journal of Reading Behavior, 8, 173–182.Google Scholar
  39. Mason, M. (1975). Reading ability and letter search time: Effects of orthographic structure defined by single-letter positional frequency.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104, 146–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Massaro, D. W., & Taylor, G. A. (1980). Reading ability and utilization of orthographic structure in reading.Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 730–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Morrison, F. J., Foster, B., & Wolford, W. (1981).Patterns of achievement in normal and disabled readers. Unpublished manuscript, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  42. Morrison, F. J., & Manis, F. R. (1982). Cognitive processes and reading ability: A critique and proposal. In C. J. Brainerd & M. Pressley (Eds.),Verbal processes in children: Progress in cognitive development research. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  43. Oakan, R., Wiener, M., & Cromer, W. (1971). Identification, organization and reading comprehension by good and poor readers.Journal of Educational Psychology, 62, 71–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Owen, F. W., Adams, P. A., Forrest, F., Stolz, L. M., & Fisher, S. (1971). Learning disorders in children: Sibling studies.Monographs of the Society of Research in Child Development, 36 (4, Serial No. 144).Google Scholar
  45. Pace, A. J., & Golinkoff, R. M. (1976). Relationship between word difficulty and access of single-word meaning by skilled and less-skilled readers.Journal of Educational Psychology, 68, 760–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Perfetti, C. A., & Hogaboam, T. (1975). Relationship between single word decoding and reading comprehension skill.Journal of Educational Psychology, 67, 461–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Perfetti, C. A., & Lesgold, A. M. (1978). Discourse comprehension and sources of individual differences. In M. J. Just & P. A. Carpenter (Eds.),Cognitive processes in comprehension. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  48. Rayner, K., & Hagelberg, E. M. (1975). Word recognition cues for beginning and skilled readers.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 20, 444–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rosner, J., & Simon, D. P. (1971).The auditory analysis test: An initial report. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 4(7), 40–48.Google Scholar
  50. Rozin, P., & Gleitman, L. R. (1977). The structure and acquisition of reading II: The reading process and the acquisition of the alphabetic principle. In A. S. Reber & D. L. Scarborough (Eds.),Toward a psychology of reading: The proceedings of the CUNY conferences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  51. Rutter, M., & Yule, W. (1975). The concept of specific reading retardation.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 16, 181–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Savage, P. L. (1982).Symbol-word correspondence learning and spelling-sound correspondence knowledge in normal and disabled readers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  53. Shankweiler, D. (1964). Developmental dyslexia: A critique and review of recent evidence.Cortex, 1, 53–62.Google Scholar
  54. Shankweiler, D., & Liberman, I. (1972). Misreading: A search for causes. In J. Kavanaugh & I. Mattingly (Eds.),Language by ear and by eye. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  55. Snowling, M. J. (1980). The development of grapheme-phoneme correspondence in normal and dyslexic readers.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 29, 294–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Stanovich, K. E. (1980). Toward an interactive-compensatory model of individual differences in the development of reading fluency.Reading Research Quarterly, 16, 32–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Stanovich, K. E. (1982a). Individual differences in the cognitive processes of reading I: Word decoding.Journal of Learning Disabilities, 15, 485–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Stanovich, K. E. (1982b). Individual differences in the cognitive processes of reading II. Text-level processes.Journal of Learning Disabilities, 15, 549–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1979). The effect of orthographic structure on the word search performance of good and poor readers.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 28, 258–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Steinheiser, F., & Guthrie, J. T. (1978). Reading ability and efficiency of graphe- mic-phonemic encoding.Journal of General Psychology, 99, 281–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Trites, R., & Fiedorowicz, C. (1976). Follow-up study of children with specific (or primary) reading disability. In R. Knights & D. J. Bakker (Eds.),The neuropsychology of learning disorders: Theoretical approaches. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  62. Vellutino, F. R. (1979).Dyslexia: Theory and research. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  63. Vellutino, F. R., & Scanlon, D. M. (1982). Verbal processing in poor and normal readers. In C. J. Brainerd & M. Pressley (Eds.),Verbal processes in children: Progress in cognitive development research. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  64. Vellutino, F. R., Steger, J. A., & Kandel, G. (1972). Reading disability: An investigation of the perceptual deficit hypothesis.Cortex, 8, 106–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Venezky, R. L. (1970).The structure of English orthography. The Hague, The Netherlands: Mouton.Google Scholar
  66. Venezky, R. L., Chapman, R. S., & Calfee, R. C. (1972).The development of letter- sound generalization from second through sixth grade(Tech. Rep. No. 231). Madison, WI: Wisconsin Research and Development Center for Cognitive Learning.Google Scholar
  67. Venezky, R. L., & Johnson, D. (1973). Development of two letter-sound patterns in grades one through three.Journal of Educational Psychology,64, 109–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Venezky, R. L., & Massaro, D. W. (1979). The role of orthographic regularity in word recognition. In L. Resnick & P. Weaver (Eds.),Theory and practice of early reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  69. Vogel, S. A. (1974). Syntactic abilities in normal and dyslexic children.Journal of Learning Disabilities, 7, 103–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wiig, E. H., Semel, M. S., & Crouse, M. B. (1973). The use of English morphology by high risk and learning disabled children.Journal of Learning Disabilities, 6, 457–465.Google Scholar
  71. Yule, W. (1973). Differential prognosis of reading backwardness and specific reading retardation.British Journal of Educational Psychology, 43, 244–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Franklin R. Manis
  • Frederick J. Morrison

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations