Phenylethylamine and Personality

  • H. W. Moises
  • P. Waldmeier
  • H. Beckmann


The phenylethylamine hypothesis of SABELLI & MOSNAIM (1974) postulates that PEA may play a major role in the modulation of affective behavior. Urinary PEA excretion was determined in 32 drug-free healthy volunteers. The MMPI was used for personality measurement. In the female subgroup a significant positive correlation between PEA and hypomania (rs =.50; p <.05) and a significant negative correlation between PEA and depression (rs = −.65; p <.01) was found supporting this hypothesis. Furthermore, PEA correlated significantly negatively with hypochondriasis (rs = −.58; p <.01), paranoia (rs = −.49; p < 05) and social introversion (rs = −.60; p <.05) These results suggest that PEA excretion may be related to mechanisms responsible for the modulation of affective behavior.


Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Paranoid Schizophrenia Affective Behavior Female Subgroup Trace Amine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Blaser P., and Gehring A. (1972) Ein programmierter Kurs zur deutschsprachigen Ausgabe des Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory von S.R. Hathaway und J.C. McKinley. Hans Huber, BernGoogle Scholar
  2. Fahrenberg J., Selg H., and Hample R. (1973) Das Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar. Hogrefe, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  3. Fischer E., Spatz H., Heller B., and Reggiani H. (1972) Phenylethylamine content of human urine and rat brain. Its alterations in pathogenic conditions and after drug administration. Experientia 28, 307–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fischer E., Spatz H., and Fernandex Labriola R. (1973) Quantitative gas chromatographic determination and infrared spectrographic determination of urinary phenylethylamine. Biol. Psychiatry. 7, 161–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Hathaway S.R., and McKinley J.C. (1951) The Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory Manual. The Psychological Corporation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Jeste D.V., Doonagaji D.R., Panjwani D., Datta M., Potkin S.G., Karoum F., Thatte S., Shet A.S., Apte J.S., and Wyatt R.J. (1981) Cross-cultural study of biochemical abnormality in paranoid schizophrenia. Psychiat.Res. 3, 341–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lauber J., and Waldmeier P.C. (1984) Determination of 2-Phenylethylamine in Rat Brain After MAO Inhibitors, and in Human CSF and Urine Capillary GC and Chemical Ionization MS. J. Neural Transmission 60, 247–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mosnaim A.D., Inwang E.E., Sugerman J.H., de Martini W., and Sabelli H.C. (1973) Ultraviolet spectrometric determination of 2-phenylethylamine in biological samples and its possible correlation with depression. Biol.Psychiat. 6, 235–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Philips S.R. (1978) ß-Phenylethylamines: a metabolically and pharmacologically active amine, in Noncatecholic Phenylethylamines, Part I.Phenylethylamines: Biological Mechanisms and Clinical Aspects (Mosnaim A.D., and Wolf M.E., eds.), pp.113–138. M.Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Potkin S.G., Karoum F., Chwang L.W., Cannon-Spoor H.E., Philips I., and Wyatt R.J. (1979) Phenylethylamine in paranoid chronic schizophrenia. Science 206, 470–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Quitkin F., Rifkin A., and Klein D.F. (1979) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors. A review of antidepressant effectiveness. Arch.Gen.Psychiat. 36, 749–760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Saavedra J.M. (1978) ß-Phenylethylamine: Is this biogenic amine related to neuropsychiatrie diseases?, in Non-catecholic Phenylethylamines, Part I.Phenylethylamines: Biological Mechanisms and Clinical Aspects (Mosnaim A.D., and Wolf M.E., eds.), pp.139–157. M.Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Sabelli H.C., and Mosnaim A.D. (1974) The Phenylethylamine Hypothesis of Affective Behavior. Am.J.Psychiatry 131, 695–699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Sandler M., and Reynolds G.P. (1976) Does phenylethylamine cause schizophrenia? Lancet 1, 70–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Sandler M., Ruthven C.R.J., Goodwin B.L., Field H., and Matthews R. (1978) Phenylethylamine overproduction in aggressive psychopaths. Lancet 2, 1269–1270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Tyrer P. (1976) Towards rational therapy with monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Br.J.Psychiat.128, 354–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Wolf M.E., and Mosnaim A.D. (1983) Phenylethylamine in Neuropsychiatrie Disorders. Gen.Pharmac.14, 385–390Google Scholar
  18. Wyatt R.J., Gillin J.C., Stoff D.M., Majo E.A., and Tinklenberg J.R. (1977) ß-Phenylethylamine and the neuropsychiatrie disturbances, in Neuroregulators and Psychiatric Disorders. (Usdin E., Hamburg D.A., and Barchas J.D., eds.), pp.31–45. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Humana Press Inc. 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. W. Moises
    • 1
    • 4
  • P. Waldmeier
    • 2
    • 4
  • H. Beckmann
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Central Institute of Mental HealthMannheimGermany
  2. 2.Ciba-Geigy AGBaselSwitzerland
  3. 3.Psychiatric University ClinicWürzburgGermany
  4. 4.Central Institute of Mental HealthMannheim 1Germany

Personalised recommendations