The raf Oncogene
v-raf is the oncogene of 3611 MSV and was isolated from mouse cells by transduction with murine leukemia virus (MuLV). v-raf is a new member of the src family of oncogenes and has associated ser/thr specific protein kinase activity. The active cellular homolog, c-raf-1, maps on chromosome 6 in the mouse and on chromosome 3p25 in man. There is a second gene in man, c-raf-2, which is an inactive pseudogene. the v-raf as well as the c-raf coded proteins are located predominantly in the cytoplasm. The active human gene, c-raf-1, has a complex structure with 15 exons, 9 of which are homologous to v-raf. An avian carcinoma virus, MH2, transduces the avian homologue of v-raf, v-mil, in addition to a second oncogene, v-myc. v-mil shares sequences with 11 exons of c-raf-1. A 3’ portion of c-raf-1 containing six of the seven amino acid differences relative to v-raf can substitute for 3’ portion of v-raf in a transformation assay. Sequence homologies between c-raf-1 and Moloney leukemia virus at both ends of v-raf indicate that the viral gene was acquired by homologous recombination, probably at the DNA level.
KeywordsMurine Leukemia Virus Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Helper Virus Hemopoietic Cell Specific Protein Kinase
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 3.Rapp, U.R., Reynolds, F.H., Jr., Stephenson, J.R. (1984) in gene Transfer and Cancer, eds. Pearson, M.L. & Sternberg, N.L. (Raven press, New York, pp. 169–177.Google Scholar
- 9.Schultz, A.M., Copeland, T.D., Oroszlan, S., Mark, G. & Rapp, U.R., Virology, submitted.Google Scholar
- 11.Moelling, K., Heimann, B., Beimling, P., Rapp, U.R. & Sander, T. Nature, submitted.Google Scholar
- 12.Bonner, T.I., Kerby, S., Sutrave, P., Gunnell, M., Mark, G. & Rapp, U.R. Nature, submitted.Google Scholar
- 13.Mueller, R. & Mueller, D. (1984) EMBO J. 3:1121–1127.Google Scholar
- 17.Ihle, J.N. (1984) in Contemporary Topics in Molecular Immunology, in press.Google Scholar
- 25.Cole, J., Righi, M. de Taisne, C., Dissous, C., Gegonne, G. & Stehelin D. (1983) EMBO J. 2:2189–2194.Google Scholar
- 27.Bister, K. et al. (1984) UCLA Symp. Molec. Cell. Biol., in press.Google Scholar
- 30.Sutrave, P., Jansen, H.W., Bister, K. & Rapp, U.R. (1984) J. Virol, in press.Google Scholar
- 33.Rapp, U.R., Bonner, T.I., Moelling, K., Jansen, H.W., Bister, K. & Ihle, J.N. in Recent Results in Cancer Research, eds. Havemann, K., Sorenson, G. & Gropp, C. in press.Google Scholar